Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "A dictionary of numismatic names"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 







J 



i« 



» « 



/ 



¥ 



I 



* M 









\y 



\ I 

t 



r 



"^ 






/3] 



A 



^ DICTIONARY OF NUMISMATIC NAMES 

THEIE OFFICIAL AND POPUUE DESIGNATIONS 



By •• • 



ALBEET B. FEET 



• ,- • • • 

• • • 



QUAERENDA PECUNIA PRIMUM EST. 

HORACE, EpiitiM (I. i, 53). 



THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIFTY 

BROADWAY AT 156TH STREET 

NEW YORK 

1917 




THK AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETTY, NEW YORK, N. Y. 
1917 

BEPBINTBD 7R0M 

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 

TOUJME L 



CONTENTS 



A Dictionary of Numismatic Names, thsib Official and Popular Designations. 

By Albert R. Frey 



Introduction 

Bibliography . 

Abbreviations used in Numismatic Works 

Dictionary 

Geographical Index 

Paper Money Index 



V 

• • 
VII 

X 

1 
267 
311 



«a 



i 






INTRODUCTION 

The purport of the present book is a twofold one. The beginner 
will find in it definitions of such terms as he will encounter during his 
perusal of numismatic works in both English and foreign languages. 
The advanced student and collector will have his labors facilitated by 
the large number of citations of authorities which have been consulted 
in the preparation of this volume. The author has frequently had the 
experience of discovering that the same coin is alluded to by one or 
more writers under entirely different names, and what is still more per- 
plexing is the fact that these designations naturally fall far apart in any 
alphabetical arrangement. Notable examples are Cuarto and Quarto, 
Double and Moneta Duplex, Levant Dollar, Maria Theresa Thaler and 
Tallero del Levante, Glass Coins and Monnaies de Verre, Black Far- 
thing and Denier Noir, etc. To obviate these duplications extensive 
cross references have been introduced. 

The divisions and multiples of a standard are usually to be found 
under the name of the particular coin which constitutes the monetary 
unit; the only exceptions to this rule are Where the larger or smaller 
denomination has so incorporated itself into numismatic history as to 
merit a separate description. Thus the terms Quarter Dollar, Medio 
Real, etc., are to be found under the substantive and not the adjective, 
whereas in the case of Tetradrachm, Quadrupla, etc., the opposite rule 
has been adopted, and these names are retained. 

This is not a work on the metrology of coins, and weights are only 
introduced where they affect the name of a denomination due to its en - 
larged or reduced size. Many of the Oriental monetary systems are 
based on the weights and quantities of certain seeds, and to cite these 
moneys of account would exceed the scope of the present volume. The 
ancient Indian weights for gold and silver are described in detail by 
Prinsep, in his Useful Tables (i, 212) ; R. C. Temple has enumerated 
the Malayan weights in the Indian Antiquary (April, 1913) ; the Chinese 
metrology is treated by J. A. Decourdemanche, in the Traite des Mon- 
naies, Mesures et Poids anciens et modernes de I'lnde et de la Chine, 
Paris, 1913 ; and the Greek and Roman standards comprise pages 222 
to 225 inclusive of G. F. Hill's Handbook of Greek and Roman Coins. 



vi Introduction 

The popular slang names, as well as the unusual substances em- 
ployed in coinage have been enumerated; these features, will be of 
special interest to the beginner. 

Special obligations are due to the officers of The American Numis - 
matic Society for their assistance and counsel. Mr. Edward T. Newell 
the President, Mr. Howland Wood the Curator, Mr. John Reilly, Jr., 
the Treasurer, and Mr. Sydney P. Noe the Secretary and Librarian, 
have all made valuable suggestions, corrections, and additions. 

Among other contributors should be mentioned Mrs. Agnes Bald- 
win Brett who has supplied notes on the ancient coins ; Mr. J. de 
Lagerberg who has revised the Scandinavian nomenclature ; and Mr. 
Dennis Mclnerney who has kindly made the Gaelic translations. Credit 
must also be given for assistance in general to Messrs. William F. Beller, 
Bernard J. Nangle, A. D. Savage, Elliott Smith, and Moritz Wormser. 

The difficulties attending the execution of a work of this magnitude 
are enormous, hence, its imperfections will not, it is to be hoped, be 
judged too severely. A French author has said: * ' La numismatique 
est une maitresse dangereuse pour Tamateur, et toujours adoree, bien 
que cruelle, pour ses fervents disciples; " and if the present volume 
will make the numismatic paths more accessible, and the stepping- 
stones somewhat easier, the writer will feel that his labor has not been 
in vain. 

A. R. F. 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES CITED 



Akerman, Tradesmen's Tokens. 1849. 

Appel's Repertorium. 1820-29. 

Atkins, Coins and Tokens of the Possessions and Colonies of the British Empire. 1889. 

Atkins, Tradesmen's Tokens of the Eighteenth Century. 1892. 

Babelon, Les origines de la monnaie. 

Babelon, Traite des monnaies grecques et romaines. 1901-04. 

Bahrfeld, Das Munzwesen der Mark Brandenbarg. 1895. 

Batty, Copper Coinage of Great Britain. 1868-98. 

Betts, American Colonial History Illustrated by Medals. 1894. 

Blanchet, Nouveau manuel de numismatique. 1890. 

Bohl, Die Trierischen Miinzen. 1823-57. 

Breton, Coins and Tokens Relating to Canada. 1894. 

British Museum Catalogues. 1873-1903. 

Campos, Numismatica Indo-Portug^esa. 1901. 

Cappe, Beschreibung der Mainzer Miinzen. 1856. 

Cappe, Die Mittelalter-Miinzen von Miinster, etc. 1850. 

Cappe, Die Munzen der deutschen Kaiser, etc. 1848-57. 

Cappe, Beschreibung der Colnischen Miinzen. 1853. 

Chalmers, History of Currency in the British Colonies. 1893. 

Chaudoir, Aper9u sur les monnaies russes. 1836. 

Chestret, Numismatique de la Principaut^ de Lifege. 1890-1900. 

Chijs, van der, Les monnaies des Pays-Bas. 1851-66. 

Cinagliy Le Moneta dei Papi. 1848. 

Codrington, Manual of Musalman Numismatics. 1904. 

Cohen, Description des monnaies romaines. 1859-68. 

Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, Attica. 

Crosby, Early Coins of America. 1875. 

Cunningham, Coins of Ancient India. 1891. 

Dannenberg, Miinzgeschichte Pommems im Mittelalter. 1893-98. 

Davids, On the Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon. 1877. 

De la Torre, Description des monnaies espagnoles. 1852. 

Du Cange, Glossarium. 1875. 

Elliot, Coins of Southern India. 1886. 

Engel et Sen*ure, Traits de numismatique du moyen &ge. 1897-99. 



; 



viii Principal Authobitisb Cited 

Fernandes, Memoria das moedas correntes em Portugal. 1856. 

Florez, Medallas de . . . . Espafia. 1767-73. 

Fonrobert, Die Jules Fonrobert'sche Sammlung iiberseeischer Miinzen. 1878. 

Frey, The Dated European Coinage Prior to 1501. 1914. 

Friedensburg und Seger, Schlesiens Miinzen und Medaillen der neueren Zeit. 1901. 

Friedlander, Die Miinzen der Ostgoten und Vandalen. 1844-49. 

Gaedechens, Hamburger Miinzen und Medaillen. 1843-74. 

Gaillard, Recherches sur les monnaies des comtes de Flandre. 1857. 

Haller, Schweizerisches Miinz- und Medaillenkabinet. 1780, '81. 

Head, Historia Numorum. 1911. 

Heiss, Monedas Hispano-Cristianos. 1865-69. 

Hill, Handbook of Greek and Roman Coins. 1899. 

Hoffmann, Les monnaies royales de France. 1878. 

Hultsch, Metrologicorum Scriptorum Reliquiae. 1864-66. 

Inn und Knyphausen, Miinzen und Medaillen Kabinet. 1872-77. 

Joseph, Goldmiinzen des XIV. und XV. Jahrhunderts. 1882. 

Joseph und Fellner, Die Miinzen von Frankfurt a.M. 1896. 

Jungk, Die Bremischen Miinzen. 1875. 

Kelly, Le Cambiste Universel. The Universal Cambist. 1823-35. 

Kohler, VoUstandiges Ducaten-Cabinet. 1759, '60. 

Lacroix, Numismatique annamite. 1900. 

Lampridius, Alexander Severus. 

Lane-Poole, The Coins of the Moghul Emperors of Hindustan. 1892. 

Langlois, Numismatique de TArm^nie. 1855. 

Langlois, Essai de classification des suites monetaires de la G^orgie. 1860. 

Lelewel, Numismatique du moyen ^ge. 1835. 

Lenormant, La monnaie dans I'antiquit^. 1878, '79. 

Lockhart, A Guide to the Inscriptions on the Coins of the Farther East. 1898. . 

Lockhart, The Stewart Lockhart Collection of Chinese Copper Coins. 1915. 

Loon, Beschryving der nederlandsche Historipenningen. 1723-35. 

Madai, Vollstandiges Thaler-Cabinet. 1765-74. 

Madden, History of the Jewish Coinage. 1864. 

Mailliet, Monnaies obsidionales. 1870. 

Marsden, Numismata Orientalia lUustrata. 1823-25. 

Mateer, Coinage of Travancore. In the Madras Journal of Literature and Science. 

1894. 
Meili, Das bi'asilianische Geldwesen. 1875-1905. 
Meili, Portugiesische Miinzen. 1890. 
Millies, Recherches sur les monnaies des indigenes de I'Archipel Indien et de la Pen- 

insule Malaie. 1871. 
Millingen, Considerations sur la numismatique de I'ancienne Italic. 1841-44. 
Mommsen, Histoire de la monnaie romaine. 1865-75. 



Principal Authorities Cited ix 

Munro, Coins of Japan. 1904. 

Nahuys, Histoire numismatique du royaume de HoUande. 1858. 

Netscher en Van der Chijs, De Munten van Nederlandsch-Indie. 1863. 

Neumann, Beschreibung der bekanntesten Kupfermiinzen. 1868-72. 

Noback, Munz, Mass, und Gewichts-verhaltnisse. 1860. 

Papadopoli, Le monete di Venezia. 1893-1912. 

Pichler, Repertorium der steierischen Miinzkunde. 1865-67. 

Poey d'Avant, Monnaies feudales de France. 1860. 

Pollux, Onomasticon. 

Prinsep, Useful Tables. 1868. 

Promis, Le monete dei reali di Savoia. 1841. 

Promis, Monete del Piemonte. 1852-70. 

Raczinski, Le m^daillier de Pologne. 1838-45. 

Ramsden, Chinese Early Barter and Uninscribed Money. 1912. 

Reinach, l-^es monnaies juives. 1888. , 

Ruding, Annals of the Coinage of Britain. 1840. 

Sabatier, Description g^n^mle des monnaies byzantines. 

Sambon, Les monnaies antiques de Tltalie. 1903. 

Saulcy, Numismatique de la Terre Sainte. 1847. 

Saulcy, Numismatiques des croisades. 1847. 

Saurmasche Miinzsammlung deutscher, schweizerischer und polnischer Geprage von 

etwa dem Beginn der Groschenzeit bis zur Kipperperiode. 1892. 
Schlumberger, Numismatique de I'Orient latin. 1878. 
Schroeder, Annam, Etudes numismatiques. 1906. 
Schubert, Collection de monnaies et m6dailles russes. . 1843-67. 
Schulthess-Rechberg, Thaler Cabinet. 1840-67. 
Spink, Numismatic Circular. 
Stevenson, A Dictionary of Roman Coins. 1889. 
Teixeira de Amgdo, Descrip^ao das moedas de Portugal. 1875-80. 
Teifien de Lacouperie, Catalogue of Chinese Coins. 1892. 
Thomas, Chronicles of the Pathan Kings of Dehli. 1871. 
Thomas, Essays on Indian Antiquities. 1868. 

Thureton, History of the Coinage of the Territories of the East India Company. 1890. 
Valentine, Modern Copper Coins of the Muhammadan States. 1911. 
Verkade, Muntboek. 1848. 

Wood, The Coinage of the West Indies, and the Sou Marqu6. 1914. 
Zanetti, Monete d'ltalia. 1786. 
Zay, Histoire mon^taire des colonies frangaises. 1892. 



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN NUMISMATIC WORKS 



a. b. c. 

a. d. 

Adv. 
AE. 

a. g. 
AR. 
a. s. 
AV. 

B. 
Br. 

('«. 
c.s. 

D. 
D. 

d. 
desgl. 

E. F. 

El. 

E8. 

F. 
FDC, 

four, 
fr. 

(;. 

G. B. 

>r. «*• 

geh. 

gel. 

Gj. 
Gr. 

lis. 

Ins. 

L. 

I^it. 
Lb. 
Leg. 

M. 
M. 
M. B. 



Fair condition (French, assez bien 
conserv^). 

To the right (French, h droite: 
Italian, a destra). 
Obverse (Latin, ad verso). 
Copper or bronze (Latin, aes, cop- 
per). 

To the left (French, k gauche). 
Silver (Latin, ar^entum). 
To the left (Italian, a sinistra). 
Gold (I^tin, auruni). 

In good condition (French, belle: 
Italian, buono). 
Bronze: brass. 

In good condition. 
In medium condition. 
In poor condition. 
Coun terstamped . 

Obverse (Italian, dritto). 

Daler. 

Pence (Latin, denarius). 

The same: ditto (German, des- 

gleichen). 

Extremely fine. 

Electmm. 

Specimen (Italian, esemplare). 

In fine condition. 

In mint state (French, fieur de 

coin). 

Plated (French, fourr^e). 

In i>oor condition (French, fruste). 

In good condition. 

Laige bronze (Italian, gran bronzo). 

In good condition (German, gut 

erhalten). 

With a ring attached (German, 

gehenkelt). 

Perforated; with a hole (German, 

gelocht). 

In good condition (Swedish, Gjuten). 

Grammes. 

Obverse (German, Hauptseite). 

Inscription. 

Left. 

Tin (French, Laiton). 

Small bronze (Swedish, Li ten brons). 

Legend. 

In medium condition. 
Billon (Italian, mistura). 
Medium bronze. 



Med. 


Medal. 


MM. 


Mint mark: marque mon^taire. 


m.m. 


Millimeters. 


Mon. 


Monogram. 


Mzz. 


Mint mark (German, Miinzzeichen). 


n. 1. 


To the left (German, nach links). 


No. 


Number. 


n. r. 


Tq the right (German, nach rechts). 


O. 


Gold (Italian, oro). 


Obv. 


Obverse. 


P. 


Lead (Latin, plumbum). 


P. B. 


Small bronze (Italian, piccolo 




(bronzo). 


Pee. 


Piece. 


Perf. 


Perforated: with a hole. 


Wg. 


Pfennig. 


PI. 


Lead (Jjitin, plumbum). 


R. 


Right. 


R. 


Reverse. 


R. 


Rare. 


Rev. 


Reverse. 


Rgsdlr. 


Rigsdaler. 


R. R. 


Very rare. 


R. R. R. 


Exceedingly rare. 


Rs. 


Reverse (German, Ruckseite). 


S. 


Scarce. 


schl. erh. 


In poor condition (German, schlecht 




erhalten). 


sch. 


Fine (German, schon). 


8. g. e. 


In very good condition (German, 




sehr gut erhalten). 


Sh. 


Shilling. 


Stb. 


Large bronze (Swedish, Stor brons). 


Stg. 


Standing. 


St.-gl. 


In proof condition (German, Stem- 




pelglanz). 


T. B. 


Verv good (French, tr^s belle). 


Thlr. 


Th^er. 


Tr. 


Perforated: with a hole (French, 




troupe). 


r. 


Unique (Italian, unico). 


Unc. 


l^ncirculated. 


Val. 


Value. 


Var. 


Variety; variant. 


V. F. 


Very tine. 


vorz. erh. 


Extremely fine (German, vorziiglich 




erhalten). 


Wt. 


Weight. 


z. g. e. 


In medium condition (German, 



ziemlich gut erhalten). 



Abacift 



Abu*Cinco 



A 



Abadt. A silver coin mentioned by 
Teixeira de Aragao (iii) and claimed to 
have been formerly in use both in Portu- 
guese India and in the Portuguese posses- 
sions in East Africa. 

Aban<|iie. See Abenge. 

AbatsL See Abbasi. 

Abaze. See Abbasi. 

AbbatL A Persian silver coin which 
takes its name from Shah Abbas I (A.H. 
996-1038=1587-1629). It was divided 
into two Mahmudis, or four Shahis, or ten 
Bisti. 

In the Georgian series the Abbasi was 
introduced in the reign of Theimouraz II 
(1744-1762), and had a value of ten Bisti. 
The half Abbasi, called Chaouri or Schauri, 
Langlois (No. 67), Ponrobert (4288, 4303) 
appeared in 1779 under Brecl6 (Hercules) 
II. 

With the Russian occupation of Georgia 
under Alexander I, beginning in 1801, this 
coin received the name of Abaze or Rial, 
and the currency was made to harmonize 
with that of Russia, as follows : 1 Abaze= 
200 Thetri=10 Kopecks. The Kopeck was 
again divided into tenths, one of which was 
called Phoul or Pul; plural Phuli. 

The modem Persian coinage retains this 
piece under the name of Abassi, and the 
half is called Senar. In the Afghan coin- 
age the Abaze is computed at one-third of 
the Rial. 

Abbey-Pieces. A name given to both 
coins and tokens that were issued by the 
great monastic establishments. Some of 
these pieces were not coins in the modem 
sense, but were intended as Tesserae 
Sacrae for use of pilgrims and monks who 
travelled from one religious house to an^ 
other. 

Others, however, were legitimate coins, 
and the issues of the abbatial mint of St. 
Martin at Tours were noted during the 
Middle Ages. 



Abbesses as well as abbots enjoyed the 
privilege of striking coins. The most no- 
table are those of the Prauenmiinster in 
Zurich, and the abbeys of Quedlinburg, 
Herford, Essen, and Thorn in Brabant. 

AbendmaU Pfennige. See Communion 
Tokens. 

Abenge. Du Cange mentions this as 
being a small coin, the name of which is 
found in an agreement dated 1320 between 
Philip V of Prance and the Bishop of 
Tournay. An ordinance of 1330 mentions 
**deux soulz uz deniers et une abanque 
Parisis,'' which is probably the same coin. 

Abidi. A name given to the half Rupee 
of Mysore by Tipu Sultan, in 1786, when 
he adopted his new system of reckoning, 
based on the Muludi, i.e., dating from the 
birth of the Prophet. The coin is so called 
after the fourth Imam, Zainul-abidin, or 
Abid Bimar. 

Aboudjidid. The name given to certain 
cotton fabrics used for currency in Abys- 
sinia; in some localities it is known as 
Stamma. 

Abraemos. A gold coin said to have 
been struck by the Portuguese for their 
possessipns in India. See Teixeira de 
Aragao (iii). 

Abschlag. A term used by German 
numismatists to indicate a restrike from 
an original die. The later impression fre- 
quently occurs in an entirely different 
metal, e.g., Dukaten-Abschlage in silver, 
etc. 

Abtolutioiistbaler. The name given to 
a medallic Thaler struck by Henry IV of 
Prance in 1595, after his reconciliation 
with the Pope. On the obverse of this coin 
is a portrait of Clement VIII, and on the 
reverse his own bust. 

Abii-Cinco. An Egyptian denomination 
to indicate the silver piece of five Prancs. 



[1] 



Abukash 



Adha-ani 



Abukash, or Abuketh. Zanetti (i. 450) 
states that this was the name given to the 
Thaler of the Low Countries in the Levant 
during the seventeenth century. A simi- 
lar designation, Aslani, meaning a lion, 
was used in the Ottoman Empire to desig- 
nate this coin, the allusion being, of course, 
to the prominent figure of a lion on the 
obverse. 

Abu-Mafta. The last word in Egyptian 
means a cannon, and this name was applied 
to the Spanish Piastre in Egypt, because 
the Pillars of Hercules on the reverse were 
mistaken for cannon. 

Abuqudp, or Griscio. According to 
Kelly, this was a current silver coin of 
Egypt of the value of twenty Medini. 

Abu-tera. The name given in Egypt to 
the Levant Dollar (g.v.)- It appears to be 
an abbreviation of Theresa. 

Accolated or AccoUed* See Jugate. 

Achaean League Cohiage. About B.C. 
370 several cities on the southern side of 
the Corinthian Gulf banded together as a 
means of defence against Macedonian ag- 
gression, and the coins issued by them are 
usually referred to by the above name. 

The monogram of the League was AX, 
which is frequently found on the coins. 

The League increased in power circa B.C. 
280, and eventually included all of the 
Peloponnesian cities, some of which, how- 
ever, also struck independently. It ceased 
B.C. 146 with the constitution of the Ro- 
man province. 

Achesoim or Atkinsoii* The name some- 
times given to the Plack of the first coinage 
of James VI of Scotland. It was so called 
on account of Thomas Atkinson, who was 
master of the Edinburgh mint from 1581 
to 161L 

Achtbriiderthaler. The name given to 
a series of Thaler struck in Sachsen- 
Weimar circa 1605-1620, with eight busts 
of the princes, four on each side. They 
were all sons of Duke Johann Ernst. 
Conf. -Madai (1478, 1479), who cites a 
variety ^with all the eight portraits on 
one side. 

Achtehalber, means actually ^' eight 
halves" or four, but popularly ** eight less 
one half," or seven and a half. The term 
was used in Prussia for the piece of two 



and a half Silbergroschen which was equal 
to seven and a half Schillinge. 

Achtelthaler. The name given to a 
piece of three Groschen or the one-eighth 
of the Ortsthaler. It was common to Sax- 
ony, Brunswick, and other German States 
in the seventeenth century. See Ort. 

Acht en Twmtig. See Guilder. 

Achter. A name given to the Marien- 
groschen formerly issued in Brunswick, 
Hanover, Westphalia, etc., because they 
were equal to eight Pf ennige instead of the 
customary twelve Pfennige. 

AchterMfiel. A popular Dutch name for 
the current silver coin of two and one-half 
Gulden. 

Achtzehner. See Ort. 

Achtzehngroscher* See Tympf . 

Ackey. An English colonial silver coin 
issued by the African Company on the 
Gold Coast in 1796 and 1818. There is a 
corresponding half Ackey. 

The name is a native term, used as a 
monetary standard, denoting twenty grains 
of gold dust. See Takoe. 

Acrimontana. A general name for coins 
struck at the mint of Agramont. These 
pieces were current in Catalonia under 
James I, king of Aragon (1213-1276), and 
in Prance under Louis XIV. See Blanchet 
(i, 165). 

Adarkomm* Another name for the 

Daric (^.v.)- 

Adelheidsdenare* A. name given to a 
variety of Deniers which have been found 
in great quantities in Saxony, though the 
exact localities where they were struck 
have never been determined. 

These coins have on one side a cross and 
the name otto, and on the reverse a figure 
of a church and the inscription ateahlht, 
or similar, whence the designation. Some 
authorities attribute these to Otto I, king 
of Germany (936-962) and his queen, Ade- 
laide or Adelheid, while others ascribe them 
to Otto III during his minority. 

Adha. A name given to the half Mohur 
of Nepal, struck by the Malla Bajas in the 
seventeenth century. See Ponrobert (2324 
et seq.). See Suka. 

Adha-^nL The one-sixteenth silver Mo- 
hur introduced by the Gorkhas in the coin- 
age of Nepal ; it must not be confused with 



[2] 



Adhada 



Af fonso de Ouro 



the Adhani, i,e,, the one thirty-second of 
the gold Mohur. See Suka. 

Adhada. A money of account of Cutch 
and Kathiawar, and equal to the one 
ninety-sixth part of the Kori {q.v,). 

Adheeda. Another name for the silver 
eight-anna piece of Nepal. See Mehnder- 
Mulie. 

Adhelah. A copper coin of Hindustan 
and equal to one-half of the Dam (q.v,). 

Adlea or AdlL A billon coin, plated 
with gold, issued by Yussuf Pascha in 
Tripoli in 1827. It was forced upon the 
people as the equivalent of a Spanish Dol- 
lar, but only a few days after its introduc- 
tion the value of this coin depreciated 
over ninety per cent, and it was one of the 
factors that led to the revolution of 1832, 
which resulted in Yussuf 's abdication. 

Adler-pfennigy Schfllingi etc. The popu- 
lar name for any coin having the figure 
of a double eagle prominently displayed; 
e.g., the numerous issues for Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, the Thaler, Groschen, and Schillinge 
of Bentheim, etc. 

AdlL A silver coin of Dehli introduced 
by Muhammad III Ibn Tughlag, A.H. 725 
(A.D. 1324). Its weight was 140 grains, 
and it was a substitute for the old 
Tankahor Rupee of his predecessors which 
weighed 175 grains. It was discontinued 
about A.H. 730 and the old standard re- 
stored. See Thomas (Nos. 180, 181). Also 
a piece of fifty Tankahs used in Hindustan. 
See Tankah. 

Adl Gutkah. A gold coin of Akbar, 
Emperor of Hindustan, and valued at nine 
Rupees. See Sihansah. 

Adolffld'or. The name given to the gold 
coin of ten Thaler issued by Adolf Fredrik, 
King of Sweden (1751-1771). 

Aerosi NummL The name given by the 
Romans to billon coins (g.v.). 

Aesy or more properly As. A Latin word 
of probably Arian origin, meaning both 
pure copper and a mixture of tin and cop- 
per. The term served, afterwards in Rome 
as a generic word for every variety of 
money. 

The earliest types of the Aes are called 
the Aes Rude or Aes Infectum, i.e., un- 
wrqught copper. There was no monetary 
unit and the weight formed the basis of 
all exchanges. 



11 ounces 


10 


u 


9 


*< 


8 


*( 


7 


u 


6 


u 


5 


<t 


4 


« 


3 


t* 


2 


u 


1% 


t« 


1 


<t 


^ 


t« 



Aes Grave (heavy bronze) ; also called 
the Aes Libralis {i.e., pound of bronze), 
was the first Roman monetary unit. The 
basis was the As, which in its earliest form 
weighed an Oscan — Latin pound of twelve 
ounces, derived from a standard originally 
brought to Italy by the Phocaeans. It is of 
a lenticular shape and the obverse bears 
the portrait of Janus bif rons and the figure 
1 as an indication of the value. The re- 
verse has the prow of a galley, probably 
indicative of the maritime power of Rome, 
which had been greatly developed by the 
Decemviri (B.C. 452-450), to which period 
these coins are usually assigned. The best 
and latest authorities, however, place them 
a century later. 

The divisions of the As are the 

DeuDX or labus, 

Dextans or Dccunx, 

Dodrans or Dodras, 

Bes or Bessis, 

Soptunx, ^ 

Semis, Semlsgis, or Sexcunx, 

QniDCUDx, Quicunx, or Cingus, 

Trlens, Trlente, or Trias, 

Quadrans, Quadrant, or Teruncia, 

Sextans, Sextante, or Sextas, 

Sescunx, 

Uncia, 

Semuncin 

The multiples are the Dupondius, Tri- 
pondius, and Decussis; all of these are de- 
scribed under their rlespective names. 

The As was reduced in weight as follows : 

Primitive Libral, B.C. 450 Twelve ounces 

Semillbral, B.C. 388 Six ounces 

Sextantal, B.C. 268 Two ounces 

Uncial. B.C. 217 One ounce 

Semi-IIncIal, B.C. 89 Half of an ounce 

Aes Rude. The name given to the prim- 
itive and shapeless pieces of bronze used 
by the Romans as money previous to the 
Aes Signatum (q.v.). 

Aes Signatum. The second type of the 
Aes, so called because rude stamps or marks 
are to be found on it, signifying the weight 
and an approximate value. These are of 
oblong, square, and oval shapes. They are 
generally supposed to have originated in 
the reign of Servius Tullius (B.C. 578- 
535), but are more likely of the 5th and 
4th centuries B.C. 

Aetolian League. See League Coinage. 

Affonsim. See Qrosso Affonsim. 

Affonso de Ouro. Another name for the 
earliest type of Cruzado (q.v.), issued by 
Alfonso V of Portugal (1438-1481), and 
so called in honor of the ruler. 



[3] 



Pfminige 



Albertm 



Afrikanische Pfennige. See Schiffs Du- 
katen. 

Aftaby* A gold coin of Akbar, Emperor 
of Hindustan, of the value of ten Rupees. 
See Sihansah. 

Aggio or Agio. A term used more in 
banking than in numismatics to indicate the 
fluctuations of exchange rates, L e., the 
actual value of a coin as compared with its 
current exchange value. 

Agnel (plural Agneaux). A French 
gold coin first issued under Philip IV in 
January, 1310. It is the French form of 
the Agnus Dei (g.v.), with similar designs 
and inscriptions. The Agnel was struck in 
France until the period of Charles VI 
(1380-1422). See Denier d'Or, Gouden 
Lam, and Mouton. 

Agnus Dei. A silver coin of Castile 
issued by John I (1379-1390) and struck at 
Toledo, Burgos, and Seville. The obverse 
shows the Paschal Lamb, and on the reverse 
is a large crown. The inscription reads: 
'* Agnus Dei Qui Tolis Pecate Mundi 
Misere Nobis," referring to the words in 
the Gospel of St. John (i: 29). See Agnel. 

Agod. The name given to the half Talari 
piece of Abyssinia. See Ber. 

Agontano. See Anconitano. 

Agostaro. See Augustalis. 

Agiiglmo. The popular name for the 
Aquilino (g. v.). 

Aguila de Oro. The name given to a 
variety of the Dobla de los Excelentes, or 
double Excelente, issued in the reign of 
Ferdinand and Isabella (1474-1516). It 
has on the reverse the armorial shields of 
Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Sicily sup- 
ported by an eagle with wings extended. 

Ahmadi or AhmedL The name given 
to the gold Mohur of Mysore, by Tipu Sul- 
tan, when he adopted his new system of 
reckoning, based on the Muludi, dating 
from the birth of the Prophet. 

Airgead. A Gaelic word meaning sil- 
ver; but Simon, in his Essay on the Coins 
of Ireland, doubts that it was ever ap- 
plied to coins of this metal. Bonn Airgead, 
or Airgid, means a silver medal. See Bonn. 

Akahi Dala. The name of the silver 
coins issued for the Hawaiian Islands 
under Kalakaua I. They are all dated 



1883 and represent the value of a silver 
dollar of the United States. 

Akcheh, or Othmany* A small Turkish 
silver coin, the only piece issued by Ur- 
khan, the son of Othman I, when he in- 
augurated the Ottoman coinage, A.H. 729. 

When the Ghrush was introduced, A.H. 
1099, it was divided into fifty Akchehs, 
but the relation of the two coins constantly 
altered. Lane-Poole states, Num. Chroni- 
cle, 3d Series (ii: 175-176), that "at first 
50 Akchehs went to the (Jhrush, then 40, 
sometimes as many as 80, and finally, in 
A.H. 1138, as many as 120 Akchehs went 
to the new Turkish unit. This last figure, 
however, is perhaps explained by the fact 
that another small silver coin, the Para, 
had come into existence . . . and eventu- 
ally usurped the place of the Akcheh." 
See Para. 

In the Tunis currency this coin had the 
same value as the Asper, Le,, the fourth 
part of the Kharub. 

Akhtar. A name given to the copper 
five-cash piece of Mysore, by Tipu Sultan, 
in 1792, after the adoption of his new 
system of reckoning. This system was be- 
gun in 1786, and was based on the Muludi, 
i.e., dating from the birth of the Prophet. 
The name is the Arabic designation of the 
word ''Star." 

AlamgirL A small copper coin for- 
merly current in the Deccan principality. 
It was valued at one sixty-fourth of the 
Chandor Rupee. 

Albansgulden. A name given to the 
gold coins issued by the Knights of St. 
Alban at Mainz, who received the privi- 
lege of striking coins from the Emperor 
Maximilian I in 1518. The number was 
limited and they were distributed to the 
members of the Order on St. Martin's Day 
(November 11), and are consequently 
sometimes referred to as Martinsgulden. 
They bear on one side a figure of St. Alban 
holding his head in his hand. 

AlberettOi or Albero, meaning a tree, 
was the popular name for the copper 
Baiocco struck by the Roman Republic in 
1797. The obverse has the lictor's fasces 
surmounted by a Phrygian cap, which 
bear a fanciful resemblance to a tree. 

Albertin. A gold coin issued for Bra- 
bant, Tournay, Flanders, etc., which ob^ 



[4] 



Albertusthaler 



Alicomo 



tains its name from Albert, Archduke of 
Austria (1598-1621), who was governor of 
the Netherlands. The obverse bears his 
bust, together with that of his consort 
Elizabeth, and on the reverse is the cross of 
Burgundy, in the angles of which are dis- 
posed the figures of the date. 

Albertusthaler. A silver coin struck 
for the Low Countries by Albert, Archduke 
of Austria, and of the same design as the 
Albertin {q.v.). Prom the Burgundy cross 
on the reverse these pieces are also called 
Kreuzthaler and Burgunderthaler. Their 
value was three Gulden or fifty Patards. 

The coin was copied in Holstein, Bruns- 
wick, Brandenburg, etc. Those of Freder- 
ick II bear the inscription nach dsm fvs 
DEB ALBERTVS THALER^ and thosc of Fred- 
erick William II, struck in 1797, read, ad 
NORMAM TALERORUM ALBERTi. Correspond- 
ing smaller silver coins of the same design 
as the Albertusthaler were called respect- 
ively Albertusgulden and Albertusgros- 
chen. 

Albuloy or Albido del San Pietro. A 

base silver coin of Lucca issued during the 
Republican rule (1369-1805). It has, on 
the reverse, a figure of St. Peter holding 
the keys. The name is the Italian equiva- 
lent for the Albus. 

Albas. A billon coin current in Ger- 
many and the Low Countries in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. It was com- 
mon in Cologne, Trier, Mainz, Hessen, and 
the Palatinate, and gradually replaced the 
older Tumosgroschen. 

The name Grossus Albus, or Weiss- 
groschen was given to these coins on ac- 
count of their white appearance, due to the 
silver of which they were composed, and 
which compared favorably with other coins 
of the same era. 

An even earlier coin was the Denarius 
Albus, or Weisspfennig. It is frequently 
mentioned in records of the Middle Ages, 
and owes its name to its white, shiny ap- 
pearance. Both of these coins are more or 
less synonymous with the French Blanc, 
the Spanish Blanco, the Italian Bianco, 
and the Witten Pennine of the Low Coun- 
tries. 

The later issues of the Albus, however, 
hardly deserved the name, as gradually 
more and more copper was added to their 



material, and their color naturally became 
darker. See Raderalbus, and Reichsalbus. 

Alderman. An English slang term for 
a half crown. An alderman as chief mag- 
istrate is half a king in his own ward, and 
the half crown is a sort of half king. 

Ale-sflyer. Blount, in his Law Diction- 
ary, 1691, states that this is the name of 
**a Rent or Tribute yearly paid to the 
Lord Maior of London, by those that sell 
Ale within the City.'' 

Alexander. A gold coin of ten Lei, 
issued for Bulgaria under King Alexander 
L 

Alexanders. A general name in modern 
parlance for the coins of Alexander the 
Great and those bearing the type of this 
monarch's coinage. The designation for 
these pieces in ancient times was Alexan- 
dreioi. See Babelon, Traite (i, 482). 

Alexandreion. A silver coin of four 
Drachmai struck circa B.C. 315-310 by 
Ptolemy I, king of Egypt. 

Alexandrian Coinage. The coinage 
struck under the Roman emperors at Alex- 
andria in Egypt. 

Alexandrine Coinage. The coinage 
bearing the types of Alexander the Great. 
Struck at many mints in European Greece, 
Asia Minor, Syria, Babylonia, and North 
Africa from B.C. 336 down to the Roman 
occupation. This coinage, while invariably 
using the types of Alexander the Great, 
sometimes substituted for his name the 
name of a ruling king, such as Philip III, 
Lysimachus, Seleucus, Antiochus, and 
others. 

Alfonsino. A silver coin of the Carlino 
type issued by Alfonso I of Aragon, while 
ruler of Naples and Sicily (1442-1468). 

The Alfonsino d'Oro of the same king 
was a large gold coin, also known by the 
name of Ducatone d'Oro. 

Alfonso. A term used to indicate the 
Spanish gold coin of twenty-five Pesetas, 
it having been originally issued under 
Alfonso XII, and the portrait of this mon- 
arch is on the obverse. 

Alicomo. A silver coin of Ferrara, 
issued by Duke Hercules I (1471-1505), 
which receives this name from the figure 
of a unicorn on one side. Its value is de- 
termined in an ordinance of 1492 as being 
equal to twelve Quattrini. 



[5] 



Coins 



Amoles 



Alliance Coins« A name given to cer- 
tain coins of Greece and Asia Minor, which 
were issued by a joint agreement between 
two or more cities. 8ee Head (Introduc. § 
17). 

Among the earliest types of Alliance 
pieces are those of the federal coinage of 
Rhodes, Cnidus, Samos, and Ephesus, B.C. 
394-387. Each bore the type of its city on 
the reverse; and on the obverse a figure of 
the infant Heracles strangling the snakes, 
and the legend STN (for aupLpLax*^^^)- 

Almonds used as money. See Badam. 

Alms Money. See Peter's Pence. 

Aloethaler. In 1701 an aloe, which had 
been introduced to Germany a few years 
previously, blossomed for the first time, 
and in commemoration thereof the Dukes 
Rudolph August and Anton Ulrich of 
Brunswick- Wolf enbiittel struck a .Tha- 
ler. This coin has on one side a figure of 
the plant in bloom, with an appropriate 
description. 

Alpaka. An alloy of copper, zinc, and 
nickel, and used in the composition of the 
twenty Heller piece of Austria of 1916. 

Altilik. A base silver coin of Turkey in 
the series of Metalliks; its value is five 
Piastres. 

Altininck. Bee Altyn. 

Altnaishlik, or Double Zolota. A silver 
coin of the Ottoman Empire of the value 
of one and one-half Piastres, or sixty 
Paras. Its weight varies from 300 to 420 
grains. The name is derived from Altmish, 
t.6., sixty. See Utuzlik. 

Alton. This word in Turkish signifies 
gold, and after the conquest of Constanti- 
nople, Muhammad II, in A.H. 833, issued 
a gold coin named Sultany Altun, which, 
for brevity's sake, was called Altun. 

It was patterned after the Sequin, and, 
according to Lane-Poole, iVwm. Chronicle, 
3d Series (ii. 167-168), "was known by 
various other names, according to the pre- 
dominant foreign commercial influence; — 
under western influence it was called 
Flury (florin) ; under Persian, Shahy; and 
after the Conquest of Egypt, the name 
Ashrafy, or Sherify, which had been given 
to the improved coinage of El-Ashraf Bar- 
sabay, was transferred to the issues of the 
Constantinopolitan mint. ' ' 



[6 



Altyn, sometimes called Altininck, was 
a base silver coin of Russia of the value of 
three Kopecks or six Dengi, first issued in 
1704. The date on the reverse is in Slav- 
onic characters, and three dots or bosses 
are usually found upon this side of the 
coin, indicative of the value. The coinage 
of these pieces was discontinued in 1736. 

Aluminium, or Aluminum. A grayish- 
wliite metal resembling silver in color but 
of much lighter specific gravity. It is used 
extensively for tokens and medals, but the 
employment of it for actual coins has 
proved rather unsatisfactory. 

For British East Africa and Uganda 
aluminium Cents and half Cents have been 
Ifesued, and a one-tenth Penny was struck 
for Nigeria in 1907 in the same metal. It 
has also been employed as a money of 
necessity by Germany in 1916-1917. 

Ambrosino. A name given to both a 
gold and a silver coin of Milan, struck 
under the first Republic (1250-1310), and 
retained by the Sforzas to the end of the 
fifteenth century. 

They obtain their name from St. Am- 
brosius, the patron saint of the city, who 
is generally represented standing, but 
sometimes on horseback, with a whip in 
his hand, which is supposed to have refer- 
ence to Christ's driving the money- 
changers out of the temple. See Cahier^ 
Characteristiques des Saints dans VAri 
Populaire (ii. 429), and Jameson, Sacred 
and Legendary Art (i. 395). 

Amedeo d'Oro. The popular name for 
the gold Lira, of the value of ten Scudi, 
issued by Victor Amedeus I of Savoy at 
the Turin mint in 1633. See Beato Amedeo. 

Amoles. A name given to the salt money 
of Abyssinia which was used as a circu- 
lating medium for smaller monetary trans- 
actions to the west of Gondar. This 
currency appears to have been in the form 
of blocks of rock-salt, about eight inches 
long by one and one-half inches in breadth, 
and of a value of from two to three pence 
each. It is described by Foville, Les Man- 
naies de VEthiopie, and is mentioned as 
early as 1625 in the works of Don Alonzo 
Mendez, patriarch of Abyssinia, who trav- 
ersed the country, and says: "The boun- 
dary between the kingdoms of Daucali and 
Tygre is a plain, four days' journey in 
length and one in breadth, which they call 

] 



Amulets 



Angel 



the country of salt, for there is found all 
that they use in Ethiopia, instead of 
money; being bricks almost a span long 
and four fingers thick and broad, and won- 
derfully white, fine and hard, and there 
is never any miss of it, though they carry 
away never so much; and this quantity is 
so great Ihat we met a caravan of it, 
wherein we believed there could be no less 
than 600 beasts of burden, camels, mules, 
and asses, of which the camels carry 600 
of those bricks, and the asses 140 or 150, 
and these continually going and coming." 
For the purchasing powers of the Amole, 
or Emol, as it is sometimes called, see an 
interesting contribution by A. Thomson 
D'Abbadie to the Numismatic Chronicle 
(Vol. XL 1839-1840). ^See also Wakea and 
Salt, infra. 

Amulets. The name given to certain 
coins or medals that are supposed to have 
talismanic qualities attached to them, such 
as warding off evil, disease, accidents, etc. 
There are a large number of Chinese and 
Korean pieces known as Amulet coins. 

Anat Ani See Anna. 

Ana 'Ichi Sen. See Kagami Ya Sen. 

Anandaramen. A gold coin of Travan- 
core of double the weight of the Fanam. 
This coin appears to have been struck un- 
der R&ma R&ja (1758-1798). See Elliot 
(pp. 138-139). 

Anchor Pieces. The name given to a 
series of silver coins struck in 1822 under 
George IV of England for general use in 
the West Indies, Canada, and Mauritius. 
The issue consisted of a half, quarter, 
eighth, and sixteenth of a dollar; on the 
reverse is an anchor, crowned, between 
the figures of value and the inscription: 
OOLONIAB BRFTAN MONET. See Brctou (857- 
860). 

Anchors. Hesychiiis states that the 
Cypriotes called their Triobols ** anchors." 
As no ancient money of Cyprus bears the 
type of an anchor. Six has believed that 
we should conclude that the coins called 
Anchors were something very different 
from ordinary money; Babelon, on the 
other hand, thinks there were very ancient 
pieces of a primitive epoch, and of small 
size, which were anchor-shaped, having 
fiukes or recurving arms; for it is impos- 



sible that the anchor of any vessel, how- 
ever small, should have had only the value 
of a triobol, as Hesychius tells us. 

Anconitanoy or Agontano. The name 
frequently used to describe a variety of 
Grosso struck at Ancona in the thirteenth 
century, and of the value of twelve De- 
narii. In 1476 Sixtus IV reduced the 
value of this coin from ten to eight Quat- 
trini, and in 1498 Pope Alexander VI 
issued an ordinance making the Anconi- 
tano one-third of the Carlino in weight and 
equal to two and one-half Bolognini in 
value. 

Andreas DucaL A gold coin of Russia, 
of the value of two gold Rubles, struck 
under a ukase of February 14, 1718, and 
continued until 1730. These coins bear 
the figure of the Saint on a cross, copied 
from the design on the Order of St. An- 
drew, which was instituted by Peter I in 
1698. 

Andreas Thaler. A silver coin issued by 
Ernst V of Hohnstein (1508-1552), which 
receives its name from the figure of the 
Saint on the reverse, and the inscription 

SANTVS ANDREAS. 

The coins of the Dukes of Brunswick- 
Liineburg, which are also called Andreas 
Thaler, take this name .from the mines at 
Andreasberg in the Ilarz Mountains from 
which the silver was obtained for coining 
them. See also under St. Andrew and St. 
Andries, infra. 

Smaller coins of similar design are 
known as Andreas Gulden, Andreas Pfen- 
nige, etc. 

Anepigrafa. An Italian term for a coin 
which has no legend, as, e.g., certain types 
of the half Bezzo, which have only figures 
and no inscription whatever. 

Anepigraphic Coins. A general term 
for coins without inscriptions. See Mon- 
naies Muettes. 

Ange d'Or. A large French gold coin 
first struck under Philip VI of Valois 
(1328-1350). It receives its name from the 
crowned angel on the obverse, who is rep- 
resented seated under a canopy, his feet 
over a dragon, holding in one hand a long 
cross and in the other a shield with the 
fleurs de lis. 

Angel. An English gold coin, first 
struck by Edward IV in 1470. It received 



[7] 



Angelet 



its name from the design on the obverse, 
which represents the archangel Michael, 
standing with his left foot upon a dragon, 
and piercing him through the mouth with 
a spear. 

On the reverse is a ship, and the original 
inscription reads, per cbucem tuam salva 
Nos CHRiSTE REDEMPTOR (**By thy cross 
save us O Christ, our Redeemer''). The 
Angel succeeded the Noble (q.v,), and was 
not coined after 1634. 

This coin was the one used for ** touch- 
ing for the King's Evil," probably on ac- 
count of its religious inscriptions. See 
Touchpiece. Tyler, in his History of Scot- 
land, 1864 (ii, 390), cites an Inventory of 
Jewels of the year 1488 in which are men- 
tioned **Twa hundredth four score and V 
angelis," and Shakespeare, in The Merry 
Wives of Windsor (i, 3), speaks of *'a 
legion of angels." 

AngdeL A half -Angel. It was of simi- 
lar type as the preceding and the original 
reverse inscription was o crux ave spes 
umcA (**Hail, Cross, our only hope"). 
In the time of Elizabeth the motto had been 
changed to an abbreviated form of a 

DOMINO FACTUM EST ISTUD ET EST MHIA- 

BiLE IN ocuLis NOSTRis (**This is the Lord's 
doing and it is marvellous in our eyes"). 
The Angelet was discontinued in 1619. 

Angelot A gold coin of the Anglo- 
Gallic series corresponding to the Angelet 
(g.v.), and as the latter constituted hdf of 
an Angel, so the Angelot was valued at 
fifteen Sols or about two-thirds of a Salute 
iq.v.). 

It was first struck by Henry VI of Eng- 
land about 1427, with the usual obverse of 
St. Michael slaying the dragon. The type 
is found on coins of Thorn in Brabant, 
issued by the Abbess Margaret qf Breder- 
ode (1531-1577) and also occurs on speci- 
mens issued by Henri II of Brederode 
(1556-1568), struck at Vianen in Luxem- 
burg. 

Under Louis XI of France (1461-1485) 
a series of Angelots were issued to com- 
memorate the foundation of the Order of 
St. Michael. See Hoffmann (7-10). 

Angevin. See Monnaies Angevines. 

Anglo-American Money. The general 
name given to the coins of the American 
settlements struck by English rulers from 
the time of Elizabeth until 1776. 



Anglo-Gallic Coins are such as were 
issued by the English rulers and princes in 
their French territories. The earliest 
specimens are the Deniers of Henry II, 
which must have been struck previous to 
1168, in which year Aquitaine was given 
by Henry to his son, Richard I. 

The last of the series of Anglo-Gallic 
coins are the Tournay Groats of Henry 
VIII, issued in 1513. 

Angroigne. A billon coin of Burgundy 
Issued by Philip the Good (1419-1467) and 
struck at the mint at Auxonne. It has on 
the reverse a cross with lions and fleurs de 
lis in the opposite angles, and the inscrip- 
tion: ANSERNA DE AVXONE. See Blanchet 
(i, 394). 

Angtter. A small base silver coin struck 
bi various Cantons of Switzerland, but 
specially in Luzerne, Schwyz, Appenzell, 
Zug, Zurich, Schaifhausen, and St. Gallen. 
They are mentioned as early as 1424, and 
in a Munzbuch, printed at Nuremburg by 
Georg Wachter in 1530, the value of the 
Angster is stated to be one-fourth of the 
Kreuzer. They occur in the coinage as 
late as the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and retained this value. 

The etymology of the name is dubious. 
Du Cange (i) states that it is a corrup- 
tion of Angesicht, i.e., face or visage. An- 
other authority derives the name from an 
individual named Angst, the master of a 
mint in Switzerland. 

Ang-tiik. A silver piece struck in Nepal 
for currency in Tibet, by the Newar King 
Jaya Bhupatindra Malla Deva in the year 
816 of the Newar Bra, corresponding to 
A.D. 1696. The name Ang-tuk means 
** number six," and it is given to the coin 
on account of the last figure in the date. 
The Tibetans call it Pa-nying Tang-ka, or 
**old Nepalese" coinage. It is also known 
as the Dung-tang, i.e., ** Spear Tang-ka," 
or Dung-tse, i.e., ** Spear-point," from the 
trident emblem of the Newar kings, which 
is minted on the reverse. It is called a 
Moharjn Nepal. See Tang-ka, and Conf. 
Walsh, Coinage of Tibet, in Memoirs 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1907 (ii), and 
Wood, in American Journal of Numis- 
matics, 1912. 

Am. A gold coin of Nepal of the value 
of one-sixteenth of a Mohur. See Suka, 
and Anna. 



[8] 



Animals 



Aplus 



Animals, especially sheep and cattle, 
were used as basis of exchange in ancient 
times. In Homer oxen are frequently 
mentioned as the commodity by which 
other things were valued. The armor of 
Diomedes was said to be worth nine oxen, 
while that of Glaucus was valued at a 
hundred. Iliad (vi). In the same work it 
is stated that the first prize given to the 
wrestlers at the Grecian games was worth 
twelve oxen. See Kugildi. 

Anna. A copper coin of India, the six- 
teenth part of a Rupee. It is subdivided 
into four Pice or twelve Pies. 

It is referred to early in the eighteenth 
century by A. Hamilton, in A New Ac- 
count of the East Indies, 1727 (ii, App. 8), 
who states that **in Bengal their accounts 
are kept in Pice, twelve to an Annoe, six- 
teen Annoes to a Rupee." 

Annapolis Coinage. See Chalmers. 

Annengroschen. The name given to a 
series of silver coins issued in Brunswick, 
Hanover, and Hildesheim at the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. They have 
a figure of St. Anne standing, who is hold- 
ing the Christ child on one arm and the 
infant Mary on the other. 

Annenpfennig. A copper token struck 
at Annaberg, Saxony, w^ith the inscrip- 
tion HILF HEHilGE ANNA. 

Annoe. An old form of writing Anna 
(q.v.). 

Annulet Coinage. A name given to 
certain issues in gold and silver of the 
period of Henry V and Henry VI of Eng- 
land, on account of the annulet which was 
one of the distinguishing characteristics 
of the money of these reigns. 

Annundata. The popular name for a 
coin of the Gonzaga family, princes of 
Guastalla, which bears on the obverse the 
annunciation to the Virgin. It was equal 
to fourteen Soldi and was issued to the end 
of the sixteenth century. 

The type was copied in 1745 on the 
Quadruplo d'Oro of Charles Emanuel 
III, king of Sardinia. 

Anselmino. A name given to the double 
Giulio issued in Mantua under Vincenzo 
I. Gonzaga (1587-1613). It was a silver 
coin of the value of twenty Soldi and re- 



ceived this name from the figure of St. 
Anselm on the obverse. See Selmino. 

Antoninianos, also called Argenteus An- 
toninianus, and Aurelianus, is a Roman 
double Denarius which takes its name from 
M. Aurelius Antoninus Caracalla ;i211- 
217), who introduced it. This coin was 
distinguished from the Denarius by the 
fact that the Emperor's head bore a 
radiated crown, and there is a crescent 
under the head of the Empress. It was 
originally of moderately good silver, b%it 
gradually depreciated until at the time of 
Gallienus it was barely more than a sil- 
vered copper coin. It was abolished about 
the period of Constantine the Great. The 
original weight of this coin was 5.45 
grammes, or about eighty grains. 

Ant's Nose Coins. A name given to 
certain small copper pellet-like shaped 
money of China, convex on one side and 
flat on the other. They are generally con- 
ceded to have been in use about B.C. 650- 
600, and the designation *' Ant's Nose 
Money ^' is due, perhaps, to the ancient 
practice of burying ** valuable ants" with 
the dead. ** Ghost's Face or Head Money" 
is also an appellation given to them, no 
doubt on account of their likeness to the 
features of a spectre of the nether world. 
Their latest cognomen is that of *' Metallic 
Cowries" in imitation of cowry shells, 
whose shape they are supposed to follow 
and which were known to be used as a 
currency medium in ancient China. 

The most common variety is that sup- 
posed to be inscribed with the weight value 
Pan Liang, or half Tael. For a detailed 
account see Ramsden, Numismatic and 
Philatelic Journal of Japan, 1914 (iii, 4, 
5), and Spink (xxiii, p. 564), 

Anvoire. Du Cange states that this was 
a kind of tribute of twenty-eight Deniers 
to be used for the church which the Bishop 
of Beauvais exacted from newly married 
couples. 

Aparas. According to Teixeira de 
Aragao (iii) this was a Portuguese silver 
coin struck for their possessions in India. 
The word means to cut off, or to divide, 
and the coins consisted of pieces cut from 
the Piastre and counterstamped. 

Aplus. The Assyrian equivalent for the 
Greek Obol (^.v.)- 



[9] 



ApoUma 



Arenkopf 



ApoUnuL The popular name used in 
Sicily for the gold coins of Syracuse of the 
period of Agathocles (B.C. 317-310), 
which bore on the obverse the head of 
Apollo. 

Apottd Thaler. A silver medallic Tha- 
ler of the Holy Roman Empire, bearing no 
date but issued under Riidolf II (1576- 
1612). It is from designs by Christian 
Maler, and obtains its name from the 
figure of the Savior surrounded by the 
symbols of the twelve apostles. 

Appdgulden* A nickname given to the 
gold Gulden of the city of Cologne, issued 
in the latter part of the fifteenth century 
Cappe (No. 1244), on account of the im- 
perial globe on the reverse, which was fre- 
quently mistaken for an apple. 

The name was adopted throughout the 
Rhine Provinces and was used in the con- 
temporary archives. Conf. Paul Joseph 
(passim). 

Appoints. See Assignat. 

Apuliaiise. The name given to a small 
silver coin struck by William II (1166- 
1189) for Brindisi, Palermo, etc. The re- 
verse has usually a palm-tree and the in- 
scription APVLiENBis. Some varieties are 
concave. The value was equal to a Ducato 
d'Argento, and divisions of three, six, and 
twelve were issued called respectively 
Tercia or Terzo, Sesto, and Dodicesimo. 

A<|dtcli6ii. A silver coin of Egypt, in- 
troduced by Ahmed III (A.H. 1115-1143), 
and corresponding to the Asper, or one- 
third of the Para. 

AquQino. A silver coin, which, as its 
name indicates, bears a large eagle on the 
obverse, and is common to a number of 
Italian States. 

It was issued at Padua during the Re- 
publican period (1200-1318), and from its 
size was generally known as the Grosso 
Aquilino. At Treviso it was struck by 
Enrico II di Gtorizia (1319-1323) ; at Man- 
tua by the Gonzaga family in the latter 
part of the fourteenth century; and at 
Aquila under Joanna II of Durazzo (1414- 
1435) and her successors. The last-named 
coin was also called Cella or Trentino and 
had a value of half a Paolo. It bore an 
eagle with outstretched wings, which re- 
ceived the popular name of Uccello, i.e., a 
bird, and this in turn was corrupted to 
CeUa. 

C 



Arbaa. A name given to certain base 
gold coins of Egypt of the value of four 
Piastres or one-half of the Kairie. 

ArbbI de Valencia. The billon Deniers 
issued by John I of Aragon (1387-1395), 
for Valencia, are so called. See Engel and 
Serrure (iii. 1346). 

Arcadian League. See League Coinage. 

Archaic Coinage. A general name for 
the earliest types of the Greek coins struck 
from circa B.C. 700 to B.C. 480. In this 
period ** there is a gradual development 
from extreme rudeness of execution to 
more clearly defined forms characterised by 
stiffness and angularity of style. ' ' This is 
the first of the art periods according to 
Head's classification, and the figures on 
the coins usually consist of animals, heads 
of animals, and human heads in profile. 

Archer. A name sometimes given to 
both the Persian gold Daric and the silver 
Siglos, as these coins bear the figure of a 
bowman on the obverse. The term xo^OTat 
from an archer, is also used to define these 
coins, and they were known by this latter 
name. 

. Ardha. An Indian word meaning half, 
and used in conjunction with denomina- 
tions such as Kakini, Pana, etc. See Pana. 



. A corruption of Hardi or Hardit 

(q.v.).^ 

Ardite. A small copper coin of Barce- 
lona struck by Philip III (1598-1621) and 
by his successors until the middle of the 
eighteenth century. It probably obtained 
its name from the fact that on the earliest 
types the portrait of the king separated the 
two letters A.R. (Aragoniae Rex). 

Ardpanchio. A silver coin of Cutch 
and Kathiawar of the value of two and a 
half Koris. See Panchia. 

Arendt-Rijksdaalder. A silver Thaler 
issued by the United Provinces, Friesland, 
etc., in the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The name is obtained from the em- 
blem of the two eagles upon the obverse. 
The smaller denominations, the Arends- 
Oroot and the Arends-Schelling have the 
same design. The Thaler was equal to 
sixty Groten. 

Arenkopfi or Amekopf. A name given 
to the half Pfennig of Goslar, on account of 
the eagle's head appearing on the same. 
10] 



Argenteolus 



Arsura 



These diminutive base silver coins were 
issued originally in the fifteenth century; 
they are also alluded to by the names of 
Scherf (q.v,) and Goslar. 

Argenteolus. See Argenteus. 

Argenteiis. Another name for the De- 
narius, revived by Diocletian and struck 
96 to the pound of silver. It was also 
called Argenteus minutulus or Argenteo- 
lus, and continued to be struck until the 
time of Julian II the Apostate. 

Argenteus. See Talari. 

Argenteus Antoninianus. See Antoni- 
nianus. 

Argenteus Aurelianus. See Antonini- 
anus. 

Argenteus Minutulus. So called in con- 
tradistinction to the larger Argenteus An- 
toninianus. See Argenteus. 

Argentino. A gold coin of the Argen- 
tine Republic, introduced in 1880, and of 
the value of five Pesos. 

Argent le Roy, i.e., the King's silver. 
When this term was used in connection 
with coins issued in Prance during the 
Middle Ages it implied that the metal was 
23 karats fine. In a document of 1378 the 
Grosso of Charles V of Prance is called 
Argento le Roy, probably on account of 
the purity of the metal. 

Argento. In the fifteenth century this 
name was applied to silver coins struck 
by the Popes at Avignon and Carpentrasso. 

Argenton, or Maillechort. The name 
given to a mixture of nickel, copper, and 
2inc which constituted the basis of the 
Swiss coins of 1850. See Nickel. 

Argentum Dei. See Earnest. 

Argentum Oscense. See Denarius Os- 
censis. 

Argentum Nigrum. See Billon. 

Argurion. A Greek word meaning **a 
piece of silver, ' ' and so used in the Gospel 
of St. Matthew (xvii: 27, xxvi: 15). See 
Pieces of Silver. 

Arlabaso. See RoUbatzen. 

Armellino. A silver coin of the value of 
half a Carlino, issued by Perdinand I of 
Aragon, as king of Naples and Sicily (1458- 
1494). It obtains its name from the figure 
of an ermine on the reverse. 



The type was copied by his successors, 
Alfonso II and Perdinand II, and also by 
Prancesco Maria I, Duke of Urbino (1508- 
1513). The ermine being mistaken for a 
fox (volpe), the coin received the nick- 
name of Volpetta. 

Amaldes, or Amaudin. The name given 
to a small base silver coin struck at Agen 
in Aquitaine, and supposed to obtain its 
name from Arnaldo I of Bonneville, who 
was bishop of Agen in the eleventh cen- 
tury. Poey d'Avant (ii, 143) ascribes its 
origin to Arnaldo de Rovinhan, bishop of 
Agen and the first to coin money there in 
1217. The same authority (p. 145) cites 
an account of the year 1252 in which Ar- 
naldeses are mentioned as being of slightly 
less weight than the Italian coins of the 
same period. 

Amekopf. See Arenkopf. 

Amoldus. The ducat of Arnould, Count 
of Egmont and Duke of Gueldres (1423- 
1472) is so called. 

Arrhes. A Prench expression meaning 
money given for the binding of a bargain 
and corresponding to Earnest (q.v.). 

In the American Journal of Numismat- 
ics (xli. 31), there is an extensive descrip- 
tion of the Arrhae, or ** tokens of spous- 
age,'* called by the Prench Deniers pour 
epouser. 

Arrow Head Money. Arrow heads of 
stone or metal have been used by various 
primitive people as objects of barter. Al- 
though they may be considered as prim- 
itive money they cannot be classed as 
coins. The American Indians and the Jap- 
anese used stone arrow heads for purposes 
of exchange and the Chinese used bronze 
arrow points. Chinese numismatists have 
sometimes included these in their works. 
See Ramsden. There is, however, a specific 
instance of an inscribed bronze arrow 
point in the Korean series known as Chun 
Pei (q.v.), 

Arsum. A name applied to any coinage 
of base metal resembling billon. Du Cange 
states that the etymology is from an old 
Prench word, ards, meaning black. 

Arsura. The trial of money by fire, after 
it was coined. — Blount, Law Dictionary, 
1670. 



[11] 



Arletienne 



Asper 



Artesienne. A general name for the 
coins, especially Mailles, struck at Artois, 
toward the latter part of the eleventh cen- 
tury. The type was copied in Lille, Ant- 
werp, Brussels, etc. See Blauchet (i, 444, 
449), who refers to them by the names of 
Artescense and Atrebatensis. 

Artigy plural Artiger. A small silver 
coin^ the fractional part of a Schilling, 
issued by the bishops of Dorpat and the 
archbishops of Riga early in the sixteenth 
century. They also belong to the currency 
of the Order of Livonia. 

ArtHucco, or Artiliik. A silver coin of 
the Republic of Ragusa issued from 1627 
to 1701. It had a value of three Grossetti, 
and was copied from the Polish Drei- 
groscher {q.v.). 

The name appears to be taken from the 
Turkish word altiluk, i,e., six-fold, because 
its equivalent in the Ottoman Empire was 
six Para. For a detailed account of this 
coinage see Resetar, in the Monatsblatt der 
Num. Oesell in Wien (viii, 18-21). 

Aruzzehi or Tamunah, is a quarter of 
a Ilabbeh or one-fortieth of a Danik, or 
one forty-eighth of a Danik {q.v.) of 
Khwarizm. 

Aryandic Coinage. The name given to 
a series of silver coins struck by Aryandes, 
a satrap of Egypt, in imitation of the royal 
Persian coinage. Darius, from the ac- 
count by Herodotus (iv, 165-167), would 
appear to have been angry with Aryandes 
for issuing silver of excessive purity. No 
coins are extant which can be attributed to 
this satrap, and Hill suggests that **he 
coined sigli with the royal types which 
should only have been issued by the royal 
mint, and that this was the real reason of 
his fall.'' See Head (p. 845). 

As* See Aes Grave. 

Atadi Ghrush. The name given by the 
Turks to the Austrian Thaler, and the Rix 
Daler of the Low Countries, which were 
the principal large silver coins current in 
the Ottoman Empire prior to the reign of 
Soleiman II, who introduced the Ghrush, 
or Piastre, in imitation of these coins. 

Marsden, however (i. 373), quotes Me- 
ninski, that the Utuzlik, or Zolota, a 
smaller coin, was *'Thalerus Hollandicius 
fioreno Rhenensi aequivalens. * ' 

[ 



The confusion is probably due to the fact 
that the Piastre and the Utuzlik are of 
nearly the same size. 

Ascanische Pfennige. A variety of 
bracteates issued by the Dukes of Anhalt, 
who established a mint at Ascania, or As- 
caria, now Aschersleben, in the eleventh 
century. They are very difficult to class- 
ify, being without inscriptions and corre- 
sponding to the Monnaies Muettes {q.v.), 

Aschera* The name given to the quarter 
Piastre in the Egyptian series. It is a base 
silver coin of the value of ten Paras. The 
name for the half Piastre of the same i&sue 
is Aschreneah. Both coins were introduced 
A.II. 1255 or A.D. 1839. 

As'ek* According to R. C. Temple, in 
the Indian AntiqtLary, 1898 (p. 14), this 
name is given to a rough silver casting, 
used by the Lao tribes in the northern part 
of Siam. It is valued at three Rupees, 
thoiigh it contains only about one Rupee's 
worth of silver. 

Ashrafiy or Sherify. A Persian word 
meaning ** noble,*' and applied to a gold 
coin issued by the Sufi, or Safi, dynasty. 
It corresponds in approximate size and 
weight to the Dinar and Sequin. The 
triple Ashrafi, occasionally struck, received 
the name of Muhr- Ashrafi. See Altun. 

Ashrafi. A small silver coin struck by 
the Emirs of El Harrar, a province of 
Abyssinia. About twenty-two of these 
were computed to a Dollar, though the 
value fluctuated under the different emirs. 
It was formerly a gold coin. 

In the modern Abyssian coinage it is a 
money of account, three being equal to a 
Talari. 

AshL A silver coin of India and equal 
to one-eighth of a Rupee. See Sihansah. 

AslanL Siee Abukash. 

Asmaniy or UsinanL A name given to 
the copper forty-cash piece of Mysore, by 
Tipu Sultan, in 1789, after the adoption 
of his new system of reckoning. This sys- 
tem was begun in 1786, and based on the 
Muludi, i.e., dating from the birth of the 
Prophet. The coin is so called after 
'Usman-ibn-'Aifan, the third khalifa. See 
Mushtari. 

Asper, or Aspre. A billon coin of the 
value of one-third of a Para formerly eur- 

12] 



A^rione 



Augustalis 



rent in Turkey and Asia Minor. It weighs 
from two to three grains. 

The name appears to be derived from the 
SfTxpo^y of the modern Greeks, being 
** white" money, as distinguished from the 
copper. 

In the Tunis currency the Asper is divi- 
ded into twelve Bourbes. 

The name is also given to a silver coin 
current in Rhodes in the fourteenth cen- 
tury and later. It was issued by the 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and is 
the same as the Denier of Western Europe. 
There is a series of them struck at Tre- 
bizond, under the Commenes, from Manuel 
I (1238-1263) to Alexis IV (1417-1447), 
and they were copied in Georgia under 
Georgi VIII (1452-1469). 

In 1492 it was computed in Venice at 20 
Tomesi, and In 1677 it was coined in the 
Republic of Genoa for the Levantine trade. 

Asprione. Du Cange cites ordinances 
which indicate that this was a name given 
to the Soldo d'Oro struck at the mint of 
Ravenna. 

Assarion* The Greek diminutive form 
of the Latin word As {q.v,). 



The fourth part of the FoUis 
(q.v.). It was introduced by Diocletian, 
and corresponds to the Dekanummion of 
the Byzantine Empire. 

AstignaL The name given to a species 
of paper money first issued in France pur- 
suant to an order of the National Assem- 
bly of April 19, 1790. The Republic issued 
them in denominations from 10,000 Livres 
to 5 Livres, as well as a smaller currency 
called Appoints as low as ten Sous. 

As there was an inadequate gold or sil- 
ver redemption fund their value soon de- 
preciated to one-sixth of their original 
worth. By an order of the Directorate of 
February 19, 1795, they were abolished, 
and the holders were permitted to exchange 
them for a new variety of paper money 
called the Mandat. This also became 
worthless in a short time. 

Essays of Assignats for 100, 50, 25, and 
5 Livres struck in white metal and copper 
were issued in 1791. 

Asiit. The Roman As (q.v.). 

m 

AiMSy plural Asses. A base silver coin 
of the value of six Kreuzer issued in Basle, 



Strasburg, and Luxemburg during the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

In the Luxemburg coinage it represents 
a Sol or Sou, and a necessity piece of 72 
Asses was issued during the siege of Lux- 
emburg by the French, in 1795. See Mail- 
liet (73, 1). 

Atia« A copper coin struck for the Por- 
tuguese Indies at Diu, with a correspond- 
ing half. The issue appears to have been 
begun under Joseph I about 1750 and was 
continued until 1851. The reverses usually 
exhibit a cross with the four figures of the 
date in the angles. The value of the Atia 
was fifteen Reis or twenty Bazaruccos. 

Atkinson. See Achesoun. 

Atmah. A gold coin of Akbar, Em- 
peror of Hindustan, equal to one-fourth of 
the Sihansah (q.v.). 

Atrebatmsis, See Artesienne. 

Atribuo. See Judenpfennige. 

Atsida, plural Atsidor or Atsidorna. An 
expression used by Swedish numismatists 
to signify the obverse of a coin or medal. 
It is a compound word meaning **the side 
toward the person." See Fransida. 

Ail a Siamese copper coin, the sixty- 
fourth part of the Tical (q.v.). In the 
former Cambodian coinage the Att repre- 
sented the one four-hundredth of the Tical. 

Attesaal. In the constitution of Erik 
VII of Denmark, 1269, this monetary de- 
nomination is mentioned, and Du Cange 
states that it was current for a Tremissis, 
or third part of a Solidus. 

Aubonne* The name given to a variety 
of Ecu struck for Lorraine and Bar, by 
Monsieur d'Aubonne, the director of the 
mint from 1724 to 1728. See De Saulcy, 

(PI. xxxii). 



Auferstehungsthaler, i.e.. Resurrection 
Thaler. See Schmalkaldischer Bundes- 
thaler. 

Augslups Polleten. See PoUeten. 

Augustalis. A gold coin issued by the 
Emperor Frederick II as king of the Two 
Sicilies. The}'' were struck at Brindisi from 
1197 to 1220, and were valued at one and 
a quarter gold Gulden. The design on 
these pieces is copied from the Roman 



[13] 



August d'Or 



Axe Money 



Aurei; the Emperor's head is laureated, 
and he is clothed in Roman costume, from 
which fact they derive their name. Italian 
numismatists refer to this coin by the 
name of Agostaro. 

August d'Or. A gold coin of Saxony, 
struck originally by the electors and later 
by the king. It was a variety of the Pis- 
tole or five-Thaler gold piece. The 
Ephraim d'Or, a type issued by Frederick 
the Great, at Leipzig, from 1756 to 1758 
was greatly inferior and contained only 
about one-third the quantity of gold of 
the regular Pistoles. See Ephraimiten. 

Augustosp or AugustarL A name given 
to such coins as bear the figure of the 
bishops of Augsburg, i.e., Augusta Vin- 
delicorun. These ecclesiastics struck coins 
after 1402. See Blanchet (ii, 92). 

Aur. The Icelandic equivalent for the 
Scandinavian Ore (q.v.). 

Aurelianus. See Antoninianus. 

Aureola, plural Aurelii. An ordinance 
of the mint of Venice of 1178 reads fu 
stampata motieta d' argent o nominata 
Aurelii. The value of these coins was com- 
puted at two Soldi, but no specimens are 
known to exist. 



The best known of the Roman 
gold coins. It succeeded the Scripulum, 
and appeared toward the end of the Re- 
public, when Sulla in B.C. 87, Pompey in 
B.C. 81, and Julius Caesar in B.C. 46, 
issued a military gold coinage. This series 
forms part of the Nummi Castrenses (q.v.). 

The regular coinage of the Aurei began 
under Julius Caesar, and their value was 
twenty-five Denarii. The weight of the 
Aureus gradually declined, and it was 
finally abolished when Constantino the 
Great established the Solidus. 

Under Augustus quadruple Aurei called 
Quaterniones were issued. 

Originally the Aureus was struck at the 
proportion of 42 to the Roman pound 
(327.45 grammes) but its weight gradu- 
ally tended to diminish, the reduction being 
approximately as follows : 

In the time of Augustus the Aureus was 
one forty-second of a pound, i.e., 120.3 
grains ; in the time of Nero, one forty-fifth 
of a pound, i.e., 113.5 grains; in the time 
of Caracalla, one-fiftieth of a pound, i.e., 
101.05 grains; in the time of Gallienus', 



one sixtieth to one-seventieth of a pound, 
i.e., 84 to 72 grains. 

Aureus Regalis. See Royal d'Or. 

Aurum. The Latin generic term for 
money. 

Aurum ad Obrussam. See Obryzum. 

Aurum Ezcoctuin. See Excoctum and 
ObryzuuL 

Ausbeutemimzen. The name given to 
both gold and silver coins and implying the 
product of a local mine. The earliest speci- 
men is probably the Saxon Ausbeutethaler 
of St. Katharinenberg, dated 1505. 

The various Dukes of Brunswick resorted 
to this practice extensively, and it was 
common in other German states as well as 
in France, Scandinavia, etc. 

The Ausbeutethaler frequently bear 
views of the mines or allusions to the place 
of striking. In many cases they have dis- 
tinctive mottoes, e.g., das land die pruchte 
BRiNGT., etc. The Isargold Dukaten and 
the Rheingold Dukaten struck from the 
product of washings in these rivers are 
also classed with the Ausbeutemiinzen. 

A third variety are such pieces as bear a 
motto invoking a blessing on the mining 
operations. These are known as Bergse- 
gensthaler and occur for Mansfeld, the 
Harz Mountains, etc. 

Auswurf Mimzeii. See Maundy Money. 

Autonomous Coins. A name given to 
coins struck by such cities and territories as 
required no external authority to issue 
them. They are common in the Greek 
series and to some extent in the Roman; 
but the provinces of the latter empire 
were usually restricted to the extent that 
they were permitted to strike only in cop- 
per. 

AyerSy from the Latin adversus, i.e., 
facing. The same as obverse {q.v.). The 
term is used as early as the year 1715 in 
the catalogue of an auction sale of coins 
held at Gotha in Saxony. See Berliner 
Miinzhldtter (No. 141). 

Awpenny. See Half-Penny. 

Axe Money. The common name for a 
rude copper currency used by the Mexican 
Indians. The native name is Sicca, or Sic- 
capili (q.v.). The shape of "these pieces 
resembles an axe, about twenty by forty 
millimetres. 



[14] 



Aydans Azzalino 

Aydans. A variety of base silver de- Azialino. The name given to a Testone 

niers issued in Flanders during the fif- issued by the Paleologi at Casale during 

teenth century. Du Cange cites an ordi- the fourteenth century. The word is a 

nance of 1450 shofwing that they were corruption of acciarino, meaning a steel 

struck at Li^ge and that twenty were com- for striking fire, this device occurring on 

puted to the Florin. the coin. For a similar emblem, see Bri- 
quet. 



[16] 



Bacca di Allemagna 



Bahrain 



B 



Bacca di Allemagna. According to Pro- 
mis (ii. 66), this term was used in Pied- 
mont for a coin of two Soldi. In 1548 a 
Scudo of Savoy was equal to 22^^ Bacca. 

Bacchanalian C<Nns. A name given to 
the issues of Jahangir, Emperor of Hin- 
dustan, which bear on one side the ruler 
seated with a goblet of wine before him. 
These pieces appeared in 1612 and later. 

Bacquette. Another name for Baquette 
(q.v.). 

Badam, or Padens. The name given to 
the almond of Persia which was used as 
money in some parts of India and on the 
Malabar Coast. Stavorninus, in his Voy- 
ages to the East Indies, 1798 (iii. 8), in 
writing of the coinage current at Surat, 
says: '*In the same way as cowries are 
made use of in Bengal, as the lowest me- 
dium of exchange, almonds, which are 
called badams, are employed for that pur- 
pose here; the comparative value whereof 
is, as may easily be conceived, more liable 
to variation than any other respective me- 
dium." 

J. A. de Mandelslo, who was in Gujarat 
about 1638, published an account of his 
voyages in 1669, and says of the natives 
tliat * * they also make use of almonds where- 
of thirty-six make a Peyse" (tPaisa). 

Biir Pfennige. A nickname given to the 
small silver and billon coins of the Swiss 
Cantons of Berne and St. Gallen, which 
have a figure of a bear. This privilege 
was granted them by Frederick III in 1475. 
See Blanchet (ii. 263). 



A base silver coin of Stras- 
burg current in the sixteenth century and 
later. It was equivalent to eight Deniers, 
or the sixth part of a Dick-Pfennig, and 
multiples called Dreibaetzner, or one half 
of the Dick-Pfennig were also issued. 

In the Luzerne coinage the Baetzner was 
equal to four Kreuzer, and silver denomi- 
nations of Zehnbaetzner were struck from 
about 1750 to 1812. 

[ 



Bagarone, or Bagaroto. The popular 
name for a variety of the mezzo Bolog- 
nino, issued in Bologna, Ferrara, and Mo- 
dena, during the fifteenth century and 
later. In 1507 it was current in Parma 
at one fourth of the Quattrino. 

Bagattinoy from bagata, a trifle. A small 
copper and billon coin of Venice, which 
appeared originally about the reign of the 
Doge Francesco Foscari (1423-1457), and 
was in use for about two centuries. 

It was also extensively employed at 
Friuli, Sebenico, Spalato, Zara, Rovigo and 
other Venetian colonies. At Verona it ap- 
pears with a date as early as 1516. 

The Bagattino was the Venetian unit in 
copper, and it was usually computed at 
one half of the Soldo. 

Baggiane, or Bagiane. A coin issued by 

the mint of Mirandola early in the seven- 

. teenth century and of the value of four 

Soldi. An ordinance of 1693 mentions 

Baggiane of Modena. 

Bagni (?plural of Bagno). There is a 
reference in Promis (i. 316) to an order 
of the year 1717 which prohibits the cir- 
culation of coins called Bagni in the Duchy 
of Savoy. 

Bahar. According to Noback (p. 82), a 
money of account was formerly used at 
Bantam, on the island of Java, which is 
based on a decimal system, as follows: 

1 Bahar = 10 Utas 

= 100 Cattlee 
= 1000 Laxsans 
= 10000 Peccoes 

The smallest of these, the Peccoe, was 
computed at 30 to the Spanish Dollar, 
though the value fluctuated. 

Bahloli. See Buhloli. 

Bahranii or Behram. A name given to 
the copper five cash piece of Mysore, by 
Tipu Sultan, in 1790, after the adoption 
of his new system of reckoning. This sys- 
tem was begun in 1786, and was based on 
the Muludi, i.e., dating from the birth of 
the Prophet. The name of the coin is the 
Persian designation of the planet Mars. 

16] 



Baiarda 



Bamboo Money 



Baiarda. A coin of the value of two 
Bolognini struck in Modena from 1551 to 
1553. It was a variety of the Murajola 

(g.v.). 

Baiocco, or Bajocco. A coin formerly 
in use in the Papal States. It was orig- 
inally struck in base silver and later in 
copper, and it obtains its name from its 
brown color, the Italian for a bay or brown 
tint being bajo. But Cinagli states that 
the name is probably derived from Bayeux, 
a town of France (old name, Bajocae), 
where there was at one time a mint. 

The Baiocco was the tenth part of the 
Paolo, and the one hundredth part of a 
Scudo, and it was subdivided into five 
Quattrini. 

In 1712 Pope Clement XI issued a sil- 
ver coin of 80 Baiocci, and in 1796 Pius VI 
struck a 60 Baiocci piece at Bologna in 
copper. Among the obsidional pieces Mail- 
liet cites copper coins of two and one half 
and five Baiocci struck during the French 
occupation of Civita-Vecchia, 1796-1797; 
five, two and one half, and one half Baiocci 
for San-Severino, 1797; and five Baiocci 
for Tivoli in 1797. See Ducato. 

The Baiocco is mentioned by Andrew 
Boorde, in his Introduction to Knowledge, 
1547 (179), who says, **In bras they haue 
Kateryns and byokes and denares." 

Baioccone. The name given to a cop- 
per coin of the value of five ^aiocci struck 
for the Papal States during the pontifi- 
cate of Pius IX. 

Baiochella. A billon coin i^ued by Six- 
tus V (1585-1590), for Rome, Fano, Mont- 
alto, Ancona, etc., and in use during the 
early part of the seventeenth century. 
The name is a diminutive of Baiocco. 

Baiochetto. A small silver coin issued by . 
the Farnesi Family for Castro, Piacenza, 
etc., during the sixteenth century. Those 
of Pietro Luigi Farnese (1545-1547) are 
quite common and usually bear the figure 
of Saint Savinus on the reverse. 

Baiotta* Promis (ii. 174) states that 
pursuant to an order of February 17, 1717, 
a tax was levied in Piedmont consisting 
of a Baiotta, i.e., five Soldi. This would 
make it a variety of the Ducatone, but no 
such coin is known at the present time. 

[17 



Baisa. In a report of the United States 
Consulate at Maskat, Oman, dated March 
23, 1911, it is stated that the only Oman 
coin is the copper Baisa or '^ Maskat Pice.*' 
**It is used in retail transactions and can 
usually be exchanged in small quantities at 
the rate of twelve Baisas for one Anna of 
Indian currency." 

Bajoire. A name given to coins on 
which occur two or more profile portraits, 
one superimposed and more or less obscur- 
ing the one underneath. Notable examples 
are the English Crown of William and 
Mary; the Lafayette Dollar, etc. See Ju- 
gate. 

Bakiri, or Bakhri. A name given to the 
quarter Rupee of Mysore by Tipu Sultan, 
in 1786, when he adopted his new system 
of reckoning, based on the Muludi, i.e., 
dating from the birth of the Prophet. The 
coin is so called after Muhammad Bakir, 
the fifth Imam. 

Bakla Aiarfi. A gold coin of Nepal of 
the value of two Mohurs. See Suka. 

Balance Half Merk. See Merk. 

Balastraca. A name given to the Span- 
ish Peseta stamped with the figure 400 in 
a rectangle to indicate its altered value in- 
to Reis. There are corresponding halves 
and quarters, stamped respeetively 200 and 
100. This practice was extensively carried 
on by private persons in the province of 
Rio Grande do Sul. See Meili (ii. 355). 

Balboa. The unit of the gold standard 
of Panama, divided into one hundred 
Centesimos and of the same value as the 
money of the United States. It is named 
after the explorer, but up to the present 
time has not been struck, the largest coin 
of Panama being the Peso, or half Balboa. 

Baldacckino* An Italian word meaning 
a canopy, and sometimes used to describe 
the Pavilion d'Or {q.v.). 

Baliardut. Du Cange cites a manuscript 
of the thirteenth century of the Diocese 
of Bourges which reads, **Henricus de 
Soliaco cantor Bituricensis qui dedit de- 
cem libras Baliardorum ad emendos reddi- 
tus.'' It is probably the same as the 
Baviardus (q.v.). 

Balssonaya. See Bossonaya. 

Bamboo Money. An elongated, nar- 
row, tablet-like shaped money supposed to 

] 



Banco 



Barbarian Coins 




have been derived from ancient metal 
checks said to have been current in the city 
of Tsi-an fu, the capital of Shantung, as 
far back as A.D. 1275, but as time went 
on, its circulation was not limited to this 
locality. They are now found in nearly 
all parts of China, although they appear 
to be most popular in the Yang-tse regions. 
This subsidiary money was issued by small 
banks, exchange houses, contractors of la- 
bor, etc., to serve as a medium of small 
exchange according to the values indicated 
on them. Besides the value, the names of 
the issuers, as well as the address of their 
business place, is found on a great many 
of them. 

Their field of circulation was, as a rule, 
purely local, although no few extended 
over the limits to which they were first 
intended. Some, on the other hand, served 
as checks, to be redeemed for cash on pre- 
sentation. Others were intended to be 
used as tallies for calculating the amount 
of a journey, a day's work, or some other 
such purpose. The values inscribed on 
them are stated, in the majority of cases, 
in cash, and range from 1 Kwan (1000- 
cash) down to 1 cash denomination. Their 
sizes also vary, from six inches down to a 
little over one inch. The inscription is 
usually in relief, burnt with a stamping 
iron, and countermarks are sometimes 
added afterwards to prevent fraud. See 
Wooden Money. 

Banco. The system of banco currency 
was instituted in the sixteenth century in 
Italy, when the banks sought relief from 
failur©^ by application to the government 
.^ior authority to reduce the weight of the 
Ducat, Zecchino, etc. The practice of a 
government to profit by the variation of 
weight and fineness of metal is of frequent 
occurrence. 

The Mark Banco was a money of ac- 
count introduced by the Bank of Ham- 
burg which insisted on payments by its 
depositors of bars of fine silver, but liquid- 
ated its transactions with so-called Banco 
Thaler, i.e., with silver coins containing 
more or less alloy. 

Frederick the Great issued a silver 
Banco Thaler in 1765 upon the institution 
of the Royal Bank. At the present day 
the terms Banco Thaler, Banco Daler, etc., 



are usually applied to paper money issued 
by a national government. 

The Skilling Banco was a copper coin 
introduced in Sweden in 1819 for Avesta 
and in 1832 for Stockholm. It was last 
struck in 1855. 

Banderuola. Another name for the Du- 
catone struck by Odoardo Farnese (1622- 
1646) at Piacenza. It has on one side the 
figure of St. Anthony holding a banner. 

Bankje. A Dutch term popularly used 
for paper money in general. 

Bank Note. A term used to describe a 
promissory note issued by a bank, and 
made payable in coin to the bearer on de- 
mand. It is a circulating medium author- 
ized by law. 

Formerly bank notes, or bank bills, as 
they were sometimes called, were made 
payable to a particular individual and the 
date was limited. 

Bank of England Dollar. See Dollar. 

Bank of Ireland Dollar. See Dollar. 

Bankportugaloser. See Portugaloser. 

Banktchelling, also known as Escalin au 
Lion. A silver coin of West Friesland is- 
sued in 1676 and later. It bears the in- 
scription VI STVIVERS BANKGELT. 

Banngeld. The popular name for fines 
paid to the local exchequer or court during 
the Middle Ages in many parts of Ger- 
many. 

Ban Sen. The Japanese for numbered 
sen. The pieces have numbers on the back 
and are found in the Eiraku, Genwa and 
Kwanei series. 

Banu. A copper coin of Boumania 
adopted in 1867 when this country based 
its monetary system on the Latin Union. 
One hundred Bani are equal to one Leu, 
and ten Lei are equal to one Alexander. 

Baptismal Thaler. See Tauf Thaler. 

Baquette. The name given to a Liard 
struck by Louis XIII for Beam in 1642 
and later. It is a small copper coin on 
the obverse side of which the field is di- 
vided into four compartments with crowned 
Ls and cows in the opposite corners. See 
Vacquette. 

Barbarian Coins. A general designa- 
tion for pieces struck from circa B.C. 400 
to A.D. 300 in imitation of Greek and Ro- 



[18] 



Barbarin 



Bar Money 



man types. To this class may be assigned 
the imitations of Athenian coins towards 
the end of the fifth century B.C. ; the imi- 
tations of the coins of Philip II, of Mace- 
donia, the Gaulish coinage, the imitations 
of the latter for Britain, and finally imita- 
tions of Roman Imperial issues. See Hill 
(pp. 9-10). 

Barbarin. A base silver coin of the 
Abbey of Saint Martial in Bretagne, is- 
sued at the beginning of the twelfth cen- 
tury. It obtains its name from the bearded 
face of the saint on the obverse. See Le- 
mocia. 

Barbarina. The name given to a silver 
coin of Mantua of the value of ten Soldi, 
which bears the figure of St. Barbara, the 
patron of the city. It was originally 
struck by Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga (1550- 
1587) and was copied in Guastalla. 

A variety of this coin, but smaller, was 
issued at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and was computed at one Grosso. 
It was known as the Barbarina Nuova, or 
Barbarina col Girasole, from the sun-flower 
in the design. 

Barbary Ducat. The popular name for 
the Zecchino in some of the West Indian 
Islands where it was introduced in the 
latter part of the seventeenth century. See 
Chalmers (p. 397). 

Wavell Smith, the Secretary of the Lee- 
ward Islands, in a pamphlet entitled Two 
Letters to Mr. Wood, 1740, states that 
these coins were **clipt of five grains of 
their weight'' and adds the following note: 

**When I first discovered the introduc- 
tion of these Barbary ducats in my office 
at St. Kitt's, I soon put a stop to their 
currency by refusing them in my office; 
and afterwards talking with some gentle- 
men, they were desirous to give them a 
common name. Upon which I reply 'd: — 
* Christen them as sons after their fathers' 
name: so let them be called Toby's and 
Jerry's,' for they were introduced by a 
rich man at Nevis, Tobias Wall, and Jere- 
miah Brown, another very rich man at St. 
Christopher." 

Barberine. A general name for the 
piece of five Soldi struck at Avignon in 
1637 by Pope Urban VIII, whose family 
name was Barberini. 



Barbonaccio. The name given to the 
Barbone of Lucca after its value had been 
reduced from twelve to nine Soldi. 

Barbone. A silver coin of the Republic 
of Lucca issued in the second half of the 
fifteenth century and continued to the 
middle of the eighteenth. The name is 
derived from the bearded face of Christ 
on the obverse, which is usually accom- 
panied by the inscription sanctvs wltvs. 
Its value was twelve Soldi. 

Barbuda. A billon coin of Portugal is- 
sued in the reign of Fernando (1367-1383) 
and struck at Lisbon, Porto, Miranda, and 
Tuy. There is a corresponding half. On 
both types the ruler is depicted as crowned 
with a vizor over his face, and on the re- 
verse is a cross surcharged with a shield. 
The Barbuda had a value of three Din- 
heiros. 

Bar CenL The name given to a United 
States copper trial or experimental piece 
supposed to have been struck about 1776, 
according to a proposed plan for a decimal 
coinage. 

It takes its name from the thirteen lat- 
eral bars which cover one entire side of 
the coin. 

Barebeaded Noble. See Noble. 

Bargellino. This word means ''pertain- 
ing to a sheriff," and the name was be- 
stowed on a piece of six Denarii issued in 
1316 by Lando di Agubbio, the Sheriff 
(Bargello) of Florence. 

Bari-firi. The unit of weight in the 
Soudan, and corresponding* to 18 grammes. 
It is worth 14 Miscals, and each Miscal is 
divided into 27 Banans, the latter being 
a native seed. See Spink (ii. 841). 

Barile. A silver coin of Florence struck 
early in the sixteenth century and adopted 
by Alessandro Medici (1533-1536), the 
first Duke. It has a figure of St. John the 
Baptist on one side and a lily on the re- 
verse. The original value was twelve Sols 
and six Deniers. It was copied in the 
Duchy of Urbino. 

The name is said to have been bestowed 
on this coin because its value represented 

the duty or tax on a barrel of wine. 

• 

Bar Money. A name generally applied 
to bars of metal which are stamped with 



[19] 



Barrinha 



Bauri 



some value, and were formerly used as 
currency. See Bonk, and Tang. 

Cajsar, De Bello Oallico (v. 12) uses the 
phrase ''utuntur aut acre aut taleis ferreis 
ad certum pondus examinatis pro nummo, * ' 
Le,, **They (the Britons), use either cop- 
per or iron rods (that have been) weighed 
by a fixed weight, for coined money." 

Barrinha. A gold coin of bar form 
struck under Maria II of Portugal for 
Mozambique. Its value was two and one 
half Maticaesor sixty-six Cruzados. There 
was a corresponding half for one and one 
quarter Maticaes. 

Bartgroschen* See Judenkopfgroschen. 

BaseL Ilolinshed, Chronicles, 1577 (ii. 
67), states that in **the same yeare [Le., 
in 1158], also the King altered his coine, 
abrogating certeine peeces called basels." 
See Ruding (i. 170). 

Bassanajra* See Bossonaya. 

Bastardo. A tin coin introduced by 
Albuquerque, Governor General of Mal- 
acca in 1510. See Caixa. 

Bastiao. The collo(iuial name for a 
variety of the silver Xeraphin struck at 
Goa in 1659. It received this designation 
from the figure of St. Sebastian on the 
obverse. Its value was three hundred Reis 
or five Tangas. 

Bat. The Siamese name for the Tical 

(g.v.). 

Bath MetaL According to Ure, Dic- 
tionary of Chemistry, this is an alloy con- 
sisting of three or four ounces of zinc to 
one pound of copper. It is said to have 
been used in the manufacture of the Rosa 
Americana coins. 

Battezone. A broad silver Grosso of 
Florence, issued in 1503-4. It is of the 
type of the Carlino {q.v.) and the baptism 
of Christ by St. John is represented on 
the obverse. The name of the coin is from 
the Italian hattezzare, to baptize. 

Batzen, or more properly in the singu- 
lar, Batz or Batze, was the name origin- 
ally given to a silver coin of the size of 
the Groschen, which was introduced in 
Borne, early in the sixteenth century, when 
the Plappart was abolished. It was copied 
in the other Swiss cantons, as well as in 
Bavaria, Isny, Strasburg, Nordlingen, 



Augsburg, etc. According to the best au- 
thorities the name seems to be derived 
from the figure of the bear, the armorial 
device of the canton of Berne. The old 
German name for this animal was Betz, 
later Batz. The etymology from the Ital- 
ian pezza, a piece, is erroneous, as these 
coins never originated in Italy, but were 
copied in that country. See Rollbatzen. 

The original value of the Batzen was 
four Kreuzer, therefore 18 Batzen made 
the Thaler of 72 Kreuzer. It appears to 
have retained this ratio for a long time, 
because in Adam Berg's Miinzbuch, pub- 
lished in 1597, as low as 17 Batzen are 
given as the equivalent of a Thaler. 

In the modern Swiss coinage prior to 
the introduction of the Latin Union sys- 
tem, the Batzen was one tenth of the Franc, 
and equal to ten Rappen. 

Baubee. See Bawbee. 

Baudeqiiin. A French word meaning a 
tent or canopy, and sometimes applied to 
the Pavilion d'Or (g.v.). 

Bauemgrotchen, i.e., Peasant's Gros- 
chen. A name given to the silver Groschen 
of Goslar on account of their poor execu- 
tion. These coins bore the figures of Judas 
with a staff and Simon holding a saw, iand 
they were supposed to bear a resemblance 
to two peasants. The Bauerngroschen 
were originally struck about the middle of 
the fifteenth century, and were of the value 
of twelve Pfennig. 

Bauem Thaler. The common designa- 
tion for a small brass token bearing the 
inscription wer mich last stehen dem 
wmos VBEL GEHEN, and on the reverse, 

BEHALT MIR NICH DAS RATE ICH DICH. 

The object of these pieces was the fol- 
lowing: whenever it was necessary to con- 
voke an important convention of peasants 
living at some distance apart, the head of 
the community despatched a message to 
the nearest farmer with this token and a 
summons. The latter in his turn was ex- 
pected to notify his nearest neighbor, and 
each recipient pursued the same course 
until all had been informed. 

These tokens were common in Westpha- 
lia during the eighteenth century. 

Bauri. Another name for the Burrie 

(q.v.). 



[20] 



I 



Baviardus 



Beichtthaler 



Baviardut, or Bauviardut. A coin of 
the thirteenth century cited by Du Cange. 
It is a term relating to pa^Tnents probably 
made in Berri in 1203 and 1227, and may 
be the same as the Baliardus {q.v,). 

Bawbee. A Scotch billon coin first 
struck in the reign of James V and dis- 
continued under William III. 

The early varieties, issued at the Edin- 
burgh or Stirling mints, were of the value 
of one and one half pence, but in the 
reign of Charles II the value was raised 
to sixpence. 

The name by some is derived from bos 
piece or has billon; others think it takes 
its name from Alexander Orrok, Lord of 
Sillebawbye, who is said to have been the 
first to strike these coins. 

Marston in The Malcontent, 1604 (In; 
duction), speaks of a wager **that was not 
worth five bau-bees," and the coin is also 
mentioned by Beaumont and Fletcher, in 
Wit at Severall Weapons, 1647 (v. 2). 

Bay Shillings. See Pine Tree Coins. 

Bazamcco. A coin struck by the Portu- 
guese in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, and current in their possessions 
at Chaul, Goa, Bassein, Diu, and in the 
vicinity of Bombay. Specimens occur in 
copper, lead, and billon. 

In the early Goa coinage of about 1510, 
the Bazarucco, also called Leal, was equal 
to two Reis. Later it became the fifteenth 
part of a Vintem ; but the value fluctuated. 
Multiples exist as high as twenty. 

The coin bears on one side the armorial 
shield of Portugal, which is sometimes 
found with the letters D and B to the left 
and right, to indicate the mints at Diu 
and Bassein. The reverse designs vary; 
some specimens have a St. Andrew's cross 
with a central horizontal bar, others a 
sphere, and others again a cross with the 
four figures of the date in the angles. See 
Boda. 

Jacob Canter Visscher, in his Letters 
from Malabar, Madras, 1862 (p. 82), de- 
scribes a base coin struck at Cochin which 
he calls Boeserokken, consisting of an alloy 
of lead and tin, with the arms of the Dutch 
East India Company on one side. Sixty 
of them are equal to a Cochin Fanam. 

The name of this coin is frequently cor- 
rupted to Buzerook, and the nickname 



Tinney is also given to it, in allusion to 
its composition. 

Beads used as money. See Borjookes, 
and Kharf. 



An English slang term for a 
Sovereign or Guinea, and for money when 
u.sed in the plural. 

William Harrison Ainsworth, in his 
novel, Rookwood, 1834 (iii. 9) has the fol- 
lowing passage : * * Zoroaster took long odds 
that the match was off; offering 9, bean to 
half a quid (in other words, a guinea to 
a half guinea), that Sybil would be the 
bride.'' 

Bean Money. See Cho Gin. 

Beard Money. See Borodovaya. 

Beato Amedeo, i.e.. Blessed Amedeus. 
A name given to a silver coin of the value 
of nine Fiorini struck at the mints of 
Turin and Vercelli in 1616 by Duke 
Charles Emanuel I. It bears a bust of the 
Duke in armor and a figure of St. Ame- 
deus. 

Beato Luigi. A silver coin of Mantua 
issued by Vincenzo II. Gonzaga (1626- 
1627) in honor of Luigi Gonzaga. Its 
value was half a Scudo. 

Beaver Skins. See Hudson Bay Tokens. 

Bees. See Bezzo. 

Bedidlik. A gold coin of the modern 
Egyptian series of the value of one hun- 
dred Piastres. It was introduced A.H. 
1255 or A.D. 1839. 

Begkina. Du Cange cites this as being 
a small coin mentioned in the Pacto Ton- 
grejisi of 1403. 

Begrabniss Thaler. See Mortuary 
Pieces. 

Beguinette. A name given to a variety 
of the Maille Blanche (g.v.) struck by 
Guillaume de Nancy, a moneyer of Robert, 
Count of Bar, from 1370-1374. See Blan- 
che t (i. 475). 

Behram. See Bahram. 

Beichlingscher Thaler. A Thaler of Po- 
land, issued under August II in 1702. The 
obverse bears the cross of the Danebrog 
surrounded by four crowned monograms. 

Beichtthaler, meaning * * Confession Tha- 
ler," was the name bestowed on a medallic 
Thaler issued by Johann Georg II of Sax- 

[21] 



Bekah 



Bertha Thaler 



apy in 1663. The obverse represents the 
Elector standing at a table, and the coin 
received its name from the fact that he is 
supposed to have handed one of these pieces 
to the church every time that he went to 
confession. 

Bekah. An early Jewish weight stand- 
ard ; it was equal to one half of the Shekel. 
See Exodus (xxxviii. 26). 

Bell Dollar. See Glockenthaler. 

Bell Money. The name given to a vari- 
ety of early Chinese metallic currency on 
account of its resemblance to a bell. These 
coins average from 50 to 100 millimetres 
in height. They are described in detail, 
by Ramsden (pp. 13-15). 

Bender. A slang name for the English 
sixpence ; it probably owes its origin to the 
fact that it is easily bent. Dickens in 
Sketches by Box says * * Niver mind the loss 
of two bob and a bender ; ' ' and Thackeray 
in The Newcomes (xi) has **By cock and 
pye it is not worth a bender.'' 

Benduqi. A gold coin of Morocco which 
appears to have been originally issued in 
the reign of Muley Soleiman (A.H. 1207- 
1238). 

Benedikttpfennige, or Benediktuspfen- 

nige. A series of religious medalets the 
origin of which can probably be traced to 
masses said in cloisters. See Kohler, Miinz- 
helv^tigungen (vi. 105). 

Bener Dener. This term occurs in the 
laws of William I as given by Ingulphus, 
and according to Turner, History of the 
Anglo Saxons (ii. 135), it signifies ** better 
pennies." Ruding (i. 110) observes that 
the word bener is omitted in all the later 
editions of these laws, and adds that ** pos- 
sibly the word may be nothing more than 
the following one, dener, mis-spelled." 

Benggolo. A leaden coin of Celebes, 
supposed to have been issued by the ruler 
Abdoullah de Tallo. See Millies (p. 178), 
Fonrobert (No. 904). 

Ber. The Amharic word for the Abys- 
sinian Talari (g.v.), of Menelik. The word 
primarily means silver, and thence silver 
money. The value expressed on the Talari 
is Amd Ber, i,e,, one Ber. The half has 



Yaber Agod, i,e,, half Ber; the quarter 
Yaber Roob or Rub, i.e., quarter Ber ; and 
the eighth Yaber Tenan, Temun, or Tou- 
mon. 

BerenidL See Ptolomaici. 

Bergsegensthaler. See Ausbeutemiinzen. 

Berling. A small base silver coin of 
Goslar of the value of one quarter Pfennig 
or one half Arenkopf (g.v.). 

Berlinga. A silver coin of Filippo Maria 
Visconti, Duke of Milan (1412-1447). The 
obverse bears an equestrian figure of the 
Duke and the reverse has St. Ambrosius 
on a throne. It is a variety of the Grosso. 

Bemardin. A name given to the Denier 
issued at the mint of Anduse during the 
thirteenth century. These coins are char- 
acterized by a large letter B on the ob- 
verse which is supposed to stand for Ber- 
nard, a local ruler, although this name was 
borne by the Seigneurs of Anduse from 
1024 until 1243. See Blanchet (i. 19). 

Bemer or Pemer, were diminutive base 
silver coins current in Tyrol from the 
thirteenth to the sixteenth century. They 
were copied from the Deniers of Verona, 
called in German, Bern, which must not 
be confused with the Swiss town Berne 
or Bern. Four Berner were equal to 
one Vierer, and twenty Berner were equal 
to one Kreuzer, or Zwainziger. See Frey 
(No. 72). 

Bemhardtgrotcken. A silver coin of 
Hildesheim which appeared in 1490 and 
which has on the reverse a half length 
figure of St. Bernard with a cross and 
mitre and the inscription sac berwardv p. 
See Frey (No. 345). 

The concluding letter of the inscription 
is taken to be the abbreviation of Patronus. 
Cappe, in his introduction shows that the 
choice of this saint was an error, and that 
the blunder occurred in the year 1298, 
when a new seal was ordered for the city. 
The patron saint of the city is Godehard, 
and he appears with his bishop's title S\ 
God: Episc. in the earliest seal and arch- 
ives. He further states that the last ap- 
pearance of St. Bernard on the Hildesheim 

coins occurs in the year 1552. 

• 

Bertha Thaler. A broad medallic Thaler 
of the Canton of Solothurn which shows 



[22] 



Bes 



Bianchetto 



on the obverse St. Ursus, the martyr, re- 
ceiving a model of the cathedral from the 
kneeling queen Bertha of Burgundy. The 
date, A.D. 932, when this is supposed to 
have happened, is added. 

Bes, or Bessis. The two-thirds of the 
As of a weight of eight ounces. See Aes 
Grave. 



I. A copper coin issued for Italian 
Somaliland; it represents the value of the 
one hundredth part of a silver Rupee, and 
there are multiples of two Bese and four 
Bese. 

These pieces were first struck at Rome, 
from Giorgi's models, and they were au- 
thorized by a royal decree of January 28, 
1909. 

In the Abyssinian coinage the one fifth 
of the Gersh, or one hundredth part of 
the Talari, is a copper coin called Besa. 

Besante. A Venetian copper coin struck 
by the Doges Girolamo Priuli (1559-1567) 
and Pietro Loredano (1567-1570), for Ni- 
cosia, in Cyprus. See Solidus. 

Besh. A copper coin of modern Turkey 
of the value of eight Paras or one fifth of 
the Piastre. 

Beshlik. Originally this was a silver 
coin of the Ottoman Empire of the value 
of five Paras, and weighing from 20 to 40 
grains. 

In the modern silver currency of Turkey 
the Beshlik represents four and three quar- 
ter Piastres, and in the series of Metalliks, 
two and one half Piastres. 

The Beshlik of Egypt was originally a 
copper coin of the value of five Aspers or 
Medins; under Mahmud II (A.II. 1223- 
1255) it was made of billon. The issues 
for Tunis and Tripoli are billon and worth 
five Paras. 

Besorg. Mandelslo in his Voyage and 
Travels to the East Indies, 1669 (p. 8), 
under date of 1638 states that at Gombroon 
the native currency is a copper coin called 
the Besorg, ** whereof six make a Peys, and 
ten Peys make a Sh&hi, which is worth 
about fivepence English.'* This is prob- 
ably the same as the Bazarucco (g.v.). 

Betpfennige. See Weihemiinzen. 

Betd^rthaleTy or Martmsthaler. A gen- 
eral name used to describe such coins as 
bear a figure of St. Martin and the beggar. 

[ 23 



They occur in the series of Mainz, Erfurt, 
Magdeburg, Schwarzburg, etc., and in the 
coinage of Lucca where they receive the 
name of San Martino {q.v.), 

Beutelt meaning a purse, was a former 
Turkish money of account. The Keser, or 
Beutel of silver, was computed at 500 
Ghrush or Piastres. The Kitze or Chise, 
i.e,, .the Beutel of gold, was valued at 30,000 
Piastres. 

The corresponding French equivalents 
are Bourse d 'argent and Bourse d'or. 

In Egypt the Beutel was equal to 25,000 
Medini, or 75,000 Aspers. 

Beutgroschen, meaning Groschen made 
of booty, was a name given to certain vari- 
eties of silver coins struck in 1542 by the 
Elector Johann Frederick of Sachsen and 
the Landgrave Philip of Hessen. They 
were minted from captured silverware and 
bore the portraits of the two rulers with 
the inscription bevt. g. v. wolfbvt. 

Bezant. See Solidus. 

Bezemstuiver. The name given to a 
small silver coin issued in Friesland, Over- 
ysel, Utrecht, etc., from about 1620 to 
1770. It had on the obverse a figure re- 
sembling the fasces, to indicate the union 
of the Provinces, and hence the French 
equivalent, Sou au Faisceau. 



>. A small Venetian silver coin in- 
troduced about the period of the Doge 
Andrea Gritti (1523-1538), and continued 
until the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The type usually represents a flori- 
ated cross on one side and the lion of St. 
Mark on the other. 

The name is supposed to be derived from 
the Illyrian word hecs, meaning a small 
piece of money. 

Bezzone. A copper coin of the value 
of six Bagattini struck in Venice by the 
Doge Marino Grimani in 1604. 

Bia. A former money of account in 
Siam, based on the cowrie shells of which 
it was equal to 200. The copper Pai (q.v.) 
was computed at 200 Bia. 

Bianchetto. A billon coin of Casale in 
the Marquisate of Monteferrato, of the 
value of one twelfth of a Grosso. It was 
introduced by Teodoro II, Palaeologo 
(1381-1418), and continued in use for 

] 



Bianco 

about a century. See Maglia. The type 
was imitated at many mints in Savoy and 
Piedmont. 

Bianco. An Italian coin of base silver 
corresponding to the German Albus and 
the French Blanc. It appeared probably 
before the fifteenth century and was issued 
at Bologna, Venice, the Duchy of Mantua, 
etc. For an extended account see Papod- 
opoli, Del Piccolo e del Bianco, 1887. 

Biancone. A base silver coin originally 
issued at Monteferrato in 1528 of the value 
of ten Soldi. It was copied in Modena, 
Bologna, and Reggio, and in 1558 it was 
computed at 13^ Baiocchi in Perugia. 

Biche. A copper coin struck by the 
French at Pondichery for Mahe on the 
Malabar Coast. It corresponds to the Pice 
and is the fifteenth part of a Fanam (g.v.). 
There are divisions of halves and quarters. 
See Zay (p. 289). 

Bigati. A name given to certain issues 
of the Roman Denarius on account of the 
figures of Diana, Victory, etc., in a biga 
{i.e., a two-horse chariot) which appear 
on the reverse. They are referred to by 
Pliny, Historia Nat. (Ixxxiii. c. 12). See 
Quadrigati. 

Biglione. The Italian. name^<t* Billon 
(q.v.). 

Bilibres Formae were extraordinarily 
large gold medallions of two pounds 
weight, said by Lampridius (Sev. Alex., 
39) to have been struck by Elagabakis. 
Another name for these medallions is For- 
mae Centenariae, as two pounds exactly 
equal one hundred Aurei. No specimens 
have survived. 

Bi-Iingual Coins are common to all peri- 
ods. When Rome controlled portions of 
Asia Minor the pro-consuls issued coins 
with both Latin and Greek inscriptions. 
In the Bactrian and Indo-Scythian series 
occur Greek and native Indian characters; 
on the Sicilian coins of the Middle Ages 
are. Latin and Arabic legends, etc. 

In a number of modern coinages it is 
now common to find inscriptions in more 
than one language; these are coins for 
over-sea Colonial possessions, e.g., China, 
India, etc. The coinage of the Manchu 
dynasty of China is bi-lingual. 



Bitsolo 

Bille. A slang French term for copper 
coins in general ; it is probably from Billon 
iq.v.). 

Billon* A base metal usually obtained 
by mixing silver and copper. 

The designation is now generally applied 
to any coin ostensibly called silver, but 
containing in reality more than fifty per 
cent of copper. If the proportion of cop- 
per is more than seventy-five per cent, the 
composition is called black billon, argen- 
tum nigrum, or moneta argentosa. Lastly, 
if the coin is of copper, and is only thinly 
washed with silver, as in the case of some 
of the Scheidemiinzeti {q.v.) it is called 
Weisskupfer, i.e., white copper. See Potin. 
The Encyclopaedia Britannica in an early 
edition of 1797 states that gold under 
twelve carats fine is called billon of gold. 

Ruding (i. 210) mentions the TuroncTises 
nigri, that is, the black money of Tours, 
which was brought to England in the four- 
teenth century and prohibited. 

Billon Groat See Blanc. 

Binauriae Formae were gold medallions, 
equal in weight to two Aurei, said by Lam- 
pridius (Sev. Alex., 39) to have been is- 
sued by Elagabalus. None have come 
down to us. 

Biniones, or medallions of the weight of 
two Aurei, struck by Gallienus. 

BinsaL A gold coin of Akbar, Emperor 
of Hindustan, equal to one fifth of the 
Sihansah {q.v.). 

Bir-ghmsh. See Piastre. 

Birthday Thaler. See Geburtstagstha- 
ler. 

Bishop's Money. See Salding. 

Bissolo. A base silver coin of the Duchy 
of Milan issued by Giovanni Maria Vis- 
conti (1402-1412), and retained in the 
coinage of Estore and Giancarlo Visconti. 
It had a value of one eighteenth of the 
Soldo. 

The obverse of this piece usually bears 
a floriated cross or a bust of St. Ambrosius ; 
the reverse has a crowned serpent or viper 
{hiscia), the arms of the Visconti family, 
from which design the coin obtains its 
name. 



[24] 



Bissona 



Black Farthing 



Bissona. A silver coin struck by Louis 
XII of France for Milan (1500-1512), with 
a value of three Soldi. It has on the ob- 
verse the arms of France between two 
crowned vipers or serpents. See Bissolo. 

BistL A Persian copper coin of the Sufi 
or Safi Dynastv which appeared about the 
reign of Shah "^ Abbas I (A.II. 996-1038= 
1587-1629). It bore a proportion of two 
and one-half to the Shahi, or five Bisti 
equal to two Shahi, and was also equal 
to four Eashbegis. 

In the Georgian series this coin can be 
traced to the reign of Queen Rusudan 
(A.D. 1227-1247), and there is a corre- 
sponding half, called Nim-Bisti. See Lang- 
lois and Fonrobert (4249 et seq.). 

EiL The central portion of the Spanish 
Peso or Colonato, which was cut out and 
counterstamped for use in British Guiana 
and a number of the West Indian islands. 

The word is also sometimes written 
Bitt, and is generally used as an equiva- 
lent for the Spanish silver Real. The 
value of the Bit itself was generally un- 
altered, but their number as an equivalent 
for the Spanish Dollar was increased or 
lowered. For details as to these fluctua- 
tions, see Caldecott in British Numismatic 
Journal (i. 294), and Wood in American 
Journal of Numismatics (xlviii. 89). 

The name was used in an abbreviated 
form on a brass token issued by Herman 
Gossling in 1771, for the island of ' St. 
Eustatius. There are two varieties, marked 
1 Bt. and y2 Bt. 

The Bit, when used in computation in 
the Danish West Indies, is reckoned at the 
one-fifth of the copper cent of that country. 

The last coinage of the islands before 
their purchase by the United States had 
their values expressed thus : 50 bit - 10 
CENTS on the dime-size silver, 25 bit on 
the nickel, and 10, 5, and 2^/^ bit on the 
bronze. See Daler. 

Bit. A popular name in many of the 
western parts of the United States to in- 
dicate the value of twelve and one-half 
cents. As, however, no coin of this de- 
nomination was ever struck, the expression 
*'two bits,'* i.e., the quarter dollar, was 
much more common. 



In Cressy (Chap. 1) one of Bret Harte's 
Calif ornian tales, a boy is paid **two bits" 
for giving some lessons. 

In some parts of California the Dime or 
ten-cent piece is called a ** short bit." 

Bit and Bung are slang terms used by 
thieves in referring respectively to money 
and a purse. The old English dramatists, 
Thomas Dekker and Robert Greene, refer 
to these terms. Dekker in his Jests to 
make Merie, 1607 (repr. Grosart, ii. 328), 
says, *'If they . . . once knew where the 
bung and the bit is . . . your purse and 
the money;" and in the same writer's 
Belman of London, 1608 (repr. iii. 122), 
we find a passage, **To learne . . . what 
store of Bit he hath in his bag." Greene 
in A Defense of Conny -catching, 1592 
(Works, xi. 44) states, **Some . . . would 
venter all the byte in their boung at dice." 

Bita Sen* The Japanese name for bad 
or counterfeit coins. See Shima Sen. 

Bitt See Bit. 

Bizante. See Solidus. 

BizadchinL Promis (ii. 180) quotes a 
document of the district of Cortona, dated 
August 17, 1727, in which are mentioned 
coins called Bizzichini, which are valued at 
a trifle over seven Soldi. 

Black Billon. See Billon. 

Black Dogs. A cant name in Queen 
Anne's time for bad shillings or other 
base silver coin. Ashton, in The Reign of 
Queen Anne (ii. 225) mentions **The Art 
of making Black Dogs, which are Shillings 
or other pieces of Money, made only of 
Pewter double Wash'd." 

See also Swift, Drapier's Letters (iii.) ; 
and Crosby (p. 203). 

Black Dogs. This name was given to 
the Cayenne Sous when introduced in the 
English islands in the West Indies. 

Black Farthing. A name given to the 
Scotch Farthing issued in the reign of 
James III (1460-1488). There appear to 
be two varieties. One has on Ohv, i. rex 
scoTORVM, with Rev. villa edinbvrg and a 
saltire cross in a circle. The other variety 
has the crowned initials I. R. on the ob- 
verse, and a crowned saltire cross on the 
reverse. 



[25] 



Black Maa 



Hanc 



Black MaiL Wharton^ Law Lexicon, 

1864y states that this is ''a certain rent of 
money, coin, or other thing, anciently paid 
to persons upon or near the borders, who 
were men of influence, and allied with cer- 
tain robbers and brigands for protection 
from the devastations of the latter; ren- 
dered illegal by 43 Eliz. c. 13. Also rent 
paid in cattle, otherwise called neat-gild." 

Black Money. A general term for coins 
ostensibly issued for silver, but which actu- 
ally contain a large proportion of base 
metal alloy, the latter soon giving them a 
dark appearance. See Billon and Korten. 

The principal coins thus debased were 
the silver pennies, and from the twelfth 
to the fourteenth centuries there is fre- 
quent mention of the Denier Noir of 
France, the Schwarze Pfennige of the Ger- 
man States, and the Swarte or Zwarte Pen- 
ninge which originated in Brabant and the 
Low Countries. They are also found in the 
coinage of Denmark, Ireland, Scotland, and 
in the Anglo-Gallic series. 

In the reign of Richard II Ruding (i. 
457) states that ** among other expedients 
to procure money, a writ was issued for 
the discovering of black money, and other 
subterraneous treasure hidden of old in 
the county of Southampton, in whosesoever 
hands it might be, and to seize it to the 
King's use. He afterwards claimed black 
money to the amount of 150 pounds of 
full weight, which had been found in that 
county, as belonging to him in right of 
his crown." 

As early as 1331 an ordinance was passed 
**that all manner of black money which 
had been commonly current in the King's 
realm, should be utterly excluded." 

Bladamith Half Crown. A name given 
to a rudely struck half-crown of Charles I, 
which was issued at Kilkenny in 1642. 
Coins to the amount of £4000 were struck 
under an ordinance of **The Confederated 
Catholics." 

Blacksmith Half Groat. A variety of 
half groat issued in the reign of Charles I, 
which received its name from the barbarous 
workmanship. Hawkins states that the 
Blacksmith Half Crowns of the same pe- 
riod, also very rude in design, **are now 
generally considered to be Irish." See 
British Numismatic Journal (xi. 317). 



Blacksmith Tokens. A series of tokens 
of 4»opper and brass issued about 1820 and 
usually classified with the Canadian 
** doubtful" series. The majority of them 
are said to have been made in Montreal by 
a blacksmith, from which fact the series 
has received its name. For a detailed ac- 
count see Wood, Canadian Blacksmith Cop- 
pers, 1910. 

Black Tang-Ka. See Tang-ka. 

Blafferty or Plappart, is a base silver 
coin of the value of three Kreuzer or six 
Happen, introduced in Switzerland in the 
fifteenth century, and a variety of St. Gal- 
len dated 1424 (Frey No. 21), is the 
earliest coin known bearing Arabic numer- 
als with a Christian era. 

The type was soon copied in (Jermany. 
The Hohlblaffert of Liibeck bears an eagle, 
that of Mecklenburg a bull's head, that of 
Liineburg a lion, etc. All of the preced- 
ing were valued at two Pfennige. In the 
Rhine Provinces the Blaftert was variously 
computed at three Stuber or four Albus. 
It was gradually abolished in the sixteenth 
century, the Batzen taking its place. 

An amusing story occurs in Cahn's Miim 
und Oeldgeschichte der im Orossherzogtum 
Baden Vereinigten Oehiete, 1911 (p. 274), 
relating to a quarrel between the munici- 
palities of Constance and Berne because a 
nobleman of the former town ridiculed 
these coins by the name of Kuhplapperte, 
i.e., **cow plapparts. 



79 



A silver coin of Munster, 
Cleve, Liege, Dortmund, etc. It is re- 
ferred to in an ordinance of Bishop Chris- 
topher Bernhard of Munster dated May 4, 
1658, as a Schilling of Brabant or Blau- 
miiser **to be current at three Schillinge 
and five Pfennige." In Li^ge it was com- 
puted at two Groschen and in Cleve at 
three Groschen. 

The name in Southern Germany was 
variously written Blomiiser and Blomeiser, 
and it is mentioned by Grimmelshausen, in 
Simplicius Simplicissimus, 1669. 

Blanc, or Blancfue, also called Gros 
Blanc, is the name of a silver coin which 
was struck in France in the fourteenth 
century, contemporaneously with the Gros 
Tournois. Originally it was of very pure 
silver from which circumstance it probably 



[26] 



Blanca 



Blanquillo 



received its name, but the later issues de- 
teriorated in fineness. It was divided into 
Deniers, the quantity of the latter, how- 
ever, varied. The general type was that 
of the Gros, the long cross being a con- 
spicuous feature, and the inscription ben- 
EDicTUM SIT NOMEN DOMINI, ctc, was re- 
tained for a long period. The later issues 
were characterized by various symbols, 
such as a sun, star, lily, etc., giving rise 
to distinctive titles, all of which will be 
found under the word Gros, infra. 

The Blanque appears in the Anglo-Gallic 
coinage issued by Henry VI of England. 
It was a billon groat, silvered over to hide 
the baseness of the metal. There existed 
large and small varieties, known respec- 
tively as the Grand Blanque or Gros 
Blanque and the Petit Blanque. 

The Blanque was struck in France as 
late as 1791, in which year the Caisse de 
Bonne Foi at Paris issued a piece of six 
Blancs in copper. 

Blanca, or. Blanco. A Spanish coin of 
inferior silver issued from the fourteenth 
to the sixteenth centuries. It receives its 
name from its white, shiny appearance, 
and corresponds to the German Albus and 
the French Blanc. • 

The Blanca Agnus Dei appeared origin- 
ally in the reign of Juan I (1379-1390), 
and obtains its designation from the Pas- 
chal Lamb on the obverse. It was struck at 
Toledo, Burgos, etc. See De La Torre (No. 
6430). 

Blanc a la Couronne. A French silver 
coin of the value of twelve Deniers Parisis 
issued by John II (1350-1364). It re- 
ceives this name from the large crown 
which is a conspicuous feature, and is also 
known as the Gros Blanque k la Couronne. 

Blanc a la Patte d'Oie. A nickname 
given to a variety of Blanc issued in 
France in 1357. It had a poorly executed 
figure of the fleurs de lis, which was sup- 
posed to bear some resemblance to the foot 
of a goose. 

Blanc a la Queue. This was struck by 
John II of France in 1355 to take the place 
of the Blanc k la Couronne (q.v.), 

Blanc a FEcu* A silver coin of Charles 
VII of France. It was of large size and 
bore a shield of fleurs de lis. 



Blanc a TEtoile. A variety of the Blane 
with a star in the centre. See Gros 
Blanque a TEtoile. 

Blanc aux Trois Fleurs. A variety of 
Denier coined in France in 1359, but only 
in use for a short period. 

Blanc de Donne. A type of silver Gros 
struck by Charles V of France. It bore a 
letter K crowned, and was intended, as its 
name implies, for presentation purposes 
on special occasions. 

Blanc Guenar. See Guenar. 

Blancha. Du Cange cites an edition of 
Giacomo d'Aragona (1213-1276) which 
mentions solidos de blancha moneta; and 
he quotes from an ordinance of 1381 the 
term * * Blanchees, " being the quantity of 
any article that could be purchased for a 
Blanco. 

Blanco. The Spanish equivalent of the 
Blanc or Blanque. The Blancos Burgales 
were pieces of two Deniers struck about 
1258 by Alfonso X of Castile and Leon, 
and ninety were equal to a gold Maravedi. 

Bland Dollar. The popular name for 
the silver dollar issued in the United States 
from 1878 to 1904 inclusive. It owes its 
origin to the Bland-Allison Act of Feb- 
ruary 28, 1878, which provided for a mini- 
mum monthly silver coinage of two mil- 
lion dollars, and established this coin of 
412^ grains troy as legal tender. 

The Act takes its name from Congress- 
man Richard Bland of Missouri, and Sen- 
ator William B. Allison of Iowa. 

Blank. A coin of the Netherlands, of 
inferior silver, issued during the sixteenth 
century. It was originally of the value of 
half a Stuiver, but its value fluctuated 
greatly. The name was probably derived 
from its white, shiny appearance when 
newly struck. 

Blank. See Planchet. 

BlankeeL See Blanquillo. 

Blanque. See Blanc. 

Blanquillo, or Muzuna, sometimes in- 
correctly referred to as Blankeel. A for- 
mer base silver coin of Morocco, the name 
of which is a diminutive of blanca, given 
to it on account of its white, shiny appear- 
ance. It was divided into twenty-four 
Falus. The issue terminated in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. See Mu- 



zuna. 



[27] 



Blaumiiser 



Bolette 



Blaumiiser. See Blamiiser. 

Blech, meaning *'tin/' is a German 
slang term for money in general. 

Blechmimzen, i.e., tin coins, is a com- 
mon German name for the Bracteates 
iq.v.). 

Blesensisy or Blesianis. A general name 
for the Deniers struck by the Counts of 
Blois, beginning with those of Thibaud IV, 
called the Impostor (922-978). They gen- 
erally bear the head of a wolf, which in 
Celtic is called hlez. 

Blob. A popular name for the copper 
coin of five cents struck for Ceylon in 1909 
and 1910. See Spink (xviii. 12602). 

Blomiiser. See Blamiiser. 

Bluebacks. A nickname for certain is- 
sues of the paper money of the Confeder- 
ate States, in contradistinction to the 
Greenbacks of the North. 

Blue William. Another nickname for 
the preceding and used in various parts 
of the Southern States of the United States 
at the time. The name is a play upon the 
words bill and Bill, the latter being a 
familiar term for the name William. 

Blunt. An English slang term for money 
available at once. It was in use at the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century. Dick- 
ens, in Oliver Twist, says, ''I must have 
some blunt from you to-night.'' 

Blutpfemiig. The popular name for a 
new or red Pfennig in allusion to its ruddy 
color. 

Berthold Auerbach, in his Dichtungen 
(i. 14) has the line: 

"Ich habe keinen Blutpfennig." 

Bluzger, or Blutzger. A base silver coin 
issued in the Bishopric of Chur in the Can- 
ton of Graubiinden from the middle of the 
sixteenth to the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and also at Haldenstein during the 
same period. The early types have a fig- 
ure of the cross and Madonna, and the 
later issues have armorial bearings. 

Constantin von Buttlar, Abbot of Fulda 
(1714-1726) copied them. 

They are computed at seventy to the 
Gulden. 

Blyen. See Bolette. 

Bo. A square coin of An nam usually 
assigned to circa B.C. 475-221. See Schroe- 



der (p. 46), and Lacroix, Numismatique 
Annnmite, 1900 (p. 52). 

Boars' Feet. See Hams. 

Bob. The common nickname for an 
English Shilling. J. H. Vaux, in his Flash 
Dictionarji, 1812, has *'Bob or Bobstick, 
a Shilling,'' and Dickens uses the term in 
the Pick wick Papers, 

In the Athenwuni, 1864 (558), is a state- 
ment to the effect that the nickname is sup- 
posed to have originated in Sir Robert 
Walpole's time. See Magpie. 

Bocksthaler. The name given to a var- 
iety of silver coins struck in the bishopric 
of Chur, which have as a device a stand- 
ing ram (Bock), the armorial shield of this 
district. 

The name, Bockspfennige, or Bockler, is 
similarly applied to coins of Schaffhausen, 
which have a running ram as a design. 

Boddiferus. Du Cange gives citations 
showing that this name was given to some 
early base silver coins of Liege, of which 
36 were equal to a Florin. 

Bodle. A Scotch copper coin, some- 
times known as the half-plack or two pence 
Scotch. It appeared in the latter part of 
the sixteenth century, and was last coined 
in 1697. 

The name is said to be a corruption of 
Bothwell, a mintmaster, but no documen- 
tary evidence to this effect is cited. 

Its value in England was considerably 
lower, as is indicated by R. Holme, in his 
Armoury, 1688 (iii. 2), who says, **A 
Bodle, three of them make a half -penny 
English.'' 

Bockler. See Bocksthaler. 

Bohmen. The name given to the popu- 
lar Groschen of Prague by the natives of 
Silesia. It is probably due to the figure 
of the lion of Bohemia and the inscription, 
df:i gratia rex boemie, found on these 
coins. 



[28 



See Trade Dollar. 
Boeotian League. See League Coinage. 
Boeserokken. See Bazarucco. 

Bolette. A leaden token issued at Frank- 
fort a. M. as early as 1497 and in use until 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

Joseph and Fellner, in their work on the 
coinage of that city (1896, pp. 39-40), state 
that the Boleton, or Blyen (i.e., Blei-lead) 
were of two sizes: the larger were re- 

] 



Bolivar 



Borbi 



deemed for twelve Heller and the smaller 
for six Heller. 

Bolivar. A silver coin of Venezuela, of 
the same value as the Franc, and named 
after Simon Bolivar, the liberator. It is 
divided into one hundred Centimos, or Cen- 
tavos. For the different systems of mone- 
tary standards in use in Venezuela, see the 
A)inual Report of the Director of the U. S. 
Mint, 1912, and for the Peso system, still 
in use to some extent, see Peso. The Boli- 
var is sometimes called Venezolano. 

Boliviano. The unit of the silver stan- 
dard of Bolivia, and divided into one hun- 
dred Centavos. 

The former gold Boliviano, of the same 
country, introduced in 1868, was equal to 
half an Escudo. 

Bolognino. Originally a silver coin of 
Bologna issued during the Republican pe- 
riod (1191-1337), and of the value of half 
a Grosso. It also occurs in the coinage of 
Modena as a Republic (1226-1293); was 
copied for Aquila, under Ludovico II 
(1382-1384), and is found as a )?illon coin 
in Ferrara in the thirteenth century. Tlie 
half of the same coin was known as the 
Ferrarino. 

In the sixteenth century, when Bologna 
was under Papal rule, a Bolognino was 
struck in copper. Copper Bologuini were 
also issued for Modena under Rinaldo 
(1694-1737), and for Lucca early in the 
eighteenth century. 

Bone. A slang term, which appears to 
be confined to the United States, and which 
was originally applied to a silver dollar, 
but was afterwards used for a dollar 
whether of paper or metal. The name 
probably originated from the bone or ivory 
counters or chips used in the game of 
poker. 

Bon Grot. The French equivalent for 
Gute Groschen (q.v.). 

Bonk. A name given to the rectangular 
copper coins struck in Java from 1796 to 
1818. See Netscher and van dor Chijs 
(passim), where Bonks, varying from one 
half Stuiver to eight Stuivers, are de- 
scribed. 

A similar coin, known as the Tang (q.v.), 
was issned bv the Dutch East India Com- 
pany for Ceylon. 

[20] 



Bonn. Dinneen, Irish-English Diction- 
ary, 1904, has : * * Bonn, a piece of money, a 
groat, a medal ; bonn airgid, a silver medal ; 
bonn or, a gold medal ; bonn buidhe, a yel- 
low medal ; bonn ruadh, a copper or brass 
medal; bonn ban, a shilling." 

O'Reilly, Irish-English Dictionary, has 
Bonn sian, a half-penny. 

There is a Gaelic proverb, **Is fearr 
caraid sa cuairt, na bonn sa sparan," i.e., 
* ' A friend at court is better than a groat in 
the purse." 

Bonnet Piece. A gold coin of James V 
of Scotland, issued only in 1539 and 1540, 
and remarkable as being the earliest dated 
Scottish coin. 

It is so called from the king's head being 
decorated with a bonnet, or square cap, in- 
stead of a crown. 

Its weight is 881/^ grains, and there are 
one third and two third pieces of similar 
type. 

This coin is sometimes referred to as a 
Ducat, but this designation belongs more 
properly to the gold coin struck by Mary 
Stuart in 1558. 

Bonnet Tjrpe. A designation employed 
to classify English silver coins. Thus on 
some of the pennies of William I the term 
is used where the full-face bust, and large 
crowTi with long pendent lappets occur. 

Bononenus. The name given to the 
mezzo Grosso struck at Bologna by Pope 
Eugenius IV from 1431 to 1438. It has on 
the reverse the figure of St. Petronius seat- 
ed, holding in his hand the cathedral of the 
city. The inscription reads s. petroniv. de 

BONONIA. 

Booby Head. The popular name for 
one of the varieties of the cents of the 
United States issued in 1839. It has a 
large, stupid-looking head of Liberty ,on 
the obverse. 

Borage Groat. Jamieson, Etymological 
Dictionary of the Scottish Language, states 
that this was a four-penny piece formerly 
current in Scotland, and that it may have 
received this name from the use of borax 
as an alloy in its composition. 

BorbL Kelly (p. 4) states that this was 
an Egyptian copper coin at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, and that 320 of 
them were equal to the Piastre. Cmif. 
Bourbe. 



Bord 

Bord. A, slang name for a Shilling. See 
Hog. 

BordabL An Italian term applied to 
coins that are not perfectly round. 

Bord Halfpenny. Wharton, Law Lex- 
icon, 1864, states that this is **a customary 
small toll paid to the lord of a town for 
setting up boards, tables, booths, etc., in 
fairs or markets." 

Borgesi Neri, i.e., black Bourgeois. Ac- 
cording to Promis (ii. 12), this was a var- 
iety of base silver Denier struck in the 
borough of Bressa, and by an ordinance 
of Turin of December 15, 1335, it was 
valued at one eighth of the Grosso. 

Borjookes. The name given by the 
Abyssinians to glass beads of different col- 
ors which were formerly current as money, 
and which were computed at the rate of 
thirty to the Para. See Wakea, and Kharf. 

Borodovayat or Beard Money. Among 
Peter the Great's measures to bring Rus- 
sia up to the level of European civiliza- 
tion was his decree that beards should not 
be worn. To encourage shaving he im- 
posed a tax, varying in amount, according 
to the social standing, the mercantile 
class paying the highest tax for the privi- 
lege of retaining their beards. When the 
tax was paid a token was given as a re- 
ceipt. 

Chaudoir cites a piece in silver, dated 
1705, of the size of the twenty Kopeck sil- 
ver coin. Schubert (p. 103) states that 
the specimens in silver are modern, and 
did not exist in the time of Peter I. Of 
those in copper there were two varieties. 
One is like the silver piece and the other 
has the size and weight of a Ruble, and 
is square. They are dated 1699, 1705, and 
1725. 

Bott. The native name for the African 
cowries formerly used as a money of ac- 
count on the Gold Coast. 

Noback (p. 311), gives the following 
table of equivalents: 

25 Cowries =1 Tabo. 

40 Cowries =1 Daniba. 
1000 Cowries =1 Boss Dollar. 
1600 Cowries =1 Cabes (small). 
2000 Cowries =1 Cabes (large). 

When converted into an actual monetary 
unit 1600 Cowries are equal to one six- 
teenth of an ounce of gold dust. 

BoMonajra* A Spanish billon coin 
struck by the Counts of Barcelona during 



Boulton't Twopence 

the thirteenth century, to distinguish the 
type from the contemporary issues of the 
Kings of Aragon. See Blanchet (i. 312). 
The name is also written Bassanaya and 
Balssonaya, and Du Cange quotes docu- 
ments of 1209 and 1343, the former of 
which states that '^fuit aspera moneta de 
Bassanaya quae duravit tres annos.'' 

Boston Money. In the Colonial Rec- 
ords of Pennsylvania, 1683 (i. 85), there 
is a passage reading, ** their Abuse to ye 
Governm*, in Quining of Spanish Bitts and 
Boston money." The latter expression 
probably refers to the Pine Tree Coins 
iq.v.) 

Botdrager. The popular name for the 
double Gros which was struck in Brabant 
and Flanders early in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The name signifies **pot carrier,*' 
the allusion being to the helmet on the 
lion's head which looks like an inverted 
pot or kettle. See van der Chijs tp. 123- 
125). 

The type was copied in the various prov- 
inces of the Low Countries, and the coin 
is also referred to as the Brabandsche 
Leeuw and the Gehelmde Leeuw. See 
Heaume. 

BotinaL A silver coin of Georgia which 
appeared in the reign of Queen Rusudan 
(A.D. 1227-1247), and which received its 
name from the fact that it was a close copy 
of the coins struck by Nicephoras Boto- 
niates of the Byzantine Empire. See Lang- 
lois (p. 73) ; and Fonrobert (No. 4253). 

Boudjou. See Budschu. 

Botthamstafh. A billon coin of Tripoli, 
introduced by Nedschib Pascha in 1835. 
and of the value of fifteen Paras. 

Boulton't Twopence. A very large and 
beautiful copper coin, issued in 1797 at the 
Soho mint, Birmingham, which owes its 
existence to Matthew Boulton (6. 1728). 
Its weight was exactly two ounces, and the 
corresponding penny was one ounce; yet 
this weight rendered them unwieldy and 
they were only issued in the year above 
mentioned. See Montagu, and Spink (ix. 
4519). They were long used as weights by 
shopkeepers, and from their size obtained 
the niclmame of * * Cartwheels. ' ' 

This is the first and last twopenny piece 
that was ever coined by authority in cop- 
per. 



[30 1 



Bouquet Series 



Bracteates 



Bouquet Series. See Sou Tokens. 

Bourbe, also called Burbe. A copper 
coin of Tunis, introduced at the beginning 
of the eighteenth century, and of the value 
of one twelfth of an Asper. 

Bourbonnais. The name given to a var- 
iety of Denier and Obole struck originally 
by Louis VII of France (1137-1180), 
which have on the reverse a cross and the 
inscription, borbonensis. They should not 
be confused with the issues for Bourges by 
the same ruler, which have on the reverse, 
VRBS BiTVRiCA. See Blanchet (i. 149). 

Bourdelois. See Denier Bourdelois. 

Bourgeois. This term was applied to 
various varieties of the billon Deniers is- 
sued in France and Lorraine during the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As 
the name implies, it was used to designate 
coins of the baser sort from those of pure 
metal. 

The Bourgeois Fort, i,e., the heavy Bour- 
geois, bore the inscription, bvrgensis fob- 
Tis, and the Bourgeois Simple was in- 
scribed BVRGENSIS Nows. See Borgesi Neri. 

Bourse* See Beutel. 

Bousebbatash. A billon coin of Tripoli, 
introduced by Nedschib Pascha in 1835, 
and of the value of seven and a half Paras. 

Bout de L'ble Tokens. The name given 
to a series of twelve tokens which were 
struck at Birmingham and imported to 
Canada to be used as tickets or passes over 
three different bridges which were built to 
unite the Island of Montreal with the 
mainland. They are described in detail in 
Breton (p. 43), and see Repentigny (in- 
fra). 

Boutleteen. A billon coin of Tripoli, in- 
troduced by Nedschib Pascha in 1835, and 
of the value of thirty Paras. 

Bowed Money. A term used to indi- 
cate coins which were purposely bent and 
then given as pledges of love or friend- 
ship. Thomas Greene, in The Art of Con- 
ny 'Catching, 1592, has as follows: ** Taking 
forth a bowed groat and an old penny 
bowed he gave it [sic] her." 

A passage in the will of Sir Edward 
Howard, 1512, copied in Archaeologia 
(xxxviii. 370), reads, **I bequeathe him 
my rope of bowed nobles.*' 



Box Thaler. The same as Schraubthaler 

iq.v.). 

Brabandsche Leeuw. See Botdrager. 

Brabandsche Mijt. See Myte. 

Brabandsch Schfld. A gold coin intro- 
duced pursuant to the Ordonnantie of May 
10, 1430. It was struck by Philip I, Con- 
stable of France and Duke of Ligny and 
St. Pol. It has on the obverse the full- 
length figure of the Duke holding an ar- 
morial shield. See v,d. Chijs, De Munten 
. . . Brdband en Limburg, 1851 (p. 141) 
and conf. Schild, infra. ' 

Brabant A base silver coin which cir- 
culated in England toward the close of the 
thirteenth century. For a short time they 
were allowed to pass at the rate of two for 
a penny, but were prohibited in 1310. The 
name was probably given to them from the 
fact that they originated in Flanders, Bra- 
bant, or the Low Countries. 

Ending (i. 201) states that ''these coins 
were distinguished by the names of pol- 
lards, crocards, scaldings, brabants, eagles 
leonmes, sleepings, etc.'' Holinshed, in his 
Chronvcle, 1577- '87 (iii. 309), adds that 

all these were white monies, artificiallie 
made of siluer, copper, and sulphur." 

Brabant Thaler. A variety of the Al- 
bertusthaler (g.v.) issued for the Low 
Countries. They have the Burgundy cross, 
in the angles of which are crowns and the 
order of the Golden Fleece. 

Brabeon. A name employed in Switzer- 
land to designate a certain class of medals 
which were distributed as awards for pro- 
ficiency to scholars in colleges, schools, etc. 
The custom appears to have originated at 
Basle in the latter part of the sixteenth 
century. They are also known as Schul- 
pfennige. 

Bracata* A Polish term signifying 
money that has the stamp of the Braca- 
tori, or mint master. Du Cange (i.) cites 
an ordinance of 1467 reading minuta pe- 
cunia hracata, etc. 

Bracteates. From the Latin bractea, a 
thin piece of metal, is a name usually given 
to pieces of thin silver, impressed with 
a die, on which the device is cut in relief. 
Consequently the lines and figures de- 
pressed on the one side appear raised on 
the other, and the obverse of the coin pre- 
[31] 



Brmgone 



Brassage 



sents the same features as the surface of 
the die. 

They are supposed to have originated at 
the beginning of the twelfth century in 
Thuringia, and they were copied in other 
German provinces as well as in Switzer- 
land, Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, and 
Scandinavia. They were in use until the 
latter part of the fourteenth century, at 
which time the many types of Groschen 
gradually supplanted them. 

The majority are of silver, but gold ones 
have been found; some of them, struck in 
copper and very base silver, probably 
served the same purpose as the tokens of 
succeeding periods. 

The name, Bracteate, however, was not 
applied to these coins until the eighteenth 
century. Their contemporary designa- 
tions were Pfennige, or Denarii, and that 
they took the place of the latter pieces and 
passed as current money is attested by the 
words numus, monetae denarius, etc., which 
are occasionally found in their inscriptions. 
To these varieties the name Schrift Brac- 
teaten is usually applied. 

Bragone. The popular name in Italy 
for the Hungarian Ducat extensively 
struck during the sixteenth century. The 
word is a corruption of brache, i.e., trou- 
sers, and these coins exhibit the standing 
figure of the ruler, with large, expansive 
breeches. 

Braise, i.e., glowing coals. A slang 
French expression for money, i.e., an allu- 
sion to * * coal to keep the pot boiling. ' ' 

Branca Moeda. A term used by Portu- 
guese numismatists, and corresponding to 
the French Blanc or Blanque. 

Brandthaler. The name given to a Po- 
lish Thaler, issued at Thorn, in 1629, to 
commemorate the gallant defence of that 
city against the Swedes under General 
Wrangel. There are a number of minor 
varieties, all exhibiting a view of the city 
in flames, and the inscription fides et con- 

STANTIA PER lONEM PROBATA. 

Brasanghim. See Brassage. 

Brasher Doubloon. A gold coin, struck 
in the city of New York in 1787. It ob- 
tains its name from its originator, Ephraim 
Brasher, a goldsmith, whose place of busi- 
ness was at number one. Cherry Street. 
Brasher made application to the Legisla- 



ture of the State of New York for permis- 
sion to strike copper coins. His petition 
was not granted, and in consequence only 
the gold Doubloons are known. 

Braspenning. A base silver coin of Bra- 
bant, Friesland, and the Low Countries, in 
general use during the fifteenth century 
and later. It appears to have been orig- 
inally of the value of two Stuivers, but 
later was equal to only one Stuiver and 
eight Pfenninge. Some authorities refer 
to it as the Dubbele Jager. See Blanchet 
(i. 462). 

Brass. The terms first, second, and third 
brass (or bronze), applied to Roman coins 
according to their sizes, is convenient but 
unscientific. The first brass, or Great 
Brass, is in reality the Sestertius; the Sec- 
ond Brass, or Middle Brass, is the Dupon- 
dius and As; and the Third Brass, or 
Small Brass, is the Semis and other small 
coins. 

It should further be remembered that 
the latter class is of copper; the larger 
coins are neither brass nor bronze, but 
composed of orichalcum, a mixture of cop- 
per and zinc. 

Brass. An English colloquial term for 
a copper coin, but chiefly used for the 
plural. The expression can be traced to 
the fourteenth century. Langland, in Piers 
Ploughman, circa 1362 (iii. 189), has 
**Becre heor bras on thi Bac.** In his 
translation of the New Testament in 1526, 
Tindale renders Matthew (x. 9) thus: 
** Posses not gold, nor silver, nor brasse." 

At a later period the word was slang 
or dialect for money in general, as the 
following quotations indicate: 

"Shame that the muHPii 8houkl be bou}?bt and sold 
For every peasant'^ brass." 

— HiHhop Hall, Satires, 1597. 
"Thou damned and luxurious mountain goat, 
Offer'st me brass V" 

— Shakespeare, King Henry the Fifth (Iv. 4). 
"Who ne'er despises books that bring him brass." 

Byron, Hints from Horace (548). 

Brassage. A French term used to in- 
dicate the variation between the actual 
value of the metal, and the denomination 
stamped on the coin. This difference in 
former years constituted the payment 
which the official who struck the coins re- 
ceived. See Slegelpenninge. 

Du Cange (i.) states that as early as the 
thirteenth century the name Brasangium 
was given to the official whose duty it was 



[ 32 ] 



Bravuda 



Briquet 



to determine the above-named variations. 
See Seignorage. 

Bravuda. A monetary denomination 
mentioned in ordinances of the reign of 
Duarte I, King of Portugal (1433-1438), 
and computed at three Dinheiros. 

Bread Tokens. The name given to a 
series of tokens extensively issued in Nu- 
remberg, Paderborn, and other Grerman 
towns during the sixteenth century and 
later, which on presentation could be re- 
deemed for a loaf of bread. They are of 
various shapes and metals, and some of 
them bear the inscription prot or brod. A 
Brodmarke was struck by the Kornverein 
of Elberfeld in 1817. 

Breeches Money. A nickname given to 
the coins of the English Commonwealth 
(1648-1660) on account of the elongated 
shields on the obverse which bear a fanci- 
ful resemblance to a pair of trousers. 

Breite Groschen, also called Breitgro- 
schen, or Grossi Lati, was a name applied 
in the fourteenth century and later to cer- 
tain types of Bohemian Groschen of large 
module, to distinguish them from smaller 
pieces of the same denomination, Grossi 
Praecisi, which were struck contempora- 
neously. 

It should be remembered, however, that 
the adjective hreit is employed in a gen- 
ral way to define the broad type, as distin- 
guished from the dick, or thick specimens. 
This accounts for such names as the Breit- 
pfennig of Augsburg; the Breiter Thaler, 
etc. See Dickthaler. 

Bremsenthaler. A name given to a Tha- 
ler of Liibeck, struck in 1537, so called be- 
cause a fly (Bremse) appears in the field 
on the obverse. The ** Bremse'' was the 
coat of arms of Nicholas von Brombseu, 
the Burgomaster. 

Brenajgium. According to Wharton, 
Law Lexicon f 1864, this was **a payment 
in bran, which tenants anciently made to 
feed their lords' hounds." 

Brick Tea is a recognized unit of value 
in some parts of Burma and Tibet; the 
different qualities each bear a distinctive 
mark and pass at different prices. 

Clement Williams, in Through Burma to 
Western China, 1864 (p. 34), has a note 
which seems to refer to a currency consist- 
ing of cakes of tea. He says : * * The only 

[33 



kinds apparently known in the market at 
Bamo are the flat discs of China tea and 
the balls of Shan tea. The discs weigh 
twenty Tickals each; seven piled together 
make a packet which used to sell at one and 
one-half Tickals and two Ticks" [sic]. 

See also Terrien de la Couperie (xx) and 
the Am. Journal of Numismatics (xli. 79). 

Bridge Money. The name given to a 
variety of Chinese metallic currency on ac- 
count of their bridgelike appearance. 
Ramsden, who describes these pieces in de- 
tail (pp. 29-32), adds, '*! would suggest 
the name of Tingle Dangle as more appro- 
priate, since they will probably result to 
be miniature token representatives of the 
larger musical instruments which are still 
to be seen in certain parts of China. ' ' The 
Chinese name for Bridge Money is Kiao 
Pi, and for Tingle Dangle money is King 

Shih Pi. 

• 

Brillen Diikat. A gold coin of Denmark 
struck by Christian IV in 1647. The 
reverse exhibits a pair of spectacles 
(**Brille"), with the motto vide mdia 
DOMi. There is a corresponding half. 

BriUenthaler. The name given to a 
variety of Thalej* issued by Duke Julius of 
Brunswick-Liineburg at Goslar from 1586 
to 1589. They are of the so-called '*Wild 
Man" type, and from the arm of this fig- 
ure there hangs a skull, an hour-glass, and 
a pair of spectacles (*'Brille"). See Louis 
aux Lunettes. 

Briot's Crown. The name given to a 
variety of Crown executed about 1633 by 
Nicholas Briot, who had been appointed at 
the Tower mint by Charles I in 1628. This 
piece, though not of very spirited work- 
manship, is neat and well formed, and was 
struck by the independent apparatus which 
Briot owned. There is a half crown of the 
same type. Briot 's coins can be distin- 
guished by the initial B. 

Briciuet. A silver coin of the fifteenth 
century issued in Brabant, Burgundy, and 
the Low Countries. It has on the obverse 
the figure of a lion holding a fire-steel in 
his claw. There are corresponding doubles, 
halves, and quarters. 

The word means a steel for striking fire, 
and the chain attached to the Order of the 
Golden Fleece instituted in 1429 by Philip 
the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was decor- 

] 



Britain Crown 



Bruneti 



ated with sparkling precious stones, and 
golden fire-steels. 

The Dutch equivalent is Vuurijzer, and 
by this name these coins are known in Hol- 
land, Gueldres, etc. See Azzalino and 
Pewreysen. 

Britain Crown. An English gold coin, 
struck in the reign of James I pursuant to 
a proclamation of October 20, 1604. Its 
original value was five shillings, which was 
raised to five shillings and sixpence in 
1611. The union of the kingdoms is re- 
ferred to in the legend Henricus rosas reg- 
na Jacobus, i.e., ** Henry unites the roses, 
James unites the Kingdoms." This coin 
was discontinued in 1661- '62. See Crown. 

Britannia Groat. A name given to the 
English silver fourpence which was re- 
vived for general circulation in 1836 and 
discontinued in 1856. The following cu- 
rious note concerning these coins appears 
in Hawkins: 

** These pieces are said to have owed 
their existence to the pressing instance of 
Mr. Joseph Hume, from whence they, for 
some time, bore the nickname of Joeys. As 
they were very convenient to pay short 
cab fares, the Hon. Member of Parliament 
was extremely unpopular with the drivers, 
who frequently received only a groat where 
otherwise they would have received a six- 
pence without any demand for change." 

British Dollar. See Dollar. 

Broad. Another name for the Unite 
(q.v,)y a gold coin issued by James I of 
England. 

In the reign of Charles II the term was 
used to distinguish the hammered twenty- 
shilling pieces from the new coins of the 
same value then introduced called Guineas 
iq.v.). 

The Broads were called in and declared 
to be no longer current in 1732-33, the 
majority of them having become much dim- 
inished in value and size by wear and clip- 
ping. 

Broad Thaler. See Breite Groschen. 

Brockage. A faulty piece in coining; a 
damaged coin. In a report of the mint- 
masters under Elizabeth, temp. 1572, men- 
tion is made of ''brocage'' in the making of 
six-pences. See Num, Chron, (Ser. iv. Vol. 
16, p. 75). 

Brod. See Bread Tokens. 

[ 



Broke Money. A term used to indi- 
cate the cut Bracteates, Deniers, and es- 
pecially Pennies of the Middle Ages. The 
process of quartering or halving appears 
to be adapted to the Anglo-Saxon coinage, 
e.g., to the Pennies of Althelred II (978- 
1016), on which the shears or chisel is 
guided by the cross on the reverse. 

The practice of cutting coins was sanc- 
tioned by Philip VI of France by an ordi- 
nance of May 29, 1347. See Blanchet, Les 
Monnaies Coupees in the Revue Numis- 
matique (iv. 1). 

In the Bury Wills, 1463 (repr. 1850, 41), 
there is a reference to ** broke silvir." 

Bronze. An alloy made of ninety-five 
parts of copper, four parts of tin, and one 
part of zinc, which has been found more 
serviceable for coining purposes than pure 
copper. A somewhat similar mixture was 
employed by the Greeks and Romans, but 
among modern nations it was not used un- 
til 1850, when the Swiss Government be- 
gan to issue coins of this metal. Prance 
adopted it in 1852, Sweden in 1855, En- 
gland in 1860, and Belgium in 1861. See 
Brass. 

Bronzo. The name given to a small cop- 
per coin which appears at Messina, Raven- 
na, etc., before the tenth century. The 
Bronzi are generally of very rude work- 
manship, and a number of types have both 
Latin and Cufic inscriptions. 

Brown. An English slang term for a 
copper coin, especially a halfpenny, in allu- 
sion to its color. 

Brown Money. A dialect word used 
both in Ireland and in Devonshire for 
copper coins. 

Briickenpfennige. SeeLandsbergerPfen- 
nige. 

Brule. A copper coin struck, in the 
Bishopric of Liege from about 1513 to the 
end of the century. It was valued at four 
Stuivers. See de Chestret {passim). 

Brununer. A base silver coin of Poland, 
struck by Sigismund III at the beginning 
of the seventeenth century. It is a variety 
of the Dreipolker (q.v.), and receives its 
name from Bromberg, where it was coined. 

Bninetiy or Bnini. A term used hy 
Italian numismatists to indicate coins that 
have become greatly oxidized, and to such 

34] 



Bnisselaar 



BulBon 



pieces that are subject to oxidation on ac- 
count of the impurity of the metal. 

Bnisselaar. A variety of the double 
Briquet issued by Maximilian in 1488 dur- 
ing the minority of Philip the Good. It 
has on the reverse an ornamented cross, 
with the letter B in the centre, from which 
circumstance it is assumed that it was 
struck at Brussels. See Frey (No. 298). 

Bryan Dollars. The name given to a 
series of satirical pieces issued in 1896 and 
1900 during the first and second **free sil- 
ver '* campaign of William J. Bryan. They 
occur in silver and other metals and are 
of various shapes, sizes, and designs. 

Brymann. A billon coin of Brabant, 
struck in 1381 and later. The type pre- 
sents two shields placed side by side, with 
small lions over each. For a detailed ac- 
count of these pieces see van der Chijs (p. 
96). Their value is mentioned as being 
equal to four Grooten of Vilvorde. 

Bu. A small, rectangular Japanese gold 
coin, first issued in 1599. It was the fourth 
part of a Ryo, and bears the inscription, 
Ichi Bu, meaning one Bu. The Bu was 
also divided into four parts, each one being 
called Shu. 

The silver Bu was introduced in 1830, 
and continued in use until the introduction 
of the Meiji currencjjic in 1870. 

Biiajra. A copper coin of the Malay 
Peninsula. See Pitje. The word means 
a crocodile, and is probably derived from 
the old tin ingot money cast in this shape 
and minted at Selangor, etc. 

Buck. A slang term used in some parts 
of the United States for a dollar. The word 
is of comparatively recent origin and the 
etymology is unknown. 

Buckscha. See Kabir. 

Budata. A coin of Palermo issued in 
1686 and prohibited and retired from cir- 
culation in 1698. Delia Rovere, Memorie 
Storiche . . . sopra le Monete basse, 1814 
(129), gives an account of this debased 
currency and asserts that it was composed 
of a mixture of copper and chalk or plas- 
ter. 

Bodgrook. A coin of Bombay, first is- 
sued under the charter of 1677, granted to 
the East India Company. The name is 
probably a variation or corruption of the 
Portuguese Bazarucco (g.v.). It was 



struck in copper, tin, and lead, and was 
usually computed at one forty-eighth of a 
Fanam. 

Budschuy or Boudjou* A former silver 
coin of Algiers, introduced at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century and divided 
into twenty-four Muzunas. 

The multiples and divisions of this coin 
all have their particular names, as follows : 
2 Budschu, called Zudi, or Soudi Budschu ; 
1 Budschu, called Rial Budschu; 1/4 Bud- 
schu, called Rebja, or Rebia Budschu; % 
Budschu, called Temin Budschu. 

Biiggeli. A Swiss nickname for a coin 
of more or less concave form. **Biicker' 
means a bent back or hunch back. 

Bugne. A base silver coin struck in 
Metz and current in Lorraine during the 
fifteenth centurv and later. It is men- 
tioned in an ordinance of 1511 as having a 
value of ten Deniers. 

There are both municipal and epi.scopai 
types, and the usual devices bear a figure 
of St. Stephen, with the inscription s'. 

STEP-H, PROTHO'. 

It is sometimes called Tiercelle. See 
Blanchet (486). 

Bugslavefy probably a corruption of 
Bogislauer. The popular name for the 
small silver coins issued in Pommerania 
under Bogeslaus X (1471-1523) and his 
successors. 

Buhloliy or Bahloli. A coin of mixed 
metal, weighing about 145 grains, intro- 
duced by Bahlol Lodi, the Afghan ruler of 
Dehli, A.H. 855-894 (A.D. 1450-1488). It 
was the standard coin for about seventy 
years. See Thomas (No. 311). 

Bull. A slang expression for an English 
Crown piece. J. H. Vaux, in his Flush 
Dictionary, 1812, says: **Bull, a Crown 
or five Shillings.*' 

Bullet Money. See Tical. 

Bullion. The original meaning of the 
word appears to have been a mint or assay 
oflice, but the writers of the sixteenth cen- 
tury sometimes refer to it as a place of 
exchange. 

The Termes de la Ley, 1641 (p. 43), 
states that ** Bullion ... is the place 
where gold is tryed,'* and Blount, in his 
Law Dictionarie, 1679, has: *' Bullion . . . 
signifies sometimes the Kings Exchange, or 



[33] 



Bundesthaler 



Butaca 



place whither such Qold in the lump is 
brought to be tryed or exchanged.*' 

The definition in use at the present time, 
i.e., gold or silver in the lump, as distin- 
guished from coin or manufactured arti- 
cles, can be traced to the latter part of the 
sixteenth century. Thomas North, in his 
translation of Plutarch's Lives of the Nohle 
Qredafis and Romans, 1580 (p. 865), says: 
** Bringing with him all his plate, both Gold 
and Silver, unto the Mint-master, he gave 
it him to put into bullion, and so to be 
converted into currant [sic] coin.'' 

Bundesthaler. The name is usually 
given to any silver coin of Convention 
Money (q.v.). The Schweizer Bundes- 
thaler is in reality a medal designed by 
Jakob Stampfer (obit. 1579) to commem- 
orate the foundation of Swiss Independ- 
ence. See Schmalkaldischer Bundesthaler. 

Bung* A slang term used by thieves in 
referring to a purse. See Bit. 

Bungtowns. A name given to clumsy 
imitations of the English half pennies 
which circulated extensively in Pennsyl- 
vania and the other states in the latter part 
of the eighteenth century. 

The name is probably derived from the 
slang term, '*to bung," meaning to cheat 
or deceive. 

There is an extensive list of them in At- 
kins. See also Amer. Journal of Numis- 
matics (xxxiii. 67, xxxvi. 94). 

Bun Sen. A Kwanei sen {q,v.) having 
the character Bun (learning) on the re- 
• verse. The coin was made in 1668 from 
the fragments of the Daibutsu, or great 
image of Buddha, at Nara. The last pieces 
to be made from the Daibutsu statue are 
called **Tori Sumi" Sen (gathered end- 
ings), which have this inscription as well 
on the reverse. 

Burbe. See Bourbe. 

Burgalet. See Blaneos Burgales. 

Burgunderthaler. See Albertusthaler. 

Biirigozzo. A heavy silver Testone of 
the value of 32 Soldi, struck by the Em- 
peror Charles V for the Duchy of Milan 
(1535-1556). It has a bust of the Em- 
peror on one side and a standing figure of 
St. Ambrosius on the reverse. 

Burriey or Bauri. A money of account 
in the Maldive Islands, and equal to twenty 
Cowries (g.v.). 

[ 



Bursariemeichen. A series of copper 
tokens struck by the bursar of the guild 
or chapter at Munster and Paderbom from 
1543 to 1633. They are of the denomina- 
tions of three Schillinge, 12, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1 
Pfennig, and one Heller. The value is 
on one side and a figure of St. Paul on the 
reverse. Many are countermarked with 
the arms or name of the bursar. 

Bosch (plural Buschen). In 1493 Her- 
mann IV, Archbishop of Cologne, the duke 
of Julich and Berg, and the municipal 
authorities of the city of Cologne, held a 
conference to adjust the irregular mone- 
tary system then prevalent, and agreed 
upon the following values : Weisspf ennige, 
24 to a Gulden ; Blanken, 12 to a Gulden ; 
Double Buyschen, 18 to a Gulden; Simple 
Buyschen, 36 to a Gulden ; Half Buyschen, 
72 to a Gulden; Old Morchen (Moergyhe), 
8 to a Weisspf ennig ; Neu Morchen: 12 to 
a Weisspfennig. 

The above appears to be an early refer- 
ence to a small copper coin which derived 
its name from a bouquet or bunch of flow- 
ers and leaves which appeared on one side. 
These coins were later identified with the 
city of Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle. The 
obsidional pieces of six and twelve sols 
issued in 1597 are sometimes called Bu- 
schen, and in the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries the twelve and four Hel- 
ler pieces had a respective value of three 
and one Buschen. They were struck as 
late as 1790 or 1792 and were abolished by 
the Prussian coinage system of 1821. 

Bussignarfi. According to Caucich, Bol- 
lettino di Numism^tica Italiana (iii. 34), 
this was a name used in Ancona to desig- 
nate either the mezzi Ducati, or the mezzi 
Scudi d'oro of twenty Bolognini. 

Bussola, or Bossolotto. A popular name 
for the Grosso issued at Mantua from the 
period of Ludovico III. Gonzaga (1444- 
1478) to Carlo II (1637-1647). The word 
means a pyx, and these coins have on the 
obverse the figure of a pyx, used for hold- 
ing the host. 

Bussolotto Papale. This was another 
name for the Giulio struck in Parma by 
Pope Clement VII, the type being copied 
from the preceding coin. 

Biitaca, or ButkL A former gold coin 
of Morocco, the name of which is probably 

36] 



Butchers' Half -pence 

a corruption of the Pataca (q.v.). Its value 
was two Rials or twenty-seven Ukkias. 

Butchers* Half-pence. This term is used 
by Dean Swift in his Drapiers' Letters, 
1724 (iii), and implies counterfeit or very 
base silver coins. 

Butgen. A silver coin issued at Campen, 
Groningen, Deventer, ZwoUe, etc., during 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It 
appears to have been of the value of two 
Plakken, and is sometimes referred to as 
the half Groot. See Prey (No. 459). 

Butki. See Butaca. 

Buttala. The popular name for a coin 
of Piacenza issued during the seventeenth 



Byzant 

century and originally of a value of ten 
Soldi. Its value, however, fluctuated con- 
siderably, as in a monetary ordinance of 
Sabbioneta of 1648, the Buttala is men- 
tioned as equal to 14 Soldi, having been 
ehanged from 12 Soldi. 

Buzerook. See Bazarucco. 

Buzzard. A slang term formerly ap- 
plied to the silver dollar of the United 
States on account of the buzzard-like eagle 
on the reverse. 

Byoke. An obsolete form of writing 
Baiocco {q.v.). 

Byte. An old English form of Bit (g.v.). 

Byzant. See Solidus. 



[37] 



Cabes 



Cambist 



c 



Cabes. An African money of account. 

See Boss. 

Cache. A copper coin issued by Prance 
from 1720 to 1837 for its possessions in 
Pondichery and Karikal on the Coroman- 
del Coast. Conf. Kas. 

There are a large number of varieties, 
for a detailed account of which, see Zay 
(pp. 273-285). 

Cadiere. A billon coin of France issued 
for Dauphiny by Charles V (1364-1380), 
and retained by his successor Charles VI. 
See Hoffmann (ii. 43). 

Anne, Queen of France and Duchess of 
Bretagne, struck a gold type, the Cadi^re 
d'Oro, circa 1498. Conf. Engel and Ser- 
rure (iii. 972). 

Caduceati. See Nummi Caduceati. 

CagUarescOy or Callaresifos. A small 
copper coin of Cagliari which must not be 
confused with the Cagliarese. It was orig- 
inally struck by Charles II (1665-1700), 
of the value of one sixth of the Soldo, or 
one three-hundredth of the Scudo. In 1711 
it was reduced to one half of its original 
weight. 

Cagliarese. A copper coin of Cagliari 
in the island of Sardinia. It was first struck 
by the Kings of Spain as rulers of Sar 
dinia in the sixteenth century, and the 
coinage extends to the beginning of the 
nineteenth century under the House of 
Savoy. Multiples of three Cagliaresi were 
issued as late as the reign of Victor Eman- 
uel I (1814-1821). It is usually computed 
at two Denari. 

Cagnolo. The popular name for a bil- 
lon coin issued at Mantua by Giovanni 
Francesco, a leader of the people. It had 
on the obverse the figure of a dog, and on 
the reverse a cross with the inscription: 

PER SIGNUM LIBERA NOS. 

Cagnone, meaning ''money of the stran- 
gers," is, according to the Rivista Italiana 
di Numismatica (ix. 86), a coin mentioned 
in a proclamation issued at Milan in 1520; 
its nominal value was three Soldi. 



Caime. An inconvertible paper cur- 
rency used in Turkey and Cyprus and abol- 
ished in 1879. 

The word Kaim, plural Kdime, in Turk- 
ish, means ** upright,*' and comes to be used 
for a bond, hence for the Treasury note. 



or i..aza. A copper coin former- 
ly used in the Malay Peninsula ; the name is 
a Portuguese word derived from the Hindu 
Kasu, or Kas. The common word cash 
{q.v.) comes from this root. 

A Dutch writer in the latter part of the 
sixteenth century refers to it as being of 
the size of the Duit, but with a hole in the 
centre. He adds that two hundred Caixas 
are equal to one Sata, and five Satas have 
the value of a Carolus Gulden or a Portu- 
guese Cruzado. 

Houtman, in his Journaal (June 11, 
1596), kept in the Straits of Sunda, states 
that one hundred and sixteen Caxas are 
equal to one Spanish Real. Conf, Netscher 
and v.d. Chijs (p. 152). * 

Birch, in his Commentaries , Hakluyt 
Soc'y (ii. 128 ff), states that Albuquerque, 
the Governor General, ordered a coinage 
for Malacca in 1510, as follows: Pieces of 
2 Caixas (tin) = 1 Dinheiro; 10 Dinheiros 
(tin) = 1 Soldo; 10 Soldos (tin) =- 1 Bas- 
tardo; 5 Bastardos (tin)=l Malaque 
(silver), or 1 Catholico (gold). 

Calculus. The Latin name for a 
counter (g.v.). 

Calderilla. A Spanish copper coin 
struck by Philip IV, circa 1636 to 1654. Its 
value fluctuated, for while originally equal 
to eight Maravedis, specimens occur coun- 
terstamped for twelve Maravedis. 

Callaretifos. See Cagliaresco. 

Cambist. A banker. Cambistry. The 
science of exchange. From the Italian 
cambista, from camhio, meaning exchange. 

Ruding (ii. 138) states that **in the year 
1270, the keeper of the cambium was ap- 
pointed to assay the coins throughout the 
whole Kingdom. '* 



[38] 



Camera 



Carapace Money 



Camera. An Italian term, meaning 
money of exchequer, and usually found in 
conjunction with the name of a coin, e.g., 
Piorini di Camera, Ducati di Camera, etc. 

Camillipo. A silver coin of Correggio 
which bears on the obverse a bust of Camil- 
lo of AiLstria, Count of Correggio (1597- 
1606). Its value was two Soldi. 

Cammacks. Ruding (ii. 102) states 
that at the close of the eighteenth century 
**the copper coinage of Ireland was in an 
infinitely better state compared with the 
silver, coinage of England. The greater 
part of it, however, was not mint coin, but 
what was called Cammac's, being half 
pence made by a person of that name, a 
proprietor of copper mines, with a device 
upon it, not the King's face." 

Campiiltts* A coin mentioned in con- 
junction with the rentals of the Roman 
Catholic Church. Du Cange (ii. 67) thinks 
that it probably signifies the revenue at- 
tached to a small field. 

Canaries. Francis Orose, in his Diction- 
ary of the Vulgar Tongue, 1785, states 
that this is a slang name for Guineas; the 
reference is of course to the yellow color. 

Candareen. The name given by for- 
eigners in the Far East to the Chinese Fen 
or Fun, the one hundredth part of the 
Liang, or Tael {q.v.), and the tenth part of 
the Mace (q.v.). Pieces are struck in the 
following denominations: 7.2 Candareens, 
equal to one tenth of a Dollar, and 3.6 
Candareens, equal to one twentieth of a 
Dollar; also known as five cents. As a 
money of account it is worth about 1.4 
cents. See Ch'ien and Fen. 

Candle Thaler. A popular name for the 
Licht Thaler (q,v.), 

Canella, or On^. A denomination is- 
sued in 1843 and 1845 under Maria II of 
Portugal for Mozambique. It consisted of 
an oblong bar of silver, bearing on one side 
an M,and on the reverse onqa— 6 crs (Cru- 
zados). The piece is also known as Pataca 
iq.v.). See Teixeira de Aragao (xiv. 4), 
and Fernandes (p. 333). 

Canopy Type. A designation employed 
to classify English silver coins. Thus on 
some of the pennies of William I the term 
is used where a full-face bust under a 
canopy occurs. 



Canteim. A copper coin of Bulgaria. 

See Stotinka. 

Capellone. From the Italian word ca- 
pello, meaning **hair.'' The name given to 
a silver coin of Modena struck by Frances- 
co III d'Este (1737-1780), and distin- 
guished by the long hair on the portrait. 
Its value was one third of the Lira. 

Capones. Du Cange cites a document of 
the year 1250 reading sex denarios pro quo- 
lihet foco . . . qui capones B, Mariae nun- 
cupantur, etc., and assumes that this was 
a tribute to the church. 

Capuciae. A name given to a variety of 
FoUari struck at Ragusa at the end of the 
thirteenth century. The diadem and toga 
on the figure on the obverse gave it the ap- 
pearance of being covered with a cap, 
hence the popular designation. A statute 
of the year 1294 mentions, follari, qui 
dicuntur capuciae. 

Caput Aspergellis. See Skins of Ani- 
mals. 

Carambole. A name given to the silver 
ficu of eighty Sols issued by Louis XIV in 
1686 for Flanders. The reverse has a 
crowned shield with the quartered arms of 
France and Burgundy. There were also 
struck divisions consisting of halves, quar- 
ters, eighths, and sixteenths. 

Carantanoy also variously written Car- 
ano, and Charantano, and possibly a cor- 
ruption, of Carinthia. The general name 
in Italy for the Grosso Tirolino. It is thus 
referred to as early as 1509 in some cor- 
respondence between the Emperor Maxi- 
milian and Giacomo IV, Appiani, Signor 
of Piombino. During the sixteenth cen- 
tury and later the name was common in 
Venice and other parts of Northern Italy 
to indicate the Kreuzer, and it was es- 
pecially used for the Austrian Kreuzer 
struck by Francis Joseph I for Milan, etc. 
Multiples of five and ten Carantini of this 
issue exist in silver. Conf. Quarantano, 
infra. 

Cara o Sella. A Spanish term meaning 
**face or seal'* and corresponding to the 
English ' ' Heads or Tails ' ' ( q.v. ) . 

Carapace Money. A name given to a 
variety of Chinese money, or tokens, issued 
in the time of the Emperor Wu Ti of the 
Ilan Dynasty (B.C. 140-86). It is de- 
scribed in the Ch'ien Pu T'ung Chih, a 



[39] 



Carasco Dollar 



Carolus 



rare native work. The obverse, or tipper 
side, resembles tJie back of a tortoise, with 
scales, while the lower side is hollow, trav- 
ersed by two ** roads." The name is due, 
probably, to the shape and design of the 
objects themselves, rather than to the an- 
cient custom of using tortoise-shell in bar- 
ter. 

For detailed information concerning 
types and designs, see Ramsden, in Am. 
Joiirnal of Numismatics (xlv. p. 70). 

Carasco Dollar. The name given to one 
of the coins issued by the . Constitutional 
Provisional Government of Mexico. They 
were struck by orders of General Carasco, 
at Culiacan, the capital of Sinaloa, in No- 
vember, 1913. 

Carat. Kelly (p. 49) mentions this as a 
small Arabian coin and equal to one eigh- 
tieth of a Piastre. He may have it con- 
fused with Kabir (g.v.). 

Caratto. Another name for the Pic- 
ciolo (g.v.), but specially applied to the 
coinage of Sbio. The Caratto, in copper, 
was issued here during the reign of Lor- 
enzo Giustiniani Banca (1483). 

CarcL The plural of Carzia (q.v.). 

Cardecii. See Quart d'Ecu. 

Card Money. The name given to a 
variety of promissory notes written on the 
backs of playing cards, which were issued 
by Intendant de Meules, in 1685, in Can- 
ada, for the payments in arrears to sol- 
diers. The issue continued for over thirty 
years. See Breton (p. 11, et seq,). 

CarivaL A former silver coin of Bom- 
bay, the fifth part of a Rupee, and equal to 
twelve Paisa. See Noback (p. 64). 

Carl d'or. A gold coin of Brunswick 
which takes its name from Charles Wil- 
liam Ferdinand (1780-1806). It was 
usually computed the same as the Pistole, 
i.e., at five Thaler in gold. The name was 
retained, after the death of Duke Charles, 
until the end of 1834, when a new mone- 
tary system went into effect. The name is 
sometimes written Karl d'or. 

Carle. A French nickname for the Car- 
olus (q.v.). 

Carlin. A silver coin of France struck 
for Dauphiny by Charles V (1364-1380). 
See Hoffmann (12). 



Carlino. A gold coin of Sardinia issued 
by Carlo Emanuele III (1730-1773), and 
of the value of about thirty-five Lira in the 
present monetary system. 

His successor, Vittorio Amedeo III 
(1773-1796), struck the Carlino Nuovo in 
1790. This was a much larger coin, equal 
to about one hundred and twenty Lira. 

Carlino. A silver coin, the twelfth part 
of the Ducato (^.v.), issued by Charles II 
of Anjou, King of Naples and Sicily (1285- 
1309). It was also called Gigliato (g.v.), 
and the type was copied in the Florentine 
series. By an ordinance of April 20, 1818, 
the Carlino was made the tenth of the Du- 
cato and equal to one hundred Grani for 
Naples, or two hundred Baiocci for Sicily. 

The Carlino of Bologna appeared under 
Clement VII (1523-1534), and was issued 
almost uninterruptedly until the middle of 
the seventeenth century. 

In Malta the Carlino was struck in sil- 
ver of the value of half a Tarin as early as 
the middle of the sixteenth century; its 
value, however, was reduced, and under 
Raimondo Despuig (1736-1741) copper 
Carlini were issued. 

Carlino Paiiale. A silver coin of Rome 
of the Grosso type. It was first struck by 
Urban V in 1367, and was issued by Boni- 
face IX to commemorate his jubilee in 
1400. Karlini Papali are referred to in a 
Milanese ordinance of 1474, and again in 
a tariflf of Bologna of 1588. This coin was 
gradually reduced in weight, and eventual- 
ly the Grosso took its place. 

Carolin, plural Caroliner. A gold coin 
of Sweden of the value of ten Francs. The 
name is probably taken from Charles John 
XIV (Bernadotte). It was last struck in 
1868 by Charles XV. 

The same designation is also applied to 
a silver coin of Sweden issued by Charles 
XI and Charles XII. See Karolin. 

Carolingian Money. A general term for 
the coins struck during the Carolingian 
period in France, i.e., from Pepin (752- 
768) to Hugh Capet {obit. 987). The 
name is derived from Charlemagne, who 
introduced monetary reforms. See Engel 
and Serrure (passim) y and Blanchet (i. 
141). 

Carolus. A base silver or billon coin 
struck by, and named after Charles VIII 



[40] 



Carolu8 



Cash 



of France (1483-1498). It probably re- 
ceived its name from the large letter K. on 
the obverse. It had a value of ten De- 
niers Tournois, and, besides the regular 
type, there were special issues for Bre- 
tagne and Dauphiny. See Hoffman (pas- 
sim). A proclamation of Henry VIII, 
dated November 5, 1522, fixed its value at 
four-pence sterling. See Ruding (i. 305). 

Carolus, or Carolus Gulden* A silver 
Gulden issued by Charles V for the Nether- 
lands. There is an extensive series of them 
for Besan^n. They begin about 1540, and 
the name appears to have been retained 
until the end of the sixteenth century, 
even after the death of the Emperor. 

Carolus Dollar. The common name for 
the Spanish-American silver Dollar or 
piece of eight Reales when used for trade 
in the far East. The term is confined to 
the issues of Charles III (1759-1789) and 
Charles IV (1789-1808). 

Caron. A name given to the billon 
Marque in the Reunion Islands. 

Caroub. See Kharub. 

Carrarino. A silver coin of Padua, 
struck by Jacopino da Carrara (1350- 
1355) and his successor Francesco I da 
Carrara (1355-1388). The name is de- 
rived from the prominent figure of a car- 
ra, or cart, on the obverse, which may pos- 
sibly be the origin of the name of the 
governing family. 

CarrettinL A general name for the 
money issued by the Marchesi del Caretto, 
Signors of Cortemiglia. In the Rivista 
Italiana di Numismatica (xiii. 79), a chron- 
icle of Piacenza of the year 1255 is cited 
which reads: eodem anno de mense de- 
cemhris mercatores fecerunt fieri monetam 
novam apud marchiones de Carretto quam 
appellabant carrettini. 

CarturheeL A nickname given to the sil- ^ 
ver Dollar of the United States, probably 
on account of its size compared to all of 
the other coins. The term is applied to 
any large coin that is unwieldy. See Boul- 
ton's Twopence. 

Carucage. A tax of one penny formerly 
impeded in England on every plough. See 
Eleemosyna Aratri. 



The Italian equivalent of Kreu- 
zer {q,v,). It is applied to copper coins 
issued by the Prioli Family for Nicosia in 
the sixteenth century, etc. 

Carzia. The popular name to indicate 
the fractional part of the money of Cy- 
prus, and usually applied to the Danaro. 
The term was copied by the Venetians in 
the sixteenth century. 



A slang expression for a dollar. 
The etymology is uncertain, but it may be 
a corruption of the French caisse, i.e., 
money. 

Cash, in commerce, signifies ready 
money, or actual coin paid on the instant, 
and in this sense it has been in use since 
the latter part of the sixteenth century. 
The etymology appears to be from the 
French word caisse,, a coffer or chest in 
which money was kept. 

Two early instances of the use of the 
term are to be found in Saffron Walden, 
by Thomas Nashe, 1596 (106), to wit, '*He 
put his hand in his pocket but . . . not 
to pluck out anie cash;" and in Shake- 
speare's King Henry V (ii. 1, 120). 

Cash. The name, given by foreigners to 
the Chinese copper coin with a square hole 
in the centre. The term is probably derived 
through the Portuguese word Caixa, from 
the Telugu and Karanese word Easu (^.v.), 
and the Tamil Kas, which, in turn, prob- ' 
ably comes from the Sanskrit Karsha, or 
Karshapana. The Chinese call this coin 
by various names, Ch'ien (q.v.) being the 
most common. The more modern Chinese 
term is Wen (g.v.), which is the word ex- 
pressed in Chinese characters on many of 
the modern copper coins that bear as well 
the English word Cash. The Chinese Li, 
the thousandth part of a Tael, is the equi- 
valent of the word Cash. 

The coin known as Cash has been for 
about two thousand years of an almost uni- 
form design, circular in shape, and with a 
square hole in the centre, the object of the 
latter feature being for the purpose of 
stringing (a string of Cash being known as 
a Kuan, Ch'iian or Tiao, q.v.). 

These coins are cast and sometimes are 
of fine brass, while others are a mixture 
of copper, spelter, and iron. 

The inscriptions on these coins since 
A.D. 621 are mostly uniform. The char- 



[41] 



r^A 



Catde 



acters to the right and left can be trans- 
lated "current coin" or ** currency, "while 
those at the top and bottom are the names 
of the emperors, or more properly the 
name under which their reign is known. 
For the most part the value has been one 
li or one thousandth, though multiples of 
two and five have been made from early 
times. During the nineteenth century, fol- 
lowing the Tai Ping rebellion tokens up 
to 1000 cash in denomination were issued. 

In 1895 some improvement was made 
in the coinage, the pieces being made of 
uniform size and struck instead of cast. 

About the year 1900, when silver was 
no longer circulated in China by weight, 
but by value, copper was struck of one 
general design for the different provinces 
into which the country is divided. The 
new denomination consisted of 1, 2, 5, 10, 
and 20 cash. The 10 cash in Kwang Tung 
Province bore the inscription one cent, 
probabh^ due to the influence of the Hong 
Kong coinage. These new coins had a 
dragon on one side, and the central hole 
was no longer retained except for the 
Kwang Tung issues. Conf^ also Ramsden, 
in Spink (xxiii. 163-169), and see Kas. 



The English word for the Hindu 
Kas or Kasu (g.r.). The word cash is 
used on the copper coins of Mysore about 
iSiO under Krishna Raja Udaiyar (1799- 
1^6^). The inscriptions read xl cash, 

XXV CASH, XX CASH, X CASH, V CASH. The 

rare 21^2' ^^4» ^^^ l^^o cash pieces have 
the value in Kanarese numerals. 

Certain of the modern copper coins of 
Travaneore have their values expressed in 
ea^h as well as a number of the copper 
et>ins of the British East India Co. In 
Sumatra it was a money of account and 
worth about three cents. 

See Timbre de Valencia. 



A silver coin of the 
Durhv of Berg struck bv Joachim Murat 
in l^Yi. It is fretiuently referred to as 
the Kasi^nthaler, but the reverse has the 
inscription i. bergischer. cassa. thaler. 

CaMavsraadiCB. The name given to a 
silver Gn>eschen of Bonn which has on the 
n^verse a ^iew of the church of St. Cas- 
Niu^, the patn>n saint of the citv. Thev 
were i^ueii under Aivhbishop Henrv II, 
Earl uf Vimebure (1304-1332^ 



The name applied 'in gen- 
eral to an3^ gold coin bearing the armorial 
shield of Castile, but specially to such as 
were one-fiftieth of the gold marc in 
weight. Under Pedro I, King of Castile 
(1350-1368), the Castellano was computed 
at thirty Maravedis. 

CastoriatL See Denarius. 

Castorland Token. A silver pattern 
struck in Paris in 1796 by Duvivier, for 
a French settlement in the northern part 
of the State of New York. It has on the 
reverse the figure of Ceres and a beaver 
in the exei^rue, with the motto salve magna 

PARENS PRUGUM. 

For a detailed description of the token 
and the Colony see Hickcox, Historical 
Account of American Coinage^ 1858 (p. 
85), and Amer, Journal of Numismatics 
(iv. 34). 

CastrooL A general term for the Orossi 
struck in the Duchy of Castro by Pier 
Luigi Famese (1545-1547). These usually 
have the inscription vrb. castricvs. 

Castmocino. A silver coin of Lucca 
which receives its name from Castruccio 
Castrucci (1316-1328). It has a crowned 
bust portrait figure holding a sceptre, and 
on the reverse the inscription imperiaus, 
with LVCA in the exei^rue. Its value was 
equal to the mezzo Grosso. 

Cataa Hamae. A gold coin of the mod- 
ern Eg^^tian series of the value of five 
Piastres. It was introduced A.H. 1255 or 
A.D. 1839. 

Catenen. Forgeries of ancient Oreek 
coins are said to be known by this term 
in Sicily. The name owes its origin to 
the activities in this line of the notorious 
brothers Bianchi of Catania. 

CatedusuMHtlialer, or danbensduJer. 
A medallic silver Thaler issued by Ernst, 
Duke of Sachsen 6otha in 1668. It has 
the articles of belief from the catechism 
on both obverse and reverse. See Madai 
(1512). 

CatednL The Sp>anish equivalent of the 
Chaise d*Or and valued at 33 Marabo- 
tini. Old French documents mention the 
Cathedra in alluding to the same coin. 

CatboGoo. A gold coin introduced by 
Albuquertjue, Governor General of Mal- 
acca in 1510. ^^Y Caixa. 

Catde useil for pa\nnents. See Pecunia, 
Nowt Greld, and Animals. 



[42] 



Catty 



Cent 



Catty, or Chin. The Chinese pound, 
composed of sixteen Taels or Liangs, and 
weighing approximately one and one third 
of our pounds. 

Catty, or Chang. A Siamese weight of 
2.675 lbs., avoirdupois. Treasury pieces 
of a spherical form have been made in 
silver of the value of 1, V2» Mj Vs ^^^ 
Wq Cattys, or in Ticals 80, 40, 20, 10, 
and 5. 

Catty. See Bahar. 

Caturvim^tiniana. See Krishnala. 

Cauci. A term employed by Italian 
numismatic writers to indicate coins of 
concave shape. 

Cavalier. A name given to coins bear- 
ing on the obverse the figure of a knight 
on horseback. The term is generally ap- 
plied to the French and Flemish series, 
the provinces of the Low Countries re- 
taining the name Rijder (q.v,). Conse- 
quently the Cavalier d^Or is the same as 
the Gouden Rijder, and the Cavalier d' 
Argent is the Rijderdaelder. A silver 
Gros au Cavalier was struck by John II, 
Count of Hainaut (1280-1304). 

CavalittL A nickname used in Bologna 
for the Grossi of Ferrara which bore the 
figure of St. George on horseback. 

Cavalla. According to the Corpus Num- 
morum Italicorum (xxiv. 9), this was 
a billon coin of Antonio I, Prince of Mon- 
aco (1701-1731) of the value of four 
Danari. 

Cavallina. A necessity coin issued for 
Candia under Venetian rule in 1571 and 
1573 to supply the lack of Danari. Speci- 
mens occur in both copper and base sil- 
ver. It receives its name from Marino 
Cavalli, the governor. 

CavaUo. A copper coin issued by Fer- 
dinand I of Aragon while ruler of Naples 
and Sicily (1458-1494), which obtains its 
name from the figure of a horse on the re- 
verse. This device was abandoned in the 
sixteenth century, but the coin neverthe- 
less retained its name. 

An idea of the small value of the coin 
can be readily obtained when we consider 
that 1200 went to the Ducato (g.v.) and 
that it was the twelfth part of a Grano, as 
the issues under Ferdinand IV dated 1786 
to 1797 state. 



The coin was consequently largely struck 
in multiples, and pieces of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 
9 Cavalli are common. 

CavaUotto. A silver coin which, like 
the Cavallo, derives its name from the 
figure of the horse on the reverse. 

It was struck for Asti by Louis XII of 
France early in the sixteenth century; at 
Carmagnola under Michele Antonio (1504- 
1528) ; at Correggio by Camillo and Fab- 
rizio (1580-1597) ; at Sabbioneta by Ves- 
pasiano Gonzaga (1559-1591) ; etc, 

Caveer. See Kabir. 

Caveria. Du Cange (ii) cites an ordi- 
nance of Sancho VII, King of Navarre 
(1194-1234), in which viginti caverias are 
referred to. 

Cawne, or Kahan. A money of ac- 
count in the Maldive Islands and equal to 
1280 Cowries (g.v.), 

Caxa. See Caixa. 

Cecchine. A corruption of Zecchino 
(g.v.) and conf, Checquin and Chickino, 
infra. 

Ben Jonson, in his play Volpone, 1605 
(i. 3), uses the phrase **When euery word 
. . . is a cecchine." 



Ceiniog. An old Welsh word meaning 
a penny. See Cianog. 

Ceitily also called Real Preto, the earliest 
copper coin of Portugal, of the value of 
one-sixth of the Real, first issued by Al- 
fonso III (1248-1279). It has usually a 
castle with three towers occupying a large 
part of the field, and was extensively 
struck at Lisbon, Porto, and Ceuta. The 
latter town in Northern Africa is sup- 
posed to have supplied the name of the 
coin. 

Cella. See Aquilino. 

Cenoglego. A name given to a variety 
of the silver Soldo issued in Venice under 
Francesco Dandolo (1326-1339), and his 
successors Bartolomeo Gradenigo and An- 
drea Dandolo. The name is derived from 
the kneeling figure of the Doge on the 
obverse. 

Cent The name of a copper coin of the 
United States of North America, and equal 
to the one-hundredth part of the Dollar. 

The word was first used on the so-called 
Washington Cent of 1783, but the reg- 
ular coinage of the Cent and half Cent was 
not authorized until 1792. 



[43] 



CtuJlAF Ct1>#hn|fc 



For an early use of the word in the 
history of the United States coinage see 
Am, Journal of Numismatics (xv. 77). 

The Cents are classified according to 
their devices, c.^., Fillet head. Turban 
head, Indian head, etc. They were first 
struck in 1793 and everj' year thereafter 
with the exception of 1815. In 1857 the 
size was reduced. 

The half Cent was abolished in 1857; 
the two-Cent pieces were issued from 1864 
to 1873; the nickel three-Cent pieces were 
issued from 1865 to 1889 ; the sUver three- 
Cent pieces from 1851 to 1873; and the 
nickel five-cent pieces were authorized in 
1866 and are still in use. For four years, 
1875 to 1878, silver twenty-Cent pieces 
were coined. 

The Cent as an equivalent of the one- 
hundredth part of the Dollar is also used 
in British North America, British Quiana, 
British Honduras, the Danish West Indies, 
Hawaii, Fiji, Liberia, Cuba, Guam, the 
Philippine Islands, Porto Rico, North Bor- 
neo, Hong Kong, China, the Chinese 
Treaty Ports, Labuan, Sierra Leone, Sar- 
awak, and the Straits Settlements. 

In Ceylon, Mauritius and Seychelles it 
is the one-hundredth part of a Rupee ; and 
in the Netherlands and the Dutch Col- 
onies the one-hundredth part of the Florin 
or Gulden. 

CenlaTO. A copper coin of Mexico, 
Central America, and many countries in 
South America. It is almost uniformly 
the one-hundredth part of a Peso. 

Centenariaey or Centauuruie Fomuie 

were large gold medallions equal to one 
hundred Aurei, said by Lampridius, Sev. 
Alex. (39) to have been struck by the Em- 
peror Elagabalus. 



or Ntuniinit CentaiMMudit. A coin first 
mentioned in an edict of Constantius II 
and Julian of the year 356 A.D. It was 
of bronze, slightly washed with silver, and 
weighed between 3.55 and 2.60 grammes. 
It was first introduced by Constantine the 
Great and continued to be issued in great 
numbers until after Arcadius. It was the 
hundredth part of the silver Siliqua. See 
Babelon, Traite (i. 612-614). 

Centenno. A copper coin of various 
countries, which, as its name indicates, is 



the one-hundredth part of some larger and 
frequently standard coin. Thus, in Italy, 
Lombardy, Venice, and San Marino, 100 
Centesimi equal one Lira; in Uruguay 100 
Centesimi equal one Peso; etc. 

Cwilime, A copper coin; the one-hun- 
dredth part of a Franc. It bears this re- 
lationship in France and the French Col- 
onies, Monaco, Belgium, Bulgaria, Luxem- 
burg, Switzerland, etc. 

In Haiti the Centime is the one hun- 
dredth part of the (Jourde. 

The multiples of the Centime exist in 
both copper and nickel. 

Oiil i iBu . The Spanish equivalent of 
the Centime and Centesimo. In Spain it 
is the one hundredth of the Peseta, and 
before 1871 it was the one hundredth of 
the Escudo. It is used in the same rela- 
tion to a larger coin in Morocco, Vene- 
zuela, Costa Rica, and the Dominican Re- 
public. 

See Talent. 



A multiple of one hundred 
Asses after the first reduction, and used 
as a money of account. 

See Leal. 



A French nickname for any 
piece of money in allusion to its shape. 

Cerrette, or CcnrettonL According to 
the Rivista Italiana di Numismatica (xxii. 
39), this was a coin issued in Casale dur- 
ing the war of 1628. It received its name 
from the figure of a stag on the obverse. 

Cenria. A silver coin of Massa di Lu- 
nigiana, a fief of the Malaspino Family. 
It appears to have been originally issued 
under Alberico I Cibo (1559-1623), with 
a figure of St. Peter on the reverse, and 
a stag on the obverse. The latter gave 
rise to the nickname Lupetta for the coin, 
as the stag was supposed to bear a re- 
semblance to a wolf. 

The Cervia was also a coin of Casale 
Monferrato struck by William II Pale- 
ologo (1494-1518) ; it bore the figure of a 
stag in an enclosure. Promis (i. 185) cites 
a proclamation of Charles III, Duke of 
Savoy, dated 1529 which prohibits monete 
et dinari di Monferrato nomati cervoni. 

Chahar Gothah, meaning a square piece, 
is the name given to a gold coin of Al:bar, 
Emperor of Hindustan, and valued at 
thirty Rupees. See Sihansah. 



[44] 



Chaine Money 



Chazza 



Chain Cent. The popular name for the 
earliest type of copper cents issued by the 
Grovernment of the United States in 1793. 
There are several varieties, one of which 
reads ameri. 

Chaine Money. See Ghany. 

Chaise, or Chaise d*Or. A French gold 
coin struck originally by Philip IV (1285- 
1314) and copied by Edward III in the 
Anglo-Gallic series. It received this name 
because the ruler is seated on a Gothic 
throne or chair of state. 

A similar coin was issued in Germany 
by Ludwig IV (1314-1347) and the type 
was copied in the Low Countries under the 
name of Clinckaert {q.v,). 

Chakram, or Chuckram. A silver coin 
of the Hindu State of Travancore issued 
in the eighteenth century and later. There 
are multiples and divisions, and report 
says that Chakrams of gold had once been 
coined, but this, though probable, lacks 
confirmation. 

The Chakram is equal to sixteen copper 
Kas, and is the fourth part of the Fanam. 
Conf. Elliot {passim), 

Chalddian League. See League Coin- 
age. 

Chalcos, or Chalkos* The earliest Greek 
copper coin and the eighth part of the 
Obol iq.v,). The etymology is probably 
from XaXxo?, i,e,, ore, or from Chalcis, the 
city that commanded the market for cop- 
per. 

It is supposed to have been first struck 
in the time of the Peloponnesian War, and 
was largely used by the successors of Alex- 
ander the Great. 

The multiples of the Chalcus were the 
Dekachalk (=- 10 units), Octochalk (= 8 
units), Pentachalk (= 5 units), Tetra- 
chalk (=4 units), Trichalk (= 3 units), 
Dichalk (=2 units). It was subdivided 
into the Hemichalk (=% unit). 

Chalk* See Chalcus. 

Challaine. See Chazza. 

Challies and half Challies are copper 
coins issued by the Dutch Government for 
Ceylon. They are the same as the Duit 
{q.v.). 

Chabners' Tokens. The name given to 
a series of three silver pieces issued in 
1783 by I. Chalmers, a goldsmith of An- 



napolis, Maryland. They consist of the 
Shilling, six-pence and three-pence denomi- 
nations. For details, etc., see Crosby. 

Chalongia, or Chaloigne. Du Cange 
cites this as an example of how the word 
Schilling is corrupted in mediaeval docu- 
ments. The word occurs in ordinances of 
Peter, Bishop of Laon, of 1377 and 1386. 

Chamsi. The name given to the one 
eighth Piastre in the Egyptian series. It 
is a base silver coin of the value of five 
Paras. 

Chang. The Siamese name for Catty 

(q.v.), 

Ch'an Pi, or Ch'an Pu. See Pu. 

Chany, or Chaine Money. A dialect 
corruption of China money and applied to 
the porcelain tokens issued by the Pinxton 
China Works in East Derbyshire, England. 

These pieces are oval in shape, flat on one 
side and convex on the other. The convex 
side bears the value in large figures. 

Ch'ao. One of the Chinese names for 
their paper money. 

Chaouri. See Abbasi. 

Charantano. See Carantano. 

Charms, i.e., metallic tokens with pic- 
tures in lieu of inscriptions, were used in 
Japan and Korea for money at times. See 
ESen. 

Cham. A silver coin of India and 
equivalent to the quarter Rupee. See 
Sihansah. 

Charon's OboL See Naulum. 

Charta Magna Thaler. Another name 
for the Convention Thaler struck in 1818 
by Maximilian Joseph I, King of Bavaria. 
It has on the reverse a figure of a tablet 
bearing the inscription charta magna 

BAVARIAE. 

Chasperli. See Kasperle. 

Chaubinhank. See Chulon. 

Chavo. The native name in Porto Rico 
for the Spani3h copper pieces in use on 
this island. 

Chazza. A tin coin of Malacca and 
probably a later name for the Bastardo 
iq.v.). William Barret in his Travels 
(circa 1550), says: 

**Por the mony of Malacca the least 
mony current is of tinne stamped with 
the Armes of Portugall and 12 of these 



[45] 



Checquin 



Ch'ien 



make a Chazza. The Chazza is also of 
tinne with the said Armes and two of 
these make a Challaine. The Challaine is 
of tinne with the said Armes and forty 
of these make a Tanga of Goa good mony 
but not made in Malacca." 

Checquin, Chekin, and Che<ium are all 

corruptions of Sequin, the latter being a 
colloquial form of the Zecchino (q.v,). In 
HakluyVs Voyages, 1599 (ii. i. 152), he 
says, * * Buery man a chekin, which is seuen 
shillings and two pence sterling." Brome, 
Novella, 1632 (i. 2), uses the term ** Here's 
a thousand checquines. " 

Massinger, in A Very Woman, 1655 (iii. 
1), uses the form **chekeen"; and Wheler, 
in his Journey to Greece, 1682 (vi. 413), 
has *'chequin." Conf, Chickino, infra, 

A table adopted in the Province of Mary- 
land in 1763, as a standard for payments, 
mentions the Arabian Chequin as equal to 
108 pounds of tobacco. By an act of 1781, 
after Maryland became a State, fixed val- 
uations were put on foreign coins, and 
among others Arabian Chequins are quoted 
as equal to thirteen shillings and sixpence. 
See Gubber. 

Chelin. A corruption of Shilling, and 
applied in lower Canada first to the silver 
twenty cent piece issued in 1858, and later 
to the twenty-five cent piece which ap- 
peared in 1870. 

Chelonai, or ** Tortoises." The Greek 
popular name for the money of Aegina 
bearing the tortoise type. 

Chequin* See Checquin. 

Cherafin* A silver coin of Goa. Sec 
Xeraphin. 

Cherassi. The name of a modern Per- 
sian gold coin struck at coronations and 
of varying value. See Kelly (p. 358). 

Chesle-money. An English dialect 
word used in Gloucestershire by the coun- 
try people to designate the Roman coins 
which are frequently found in ploughing, 
etc. 

Chhi-Ke. A Tibetan coin of the value 
of three Annas. See Tang-Ka. 

Chia Ch'ien. See Yu Chia Ch^en. 

Chianflune. See Cianfrone. 



The modern Chinese name for 
the 10 cent coin. In some provinces the 



5, 10, 20 and 50 cent pieces are expressed 
by 1/^, 1, 2 and 5 Chiao instead of by Mace 
and Candareens. See Hao. 

Chiappe di Forte. Promis (ii. 12) cites 
this as a money current in Turin in 1335 
of which 28 were equal to a Grosso. 

Chiavarino. A copper coin of Frinco 
issued by the Counts Ercole and Claudio 
Mazzetti (1581-1601). The word Chiavajo 
in Italian means the Keeper of the Keys, 
and the coin receives its name from the 
Papal type of the keys and tiara which 
appear on this issue. 

Chickino, and Chickquiny are corrup- 
tions of Zecchino (q.v,), Caesar Pred- 
erici in Hakluyt's Voyages, 1583 (ii. 342) 
mentions ''Chickinos which be pieces of 
gold woorth seuen shillings a piece ster- 
ling." W. Parry, Travels of Sir A, Sher- 
ley, 1601 (30) uses the expression ** Feed- 
ing her with two chickins.*^ Chapman, in 
May Day, 1611, has *'Half a cliickeene to 
cut's throat,*' and Greaves in Seraglio, 
1653 (9), says, **Six hundred thousand 
chicquins yearly. ' ' 

In the first quarto edition of Shakes- 
peare's Pericles, 1609 (iv. 2), we find men- 
tion of ** three or four thousand clieckins," 
but in the later quartos, and in the third 
and fourth folios (1664, 1685), the same 
word is written '^chickins" and **chick- 
eens," thus indicating that there was no 
fixed rule for the spelling. 

Ch'ieny also written Tsien or Tsen. The 
common Chinese term for money which has 
been thus used from very early times. It 
probably superseded the word Ch'uan 
(q.v.). Specifically it applied to the round 
copper coins, they being the only coins 
made, and is synonomous to our word 
cash (q.v.). It originally meant the Hoe 
coins as the word was used for a hoe. The 
word has been until recent times written 
Tsien. It is also a weight and is then 
known as a Mace (q.v.) by foreigners, it be- 
ing the one tenth part of the Liang or Tael. 
Certain coins of the Hsien Feng period had 
the weight thus expressed on them, as well 
as the first struck Kwang-tung cash, which 
bore ** Treasury weight, one Ch'ien." The 
words Ch'ien Pi are also used as a general 
term for copper money. See also Wen and 
Li. 



[46] 



Chienes 



Chon 



In Japan the word is Sen {q.v.) ; in 
Korea, Chun or Chon {q,v.) ; in Siam 
Salung (q.v.). 

Chienes, or Kiennes. A term found in 
an ordinance of 1380 which reads minuta 
moneta chiamata chiens che ad essi costo 
la somma di 15 franchi; and a document 
of Liege of 1382 reads certaine monnaie 
que on appeloit Kiennes, Du Cange as- 
sumes that in all probability these are the 
popular names of some coins with a figure 
of a dog upon them. 

Ch'ien Fan. The Chinese name for the 
coin moulds in which their coins from the 
earliest times to about 1890 were cast. 

Ch'ien Pi. See Ch'ien. 

Chih Pi. The Chinese word now com- 
monly used for paper money. 

Chih-tsL See Kiao-tze. 

Chih-tsien. The Chinese word meaning 
standard coinage. 

ChikinOy like Chickino, supra, was a cor- 
ruption of Zecchino (q.v.). T. Sanders, 
in An Unfortunate Voyage to Tripoli^ 
1589, says **lend him 100 chikinos." 

Chimfram. The name given to the half 
Real Portuguez issued under Alfonso V 
(1438-1481). These coins were struck at 
Lisbon and Porto. The word signifies 
clipped and was applied to these pieces 
on account of their inferior weight. 

Chimney Money, also called Hearth 
Money, was a crown duty for every fire- 
place in a house, established 14 Charles II 
(c. 2). It was productive of great dis- 
content and was abolished by 1 William 
and Mary (Stat. 1. c. 10). 

Pepys, in his Diary, under October 15, 
1666, writes, * * One moved that the chimney- 
money might be taken from the King." 

Chin, or Kin. The Chinese word for 
Catty (g.v.) or pound. The word is found 
on certain Ku Pu coins (g.v.) as a weight 
value. Another Chinese character with 
the same sound means gold or precious, 
and is sometimes used for money. The 
word Chin Pi is now commonly used for 
gold money. See Kin for a specific piece. 

China Money. See Chany. 

Chinker. A colloquial name for any- 
thing that chinks, as a coin or a piece of 
money. 



Sir Henry Taylor, in Philip Van Arte- 
velde, 1834 (ii. 185), has this passage: 
**Are men like us to be entrapped and 
sold, and see no money? ... So let us 
see your chinkers." 

Chin Tao. See Knife Money. 

Chiqua. According to Du Cange this 
was a small coin issued by the Bishop of 
Grenoble in 1343. 

Chiquiney. A corruption of Zecchino 
(g.v.) and conf, Chickino and Checquin, 
supra, 

Coryat, in his Crudities, 1611 (191), 
refers to '* chests . . . full of chiquineys. ' ' 

Chise. A Turkish money of account. 
See Beutel. 

Chitopense. Ruding (i. 197) states that 
in 1289 or 1290 the Mayor of Bordeaux 
**made proclamation that until the feast of 
Saint Martin, the Chitopenses should still 
be current at the rate of five Chitopenses 
for four new Pennies, or the same number 
of petit Tournois.^' 

In 1312 eight Chipotenses were reck- 
oned to be equal to one Sterling. 

Cho Gin, meaning ^'long silver," is a 
name given to oval lumps of silver, more 
or less diluted with copper, issued in Japan 
as early as 1601. They have no right to 
be called circulating coin. 

Munro states (p. 202) that **the weight 
was supposed to be 43 momme, but owing 
to uncouth form and rough casting, these 
pieces frequently fell short of this amount. 
To correct the deficiency, pieces of silver 
of various weights were added. These have 
been described in some works as Bean 
money, but this is quite incorrect, the ex- 
pression Mame Gin, or Bean Silver, hav- 
ing reference to their usually round or 
bean like form. They all represent Dai- 
koku Ten, the god of wealth, and have 
the year period impressed in the centre 
of each figure." 

Chon, or Chun, generally referred to 
colloquially as Yopchon, is a Korean word, 
and a general term for any copper coin, 
circular in form, and having a square hole 
in the centre. The Chinese word is Ch'ien. 

The Tang-bak-chon was a copper coin of 
Korea issued in the third year of the Em- 
peror Tai, i.e., A.D. 1866, for the purpose 
of making up the deficit in the funds for 
building the Kyong-pok palace. It bore 



[47] 



Chonen Taiho 



Chugul 



characters meaning ''worth a hundred," 
but having no such real value its use had 
to be forced upon the people, causing great 
distress. 

The Tang-au-chon was a copper coin 
issued in the twentieth year of the same 
Emperor, i.e., A.D. 1883. It had charac- 
ters meaning ** worth five" on the reverse 
and was put into circulation at the value 
of five of the older coins, but having no 
such real value and being similar in size 
with the larger varieties of the older coins, 
it was often used indiscriminately with the 
latter. For the silver pieces with enamel 
centres see Daidong Chun. 

The modem copper Korean Chon is the 
equivalent and almost the counterpart of 
the Japanese Sen. In 1894 nickel two 
Chon five Pun pieces were issued in great 
quantities, and in 1897 silver ten and 
twenty Chons, nickel five Chon, and copper 
one and half Chons were issued. 

Chonen Taiho. See Jiu ni Zene. 

Chopped Dollars. The popular desig- 
nation for the Mexican silver Dollars 
stamped by one or more business firms in 
Chinese and Indo-Chinese ports as a token 
of their genuineness. 

A decision of the United States Treas- 
ury Department dated April 18, 1905 (No. 
26281) reads as follows: 

**0n and after May 1, 1905, the silver 
dollar of Mexico will be valued at $0,498, 
as proclaimed on April 1, 1905 (Treasury 
Decision 26223). The duties on mer- 
chandise imported from countries other 
than Mexico, invoiced in so-called Mexican 
dollars, will be computed on the bullion 
value as heretofore.'' 

In Treasury Decision 26560, which gives 
the value of foreign coins after July 1, 
1905, the Mexican chopped dollar is cited 
for the first time, its value being given 

as $0,458. 

The word **chop'' in China, India, etc., 
means an official impression of a seal or 

stamp. 

Ovington, in A Voyage to Snratt, 1696 
(251), says: **Upon their Chops, as they 
call them in India, or Seals engraven, are 
only Characters, generally those of their 

Name." 

Simmonds, in his Dictionary of Trade, 
1859, has: *'Chhap, an official mark on 
weights and measures to indicate their ac- 

[ 



curacy ; an eastern Custom-house stamp or 
seal on goods that have been examined and 
have paid duty." 

Cho-tang. See Tang-Ea. 

Christfest Thaler. See Weihnachts Tha- 
ler. 

Christian d'Or. A gold coin of Den- 
mark struck sipce 1775 by Christian VII, 
from whom it receives its name. 

Christkindl Dnkat The popular name 
for any of the numerous varieties of gold 
Ducats bearing the figure of the infant 
Savior. 

Christus Gulden. The popular name for 
a gold florin of Utrecht, struck by David 
de Bourgogne (1456-1496). It has on the 
obverse a figure of the Savior seated on a 
throne. See v.d. Chijs (xvii. 7). 

Chriraos* A Greek word meaning gold ; 
the Staters were consequently known as 
Chrysoi Stateroi. 

Chu. Also variously written Schu and 
Tchu. A Chinese weight, equivalent to 
about a drachm, and occasionally found 
stamped on some of the earlier coins. The 
name may be derived from Tsu, the most 
southerly State of China in the last cen- 
turies before the Christian era. 

The Chu and its multiples became the 
standard coins of the Chinese Empire dur- 
ing many of the later dynasties. See Wu 
Tchu. 

Ch'uan. A Chinese word meaning funds 
held in reserve, also a spring. The word is 
also used for money. The word Ch'uan 
was eventually supplanted by Ch'ien 
(q.v,). The character for Ch'uan is found 
on the coins of Wang Mang (A.D. 7-14). 
We find the following combinations: 
Ch'uan Fa=coinage, Ch'uan Pi=metal 
money, Ch'uan Pu, or Pu Ch'uan«cur- 
rency. 

Ch'iian« The Chinese word for a string 
of Cash. This word has somewhat taken 
the place of Kuan, or Kwan. Another 
word is Tiao. 

Chuc. Annamese money of account. 
See Quan. 

Chuckram. See Chakram. 

Chugul. A gold coin of Akbar, Em- 
peror of Hindustan, valued at 27 Rupees. 
See Sihansah. 

48] 



ChOlon 



Civil War Tokens 



Chuloiiy or ChaobinlMaik. The name 
given to certain silver ingots shaped some- 
thing like a mower's whetstone, between 
four and five inches long. These pieces 
are characterized by rows of protuber- 
ances on one of the surfaces, and are used 
in Annam and the Lao States. See Schroe- 
der (p. 637). 

Chun. See Chon. 

Chun Dam. The half of the Dam in the 
currency of Nepal. See Suka. 

Chung Pao. The Chinese name for 
heavy coin, and it is thus written, instead 
of T 'ung Pao, on many of the larger of the 
old type Gash. 

Chun Pdt meaning ''arrow money," was 
a variety of coin struck in Korea in the 
ninth year of King Sei-cho, i.e., A.D. 1464. 
One piece of Chun Pei was fixed by law to 
be worth three pieces of the paper money, 
and the coins were used as arrows in times 
of emergency. See Arrow Head Money. 

Church Tokens. A series of brass or 
copper counters issued by churches in Sax- 
ony and other parts of Germany in the 
seventeenth century. They were common- 
ly known as Kirchenpfennige, and were 
sold to the worshippers, who deposited 
them in the offertory, etc. See, also, Com- 
munion Tokens. 

Cianfranct or Chianflune. A name given 
to a variety of the silver Scudo issjied by 
Charles V, and also during the siege of 
Naples in 1528. This coin is mentioned in 
a monetary edict of October 8, 1533. 

Under Philip III of Naples (1598-1621), 
the same name was applied to the silver 
half Ducato, which had a value of five Car- 
lini, and which was later known as Pataca 
(q.v.). 

Cianogt Cianoige, or Cionog. Macbain, 
Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic 
Language, 1896, defines this as a small 
coin. Conf. Welsh, Ceiniog, a Penny. In 
Cork, Galway, Donegal, etc., it is used to 
designate a half Farthing. 

Cica«la Money. The name given to a 
variety of Chinese metallic currency on ac- 
count of its resemblance to the harvest fly. 
Ramsden, who describes them in detail 
(pp. 33-34), quotes a Chinese manual 
where they are mentioned as money to be 
fastened to wearing apparel. 



Cinco. A name given to the French 
piece of five Francs in the Dominican Re- 
public. 

Cincuentin. See Cinquantina. 

Cingus. Another name for the Quin- 
cunx (q.v.), 

Cinquantina, also called Cincuentin. 
The largest of all the Spanish silver coins 
of a value of fifty Reales. It was issued 
by Philip III, Philip IV, and Charles II. 
Some of the varieties struck at Segovia 
have a view of the aqueduct of that town. 

Cinquina. A silver coin struck under 
Ferdinand I of Aragon, as King of Naples 
and Sicily (1458-1494). Its value appears 
to have been originally five Grani but the 
later issues .being of copper were only 
equal to two and a half Grani. See Du- 
cato. 

In the Maltese series this coin appears 
at the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury in copper and was struck as late as 
the reign of Emanuel de Rohan (1775- 
1797). 

Cinquinho. A small silver coin of Por- 
tugal, first issued under Manuel (1495- 
1521), with a value of five Reis. It was 
continued under the reign of John III 
(1521-1557) and then abolished. 

Cimiog. See Cianog. 

Cisele. An expression used by French 
numismatists to indicate that a coin or 
medal has been re-engraved or tooled to 
bring out certain portions in relief. 



lorus. A silver coin principally 
minted in the Kingdom of Pergamos dur- 
ing the second and first centuries B.C. and 
which was valued at three Roman Denarii. 
It receives its name from the representa- 
tion on the obverse of the cista, or mystic 
chest of Bacchus, from which serpents are 
escaping. 

The place of mintage of the Cistophori 
is often indicated by the first letters of 
the name of the city, the types of which 
appear as subordinate symbols in the field 
of the coin. 

Citharepliori. At first a popular term 
which later became an official name for 
the silver Hemidrachms of the Lycian 
League which bore the reverse type of a 
lyre (Ke^apa, hence KtOapti^opoe). 

Civfl War Tokens. See Copperheads. 



[49] 



Clean Dollars 



Cob Money 



Qean Dollars. A term used to desig- 
nate the unehopped Chinese Dollars; they 
usually command a premium of one per 
cent or more over the chopped varieties. 
See Chalmers (p. 378). 

ClementL A general term for the 
Grossi issued by Pope Clement VII (1523- 
1534) ; a practise instituted by Julius II 
with the Giulio. An earlier silver coin, 
the Grosso Clementino, or Clementino, was 
struck by Pope Clement V (1304-1314). 

Clenunergulden. A name given to the 
gold florin of Gueldres and Juliers struck 
by Charles of Egmond (1492-1538). It 
has a figure of St. John the Baptist, and 
the inscription: karol . d-v-x . gelb . ivl '. 

Cliche. A term used in French numis- 
matic works to indicate an electrotype 
copy of an original coin or medal, and 
usually the sides are given separately to 
show the obverse and reverse. The ety- 
mology is probably from the old French 
cliquer, to fix. 

Clinckaerl, or KlinkhaerL A gold coin 
of Flanders and the Low Countries, issued 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
It resembles the Anglo-Gallic Chaise (g.v.) 
and the name is probably derived from 
**Klinken," i.e., to ring. 

There are divisions of one half and one 
third. 

Clipped. A name given to such coins 
as have their edges trimmed. This prac- 
tice was pursued by dishonest persons for 
the sake of retaining some of the metal. 
The abuse is referred to by W. Wood, in 
his Survey of Trade, 1719 (346). 

John Foxe, in his Acts and Monuments 
of the Church, 1596 (311), has: ** About 
which time also . . . lewes for monie clip- 
ping were put to execution." 

Clou. Zay (p. 361) states that this name 
was given to the cut segment representing 
one eighth of the Mexican Dollar, when 
used in Cochin China, prior to 1879, in 
which year the regular French coins were 
issued. 

Qover Cent The popular name for a 
variety of the 1793 cent of the United 
States, which has under the bust of Liberty 
a sprig of leaves resembling those of a 
clover plant. 

Cnapcock, or Knapkoeken. The name 
given to the half gold florin struck at 

[ 



Nimegue, Groningen, etc., at the beginning 
of the sixteenth century. The obverse 
bears a figure of St. Stephen or St. Martin. 
The German equivalent is Knackkuchen, 
and all of these terms mean a brittle cake 
or as We would call it, a cracker. The 
nickname was bestowed on the coin from 
the reverse design which resembled a cake 
in common use. ^ , 

Coal Money. The name given to cir- 
cular pieces of jet or carved coal, which 
appear to be waste in Roman times from the 
lathes of turners, after working oif rings, 
etc. They are found at Kimmeridge in 
Dorsetshire, England, but it is questiona- 
ble whether they were ever used as money. 
See Spink (xiii. 154), and Buding (i. 4). 

Coban. See Koban. 

Cob Money. A term applied to the 
early Mexican and South American money, 
both in gold and silver, from the method 
of striking the coins with a hammer. They 
are known in Mexico by the name of 
Mdquina de papalote y jcruz^ i.6.,. wind- 
mill and cross money, the cross being of 
an unusual form, and not unlike the fan 
of a windmill. In the Numismatic Manual 
of Eckfeldt and Dubois, we are informed 
that: ''these were of the lawful standards, 
or nearly so, but scarcely deserved the 
name of coin, being rather lumps of bul- 
lion flattened and i^lpressed by a hammer ; 
the edge presenting every variety of form 
except that of a circle, and affording ample 
scope for the practice of clipping. Not- 
withstanding, they are generally found, 
even to this day, within a few grains of 
lawful weight. Some are dated as late as 
1770. They are distinguished by a large 
cross, of which the four arms are equal 
in length, and loaded at the ends; the 
date generally omits the thousandth place, 
so that 736 is to be read 1736. The letters 
PLVSVLTBA are crowded in, without atten- 
tion to order." 

Cob Money. A name given in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in 
Ireland, and subsequently in some British 
colonies and possessions to the Spanish 
Dollar or ''Piece of Eight." 

Petty, in his Political Anatomy of Ire- 
land, 1672 (350), refers to "Spanish 
pieces of eight, called cobs in Ireland," 
and Dinely in his Journal of a Tour in 
Ireland, 1681, in the Transactions of the 

60] 



Cochrane Placks 



Comet Cent 



Kilkenny Archaeological Society (ii. II 
55), says, **The most usual money . . . 
is Spanish Coyne knowne here by the name 
of a cob, an half cob, and a quarter cob/' 
The word means something rounded, or 
forming a roundish lump. 

Cochrane Placks. In the reign of Ed- 
ward III of Scotland permission was given 
to Cochrane, Earl of Mar, to coin base 
money, which were called '* Cochrane 
placks," and this was a chief charge 
against him, and for which he was hanged 
over Lauder Bridge in 1482. The Placks 
were called in by proclamation after his 
death. 

This coinage was probably the billon 
placks and black half pennies (afterwards 
reduced to farthings). They are said to 
have been made of copper, and the placks 
to have been current for three pennies. 

Cofaiische Mark. See Mark. 

Coin. Usually a piece of metal which 
bears an impression conferring upon it a 
legal character by public or private agree- 
ment. 

Coined money probably originated in 
Lydia in the eighth century before the 
Christian era. Herodotus states that the 
Lydians were the first people to strike 
coins of gold and silver; this probably re- 
fers to the reform of the coinage by Croe- 
sus B.C. 561-546. Prior to that period 
electrum was probably used altogether. 

The use of the word in English litera- 
ture can be traced to the fourteenth cen- 
tury, and Chaucer in the Clerk's Tale 
(1. 1112) writes, '* though the coyn be 
fair at eye." 

ColloL A nickname given to a counter- 
stamped sou of Guadeloupe. In October, 

1766, Louis XV signed an edict ordering 
the minting of copper pieces of the value 
of one sou for the use of the American 
Colonies. These pieces were struck in 

1767, and probably did not reach Guade- 
loupe until the following year, but they 
were not put in circulation. 

In 1793 George Henri Victor CoUot 
was the governor of the island and on 
October 2 he issued an order for the release 
of these pieces, the latter to be counter- 
stamped R.P. before being put in circula- 
tion. These coins brought into the treas- 
ury an amount of 50,000 livres, and re- 



lieved the scarcity of the Sou Marques and 
the small silver. They were popularly 
known as CoUots, after the Governor. 

Collybos. A small bronze coin. A name 
given at Athens to the Lepton (q.v.). 

Hesychius also mentions the Dicollybos 
and the Tricollybos. 

Colombiano. A variety of the Peso is- 
sued at Santa Fe de Bogota from 1834 to 
about 1850. Its value was eight Reales. 
See Fonrobert, (8077, 8078, 8090). 

Colombina. A base silver coin of Beg- 
gio, issued by Hercules II (1534-1559). It 
has on the reverse a figure of Saint Daria, 
the martyr. 

Colon. The unit of the gold standard 
of Costa Rica, named after Columbus, and 
divided into one hundred Centimos. The 
Colon was not coined, but multiplies of 
two, five, ten, and twenty Colones have been 
struck since 1899. 

Colonato. A name given to a variety 
of the Spanish Peso which exhibits two 
crowned pillars rising from the sea. These 
are the so-called Pillars of Hercules, as- 
sumed by the ancients to be the limits of 
habitation. The Emperor Charles V 
(Charles I of Spain) added the motto Plus 
Ultra on these coins to indicate that his 
dominion was beyond the territory recog- 
nized by the ancients. 

Colts. (HtoXot.) The popular name 
among the ancients for the silver coins of 
Corinth which bear the figure of the 
winged horse Pegasus on the reverse. See 
Pollux (ix. 76). 

Columbia Farthing. The name given 
to a copper token with the figure of a 
head and the word Columbia. Their exact 
origin is unknown but they were probably 
manufactured in England at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century and in- 
tended for export. 

Columbian Half Dollar. The name 
given to a silver coin of the United States 
struck in 1892 and 1893 to commemorate 
the four hundredth anniversary of the dis- 
covery of America. 

A corresponding quarter Dollar is pop- 
ularly known as the Isabella Quarter 
(g.v.). 

Comet Cent The popular name for 
one of the varieties of the United States 
cents of 1807, which has behind the head 



[61] 



Comet Dollar 



Conttanlinati 



of Liberty a peculiar die-break resembling 
a comet in appearance. 

Comet Dollar. See Kometenthaler. 

See Kommassi. 



Commissarie. See Prestation Money. 

Communion Tokens. A series of tokens 
said to have originated in Switzerland, 
where it is claimed John Calvin introduced 
them about the year 1561 to exercise con- 
trol over such as presented themselves for 
Communion services. They were know^n 
as Abendmahl Pfennige. 

The Liturgy drawn up for the Church 
of Scotland, circa 1635, has the following 
rubric prefixed to the Order for the ad- 
ministration of the Holy Communion: '*So 
many as intend to be partakers of the 
Holy Communion shall receive these tokens 
from the minister the night before." 

Spalding, Bannantyne Club Puhlica- 
twns (i. 77), states that they were used 
at the Glasgow Assembly of 1638, to wit: 
** Within the said Church, the Assembly 
thereafter sitts down ; the church door was 
straitly guarded by the toun, none had 
entrance but he who had ane token of lead, 
declaring he was ane covenanter." 

The first church or sacramental token 
employed in America of which we have 
any authentic account, was used in the 
Welsh Run Church in Pennsylvania, which 
was founded in 1741, and the token is 
dated 1748. This church was generally 
known as the Lower West Conecheague 
Church, and the token bears the two let- 
ters C.C. 

For Canada over two hundred varieties 
of the communion tokens are known, and 
a list of them has been compiled by R. W. 
McLachlan of Montreal. 

Conmiunis. See Centenionalis and Fol- 
lis. 

Compagnon. A name given to a vari- 
ety of the Gros Blanc issued by John II 
of France (1350-1364). See Hoffmann 
(xx. 41, 42). 

ConanL A nickname given to the silver 
Peso of the Philippine Islands introduced 
in 1903 on the recommendation of Charles 
A. Conant. 

Concave Coins. A name given to such 
pieces as present the appearance of a shal- 
low bowl, due to a convex die having been« 



used for the obverse, and a concave one 
for the reverse. 

These nummi scyphati, as they were 
called, made their appearance as early as 
the second century B.C. among the Ger- 
manic tribes inhabiting what is now Bava- 
ria and Bohemia. Later, this type of coin 
was extensively employed by the Byzan- 
tine Emperors of the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. 

ConceigaOy or Conception. A gold coin 
of Portugal of the value of 4800 Reis is- 
sued by John IV in 1648 in honor of the 
Madonna de Conception, the protectress 
of the King. It has on the obverse a cross 
and a scriptural inscription on the reverse. 

Conder Tokens. See Tokens. 

Condor. A gold coin of Chile and of 
Ecuador which receives its name from the 
figure of the condor on the obverse. In 
Ecuador its value is ten Sucres and in 
Chile twenty Pesos. 

Condor Doblado. A gold coin of the 
value of twenty Pesos struck at Santa Fe 
de Bogota for the Confederacion Grana- 
dina. See Fonrobert (8160). 

Confederate Half Dollar. The popular 
name for a silver coin of the size of the 
regular issues of the United States Half 
Dollars, but which was struck by the Con- 
federate States of America in the New 
Orleans Mint in 1861. 

It is claimed that but four originals are 
in existence. 

Confederatio. The name given to a 
copper coin issued in 1785 with this in- 
scription. It is muled with a number of 
other dies. For details, see Crosby. 

Confession Thaler. See Beichtthaler. 



Cents. The name given to 
a State coinage struck in copper from 1785 
to 1788 inclusive. For varieties, etc., see 
Crosby. 

Consecration Coins. A name given to 
such Roman coins as were struck to com- 
memorate the apotheosis of a ruler, — a 
ceremony which celebrated his passage to 
the Divinities, and which was ordered 
either by the Senate or the successors of 
the deceased individual. 

ConstantinatL Byzantine Solidi, struck 
by various emperors of the name of Con- 
stantine, were known by this term. 



[52] 






Constantin d'Or 



Copoludi 



Constantin d'Or, or Konstantin d'Or. 

The name given to the Pistole or double 
Ducat issued by Ludwig Constantin von 
Rohan-Montbazon, Bishop of Strasburg 
(1756-1779). 

Consular Coins* Roman coins struck 
under the government of the Consuls from 
circa B.C. 335-27. They are also known 
as Family Coins. . 

Continental Currency* The name given 
to the paper money issued by the Congress 
of the United Colonies in North America. 
They were first made May 10, 1775, and 
continued in use until prohibited by the 
Constitution of the United States as that 
instrument was finally ratified and adopted 
in 1789. 

The Colonies from 1775 to 1779 issued 
large numbers of bills of various denomi- 
nations from one sixth of a Dollar to eighty 
Dollars; twenty different values with 
eleven distinct dates. 

Continental Dollar. See Fugio Cent. 

Conto. A copper denomination of Bra- 
zil, introduced by Calmon Dupin, the 
Minister of Finance, in 1828 and 1829. 
These coins were put out at a fictitious 
value to defray the cost of a war with 
Buenos Aires, and were withdrawn in 
1836. See Noback (p. 1020). 

Contomiates. A name given to certain 
Roman tokens or small medallions which 
can always be readily distinguished by a 
groove encircling the entire planchet. 
They were first Lssued about the time of 
Constantine the Great and were continued 
until the close of the fifth century. 

Their use has not been definitely deter- 
mined. It is supposed that they were em- 
ployed at the public games in the allot- 
ment of prizes, or that they were used as 
counters in games of chance. See Numis- 
matic Chronicle, 1906 (p. 232). 

Contomo. An Italian word signifying 
the edge around the rim of a coin. 

Contragardator. From the French con- 
tregarder, to keep, was a former comp- 
troller whose duty it was to keep accounts 
of the mints. Ruding (ii. 252) cites the 
use of the term as early as 1354. 

Contribution Coins. The name applied 
to any series of coins which were issued 
as necessity money to pay an indemnity 
levied. They were freiiuently struck from 

[ 



the private silver of the residents and 
from metallic ornaments, regalia, chalices, 
etc., belonging to the churches. See Obsi- 
dional Coins. 

Convention Money. A form of cur- 
rency which was accepted by mutual agree- 
ment at a fixed standard within certain 
boundaries. In ancient times uniform 
types are found on the coins of the Ach- 
aean League, originally formed in the 
fourth century B.C. by some cities on the 
Corinthian Gulf. All these issues have AX 
or AXAIQN, the mark of the League, and 
over forty cities joined it before it was 
dissolved. The example was copied by the 
Aetolian, Boeotion, Ionian, and other 
Leagues. 

The Electors of Cologne, Trier, Mainz, 
and the Palatinate made an agreement in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries by 
which their gold florins were struck of a 
uniform weight and value. Other import- 
ant monetary conferences were those of 
various cities in the Low Countries in the 
fifteenth century; the coinage of the Prot- 
estant Rulers during the Thirty Years' 
War; the Convention of 1753, legalizing 
the Species Thaler; the one of 1865, called 
the Latin Union, in which the Franc, Lira 
(and later the Drachma and Peseta) were 
put on the same basis ; and lastly the Scan- 
dinavian Conference of 1872 between 
Sweden and Denmark, to which Norway 
became a party in 1877. 

The Tallero di Convenzione, struck for 
Venice under Francesco I (1814-1834) and 
later, had a value of three Lira. The term 
Vereins Thaler is frequently found on the 
coins of Leopold Friedrich of Anhalt- 
Dessau (1817-1871), and Alexander Carl 
of Anhalt-Bernburg (1834-1863). See 
Verfassungsthaler. 

Cooter. See Couter. 

Copeck. See Kopeck. 

Copetuniy or Coppes. Both of these 
words are used in mediaeval ordinances of 
Holland and Flanders to designate coins 
with a head on the obverse and correspond- 
ing to the Kopfsttick {q.v,), 

Copkinus. A mediaeval silver coin 
which is referred to in the Opstal homicis 
Frisci^ (cap. 21). 



Copoludi, or CoppolutL A name given 
to such of the Piccoli and the Bagattini 

53] 



Copper 



Corona 



of the Doge Christopher Moro of Venice 
(1462-1471), as were of concave shape. 
Conf. Papadopoli, Le Monete di Venezia 

(i. 285). 

Copper in a pure state has been practi- 
cally abandoned for coining purposes, it 
having been ascertained that bronze was 
more suitable. It is now used only for 
coins of minor denominations, but there 
was a period when it was made the stand- 
ard of value. See Aes. 

Copper, i.e., ''a copper'' (and the plural 
coppers), is used colloquially in England 
to denote any small copper coin and in the 
United States it means a cent. Shakes- 
peare in Love's Labour's Lost (iv. 3. 386) 
says, '*our copper buys no better treas- 
ure," and Steele, in The Spectator (No. 
509), states that **the beadle might seize 
their copper." 

Copperheads. A name commonly ap- 
plied to the tokens issued during the Civil 
War in the United States (1862-1865). 
In the latter part of the year 1862 the 
first of these copper tokens were issued 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, and other western 
cities. Many of them have on the obverse 
the Indian head copied from the United 
States cent, and this feature probably gave 
them their name. Some of the later issues 
however, were struck in brass, white-metal 
and silver. There are at least five thou- 
sand varieties, and they continued in circu- 
lation until the end of the year 1863, when 
their use was prohibited. 

Copper Noses. A nickname given to 
the English silver of the fourth and fifth 
coinages of Henry VIII. They were great- 
ly debased, and having the full face of 
the king, they soon began to wear and 
show the inferior metal at the end of the 
nose, the most prominent part. 

Coppes. See Copetum. 

Coppoluti. See Copoludi. 

Coquibus. A billon coin struck by Guy 
II, Bishop of Cambrai (1296-1306), and 
copied by William I of Hainaut (1304- 
1337). It has on the obverse the rude 
figure of an eagle which was mistaken by 
the common people for a cock, and the 
nickname was consequently applied to the 
coin. See Blanchet (i. 19. 461). 



CoraL Marco Polo in his Travels (ii. 
37), states that this material was used for 
money in Thibet. 

Cordoba. A silver coin of Nicaragua, 
introduced in 1912 and of the size and 
value of the United States Dollar. It is 
divided into one hundred Centavos. On 
October 31, 1915, the Cordoba was made 
the only legal tender of the Republic. 

Comabo. A silver coin of the value of 
half a Testone, issued during the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries in Northern Italy. 
It occurs in the coinages of Carmagnola, 
Mantua, Montanaro, Casale, etc. The dis- 
tinguishing feature of almost every variety 
of the Cornabo is the figure of Saint Con- 
stantius on horseback. 

Comado. Originally a Spanish silver 
coin issued under Alfonso X of Castile 
(1252-1284), and struck principally at To- 
ledo. It bears a crowned bust of the king, 
and on the reverse a gateway of three 
towers. In the fourteenth century it began 
to appear made of billon and of much in- 
ferior workmanship, and it seems to have 
been discontinued early in the sixteenth 
century. 

Comet. A general name for money 
coined by the Princes of Orange in whose 
armorial bearings a hunter's horn appears. 
See Blanchet (i. 353). 

Comone. In an ordinance of 1522 re- 
lating to the value of various coins issued 
in Pavia, old and new Cornoni of the 
mints of Casale, Messerano, and Dezana 
are referred to, of a value of nine Soldi. 

Comuto. A silver coin of Savoy of the 
value of five Grossi, issued by Charles II 
(1504-1553). It has on the obverse the 
armorial shield with a large helmet, and 
on the reverse an equestrian figure of St. 
Mauritius. 

Coroa, or Crown. A gold coin of Por- 
tugal of the value of five thousand Reis. 
It was first issued in 1835. There is a 
half and fifth. 

Coroa de Praia. A silver coin of Por- 
tugal of the type of the preceding and of 
a value of one thousand Reis. It was is- 
sued in 1837 and designed by W. Wyon. 
There is a corresponding half. 

Corona. A silver coin of Naples, issued 
under Robert of Anjou (1309-1343) for 
the provinces, and continued by some of 



[ 54 ] 



Coroiuit 



Couhterfrit 



his successors. It appears to have been 
the predecessor of the Coronato (g.v.) and 
obtains its name from the large crown on 
the obverse. 

The word Corona and the plural Cor- 
onae is used on the Austrian silver and 
gold issues, especially the latter. The 
term was introduced about 1892. See 
Krone and Korona. 

Coronal* See Royal Coronat. 

Coronation Coins are such as are 
struck specially when the coronation of a 
ruler takes place and usually contain 
some allusion to the ceremony. They occur 
extensively in the German series and are 
known as Kronungs Miinzen. 

Coronato. A silver coin issued by 
Ferdinand I of Aragon, as King of Naples 
and Sicily (1458-1494), and copied by his 
successor, Alfonso II. It receives its name 
from the inscription: coronatvs qvia 
LEGITIME CERTAViT, ou the obvcrsc, which 
surrounds the seated figure of the king, 
the latter being crowned by a cardinal, 
with a bishop standing on the other side. 
On the reverse is a large cross. 

The Coronato del Angelo, of the same 
ruler, bears a representation of the arch- 
angel Michael slaying a dragon. 

Coronilla. The word means a small 
crown and the designation was applied in 
a general way to the Spanish gold coins 
of the value of half an Escudo which bore 
a crown on the reverse. 

Cosel Gulden, or Kosel Gulden. The 

name given to a silver coin of August II, 
King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, 
issued in 1706 and 1707. The name is 
obtained from the Countess of Cosel, a 
mistress of the Elector. These coins differ 
only from the ordinary types in that on 
the reverse, a dot,- probably a mint mark, 
is a distinguishing feature between the in- 
terlacedr shields of Poland and Saxony. 

Cosimo. The popular name for the 
Grosjio of Cosmus I, Duke of Florence 
(1536-1574). It was valued at 160 "Pic- 
coli. 

Cotale. A silver coin of Florence issued 
under the Republic in the early part of 
the sixteenth century, with a value of four 
Grossi. It has a figure of St. John the 
Baptist on one side and a lily on the re- 
verse. 



Cotrim. A billon Portugueise coin issued 
by Alfonso V (1438-1481). It has the 
figure of a coronet between two annelets. 

CottereL A washer, or broad thin ring 
of metal placed below the head or nut of 
a bolt; in several English dialects it is 
the nickname for a coin. In the plural, 
written the same, it is used to express 
money or coins. 

Counter. A token frequently struck in 
imitation of a real coin and usually of 
brass, copper, or some other inferior metal. 

John Skelton in The Interlude of Mag- 
nyfycence, 1526 (1. 1186) has **Nay, offer 
hym a counter in stede of a peny," and 
in Dent, The Pathway to Heaven, 1601 
(24) occurs this phrase: **A fool believeth 
every thing; that copper is gold, and a 
counter an angel." The last word is of 
course an allusion to the gold coin. 

The second meaning of Counter is to 
signify a piece of metal used for calcula- 
tions, e,g,, in games of chance. In this 
sense it corresponds to the Rechenpfennig 
(q.v.), and it is so used by Thomas Hobbes, 
in his Leviathan, 1651 (i. iv. 15), who has 
this passage: ** Words are wise mens 
counters, they do but reckon by them ; but 
they are the mony of fooles." 

Similarly, the clown in Shakespeare's 
play, The Winter's Tale (iv. 3), attempts 
to compute his money, but says, **I cannot 
do't without counters.'* 

Finally the word was employed in the 
plural form for base coin and money in 
general. An example is to be found in 
Shakespeare's Julius Cmsar (iv. 3) where 
Brutus sayi^: 

I did send 
To you for gold to pay my legions. 
Which you denied me : was that done like Casslus ? 
Should I have answer'd Caius Cassius so? 
When Marcus Brutus grows so covetous. 
To lock such rascal counters from his friends, 
Be ready, gods, with all your thunderbolts. 
Dash him to pieces ! 

Counterfeit* This term is used in nu- 
mismatics both to indicate fraudulent is- 
sues of rare coins prepared to deceive col- 
lectors, and to debased current coins struck 
to be circulated among the general public. 

The limits of the present work prevent 
a detailed description; the reader should 
consult the exhaustive treatise in Luschin 
von Ebengreuth, Allgemeine Munzkunde 
und Oeldgeschichte (pp. 122-132). 



[55] 



Countermark 



Crocard 



Countermark, also called Counterstamp. 
A device or lettering, generally made with 
a punch, on the face of a regular issue, 
either to give it a new valuation or to 
indicate its acceptance as a coin of a dif- 
ferent country or locality from the one 
that struck the original piece. 

Coupure. Thi^ word, meaning a "cut- 
ting," was originally applied to the 
French twenty franc paper notes. It is 
now, however, identified with bank notes 
of smaller denomination, and beginning in 
1914 necessity paper money called cou- 
pures ranging as low as a few centimes, 
were issued in many of the French cities. 

Courant This term is generally em- 
ployed to distinguish the internal currency 
from that used in commerce and abroad, 
or from paper money. 

The Courant Thaler of Poland was is- 
sued under Stanislaus Augustus in 1794 
and 1795. It had a value of six Zloty, and 
the reverse reads 14 ^/jg ex marca pur 

COLONIENS. 

Courie. See Cowries. 

Couronne d'Or. A French gold coin, 
introduced by Louis IX (1226-1270), and 
continued almost uninterruptedly to the 
end of the reign of Philip VI of Valois 
(1328-1350). It receives its name from 
the large crown on one side; the reverse 
has an ornamental cross with fleurs des 
lis in the angles, and the inscription: 

+XPC :VINCIT :XPC IREGNAT :XPC zIMPERAT. 

Couronne du SoleQ. A French gold 
coin of the sixteenth century. It was of 
the same weight and quality as the Eng- 
lish Crown of the Rose issued 'in the reign 
of Henry VIII. 

CouronneUe. See Ecu k la Couronne. 

Courte Noire. See Korten. 

Couter, or Cooler. A slang expression 
for a Sovereign. It may be derived from 
the Danubian-Gipsy word cuta, meaning a 
gold coin. 

Cow Money. See Kugildi. 

Cow Plappert. See Blaffert. 

Cowries. A general term for the shells 
of the Cyprcea Moneta. The word comes 
from the Hindustani Kauri. The shells 
are abundant in the Indian Ocean and are 
collected especially in the Maldive and 
Laccadive Islands, and have been used in 



China as a medium of exchange from prim- 
itive times. They have been used in most 
parts of Asia and Africa up to very recent 
times. In Siam 6400 cowries are equal to 
about Is. 6d. English money. The Chinese 
name is Pei. 

In the Bengal Gazette for 1780, refer- 
ring to the introduction of a copper coin- 
age, the editor states that '4t will be of 
the greatest use to the public, and ¥nll 
totally abolish the trade of cowries, which 
for a long time has formed so extensive 
a field for deception and fraud." 

See Allan, Numismatic Chronicle (Ser. 
iv. xii. 313), and Elliot (p. 59). 

Bowrey, in his Account of Countries 
Round the Bay of Bengal, published by 
the Hakluyt Society in 1905, states (p. 
2l8) that there is a money of account in 
the Maldives, based on tiie Cowries, as 
follows : 



1 Ounda 
5 Oundas 
4 BurrleB 
16 Pone 
2^ Cawne 



4 Cowries. 

1 Burrie, or 20 Cowries. 

1 Pone or Poon, or 80 Cowries. 

1 Cawne, or 1280 Cowries. 

1 Rupee, or 3200 Cowries. 



Crabbelaer. See Erabbelaar. 
See Orazia. 



The popular name for the 
Grosso issued at Cremona during the Re- 
publican rule,' i.e., from the twelfth to the 
-fourteenth centuries. 

CreiitZy or Criutz. A copper coin of 
Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden struck 
in 1632 has the value as 1 Creutz or Criutz. 
It is the size of the ^ Ore piece. 

Creutier. An obsolete spelling of the 
Kreuzer (g.v.). Adam Berg, in his New 
MUnzbuch, 1597, invariably uses the form 
Creutzc^r. 

CrimbaL In 1731 and 1732 the French 
Government issued silver coins of six and 
twelve Sols for the Isles du Vent, or Wind- 
ward Islands. An Englishman named 
Crimbal introduced them at Barbadoes 
and in that island they received the name 
of Crimbals. See Wood (p. 2). 

Criutz. See Creutz. 

Croat. The Spanish equivalent of the 
Gros. The name is usually applied to a 
series of silver coins issued by tiie Counts 
of Barcelona during the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. 

Crocardt or Crokard. A base coin 
which circulated extensively in England 



[66] 



Croce o Testa 



Grown of the Rose 



toward the close of the thirteenth century. 
For a short time they were allowed to pass 
at the rate of two for a penny, but were 
prohibited in 1310. They were decried in 
Ireland by a proclamation of Edward I, 
and an ordinance of this ruler (Act 27, 
1300) refers to mauveises monees que sunt 
appellez Pollards et crokardz. See Bra- 
bant. 

Croce o Testa. An Italian term mean- 
ing ** cross or head" and corresponding to 
the English ** Heads or Tails'' {q.v.). 

Crocherd* Probably an obsolete spelling 
of Crocard. See Halard. 

Crocione. A silver coin of Milan intro- 
duced under Joseph II (1780-1790). It 
is the Italian name for the Austrian Kron- 
enthaler (q.v.). 

Cronichte Groschen. See Kronigte. 

Croeseids. See Kroiseioi. 

Crokard. See Crocard. 

Cromstaert. See Kromstaart. 

Crookie. An obsolete Scotch term for a 
sixpence, and formerly common to Lanark- 
shire. The name is probably due to the 
fact that it was easily ** crooked" or bent. 

Croondaalder. The Dutch and Flem- 
ish equivalent of the Kronenthaler (q.v,). 

Crore. A money of account used in 
India and equal to one hundred Lacs. 

Crosatus, or Crozat Du Cange cites 
documents of the fourteenth century in- 
dicating that this name was generally used 
to describe a coin with a cross upon it. 

CrosazaEo. A silver coin of Genoa cur- 
rent from the beginning to the middle of 
the seventeenth century. The obverse 
bears a crown beneath which is the Castell 
di Genova, and on the reverse is an in- 
scription surrounding a cross with a star 
in each angle. 

Cross Dollar. The popular name for 
the Spanish silver coin of eight Reales 
with the Burgundian cross on the reverse. 

In the London Gazette, 1689 (No. 2444) 
mention is made of * * about 40 1. in Spanish 
Money and Cross Dollars." 

Cross-t3rpe. See Monnaies a la Croix. 

Crown. An English gold coin first is- 
sued in the reign of Henry VIII pursuant 
to a proclamation dated November 5, 1526, 
and originally called a Crown of the 
Double Rose. It was current for five shil- 



lings and was made of 22 carat gold fine 
only, this being the earliest example of 
a gold coin of less than standard fineness 
in England. This alloy was henceforth 
known as Crown gold, and it has been the 
standard for all English gold coins since 
1634. 

In the time of Elizabeth this coin reached 
the low value of three shillings and four 
pence, and it was entirely discontinued in 
1601, being superseded in 1604 by the 
Britain Crown and the Thistle Crown 
(q.v.). 

Crown. The English silver coin of this 
denomination was first issued in 1551, and 
formed a * part of the third coinage of 
Edward VI. Those struck at Southwark 
under the direction of Sir John Yorke have 
a letter Y for a mint mark, and those is- 
sued at the Tower under Throgmorton 
have a figure of a ton. 

The double crown of the value of ten 
shillings first appeared in the second coin- 
age of James I. 

Crown. See Coroa, Korona, and Krone. 

Crown of the Rose. By a proclama- 
was ordered to be struck. This coin was 
an imitation of the French Couronne du 
Soleil, and it was made current for four 
shillings and sixpence, to which value the 
French coin was also raised. As the ex- 
portation of gold to France and Flanders 
did not cease, it was thought that this 
could be stopped by an increase in the 
nominal value of this and other gold coins, 
and consequently on November 5, 1526, an- 
other proclamation was issued, by which 
another crown, called the Crown of the 
Double Rose, was to be made, and which 
should be current for five shillings. The 
latter coin is the regular issue of the gold 
Crown (g.v.). 

As the existence of such a coin as the 
Crown of the Rose was questioned for a 
long time a detailed description of this 
great rarity follows: 

Obv. A shield crowned bearing the arms 
of England and France quarterly, all with- 
in two inner circles, the innermost one 
linear, the outer dotted, both pierced above 
by the ball and cross on top of the crown, 
mm. a rose, legend henric'-8:dei:gra': 
REX : aql' :z :pra'; Rev. A full-blown 
single rose of five petals, surrounding it 
four fleurs de lis arranged crossways, be- 



[57] 



Crozat 



Cut Dollar 



tion of August 22, 1526, a new English 
gold coin, called the Crown of the Rose, 
tween these a lion passant guardant and 
the letter H crowned, placed alternately, 
all within inner circles as on the obverse, 
mm. a rose, legend henric^: RVTHiANS: 
ROSA : SINE : SPINA, the letters on both sides 
in Roman characters, except the letter H, 
the numeral Arabic. See American Jour- 
nal of Numismatics (xliv, 22). 

Crozat See Orosatus. 

Crudatusy Cmcifer, Cruciger. See 

Kreuzer. 

Cniickston Dollars. A name sometimes 
given to the Scottish crowns of Mary and 
Darnley of the second issue of 1565, be- 
cause the yew tree on the reverse is sup- 
posed to represent a noted yew at Cruick- 
ston, Lord Darnley 's residencie near Glas- 
gow. 

Cniitzer. An obsolete spelling of Kreu- 
zer discontinued at the end of the eigh- 
teenth century. See Poy. 

Crusade* See Cruzado. 

Cruzadinho. A small Portuguese gold 
coin issued under John V (1706-1750), 
and struck at Lisbon; it was copied for 
the colonial possessions and specimens 
occur with the Rio and Minas mint marks. 
Its value was the same as the later Cru- 
zado, i.e., four hundred Reis. 

Cruzadoy also called Crusado and Cru- 
sade, a gold coin of Portugal, originally 
issued by Alfonso V (1438-1481). It ob- 
tains its name from the cross on the re- 
verse which was placed there to commem- 
orate the participation of this King in the 
crusade against the Turks. 

The value of the Cruzado was originally 
390 Reis, and in 1517 it was fixed at four 
Tostoes, or four hundred Reis, i.e., the 
tenth part of the Moidore. Under Manoel 
I (1495-1521) it was called Manoel, out 
of compliment to that ruler. 

The silver Cruzado appears under the 
restoration of the House of Braganza, in 
the reign of John IV (1640-1656). Its 
value was the same as the gold, but many 
specimens occur counterstamped 500, indi- 
cating that it possessed a higher value on 
special occasions. It was extensively struck 
at the mints in Lisbon, Porto, and Evora. 

Pedro II, in 1688, issued a Cruzado 
Nuevo, also called Pinto, of the value of 



480 Reis, but his successor, John V, re- 
turned to the old standard. 

Cruzado Calvario. A gold coin of Por- 
ii.pfal first issued in the reign of John III 
(1521-1557). It obtains its name from the 
elongated cross on the reverse, which re- 
sembles the cross of Calvary, and succeeds 
the square type of cross previously em- 
ployed. 

Ciiarenta. The name given to the Cuban 
silver coin of forty Centavos introduced 
in 1915. 

Cuartilku A Mexican copper coin and 
the same as the Cuartino (q.v.). The 
designation is used for issues of Alvarado, 
Chihuahua, Durango, Hermosillo, Guan- 
axuato, Sinaloa, etc. 

Cuartillo. The same as Cuartino (q.v.). 

Cuartino. A silver coin of Guatemala, 
Nicaragua, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, the 
Argentine Republic, etc., of the value of 
one quarter Real. See Quartinho. 

Cuarto. See Quarto. 

Cufic Coins. See Kufic. 

Cunagiuni. According to Du Cange this 
implies tributum pro impressione iypi ex- 
solvendum. Ruding (ii. 256) states that 
in 1422, Henry Somer, the keeper of the 
dies in the Tower of London, was com- 
manded by writ to deliver cunagia for the 
mints in this town. He adds: **This, I 
presume, had been paid to the warden of 
the mint in the Tower, and was therefore 
to be returned by him to the treasurer of 
the mint, to which it properly belonged." 

Cuneator. A former officer in the mint 
who was responsible for the accuracy of 
the dies; he received the old and broken 
dies as his fee. See Ruding (i. 41). 

Cunnetti Type. The name given to a 
series of Anglo-Saxon Pennies principally 
struck at York under Guthred {circa S7J- 
894) which bear on the reverse the inscrip- 
tion CVN. NET. TI. 

Cupang. This coin mentioned by Chal- 
mers in Colonial Currency, 1893 (p. 383) 
is the same as the Kepeng {q,v,). 

Currency. By this is meant coin or bank 
notes, or other paper money issued by au- 
thority, and which are continually passing 
as and for coin. 

Cut Dollar. The name given to the 
Spanish Peso or Colonato when cut into 



[58] 



CypTBsa Moneta Czvorak 

four, eight, or twelve segments, each of seated figure of St. Cyril the Apostle of 

which passed for the corresponding value the Slavs. 

of the fractional part. See Bit. Cyzicenes (Greek: Ku^cxtivoe). A name 

Cypraea Moneta. See Cowries. . given by the Greeks to the electrum Staters 

Cyrilliu Thaler. A silver coin of 01- of Cyzicus in Mysia. 

miitz struck by Wolfgang, Earl of Schrat- Czvorak. The name given to the Polish 

tenbach in 1730. It bears on one side a silver coin of four Grossi. See Szelong. 



[59] 



Daalder 



Danegeh 



D 



DajJder, or Dadder. The equivalent in 
Brabant and the various provinces of the 
Low Countries for the Thaler. This coin 
varied in value, in some parts of the 
Netherlands it was the same as two Gul- 
den and five Stuivers, while in others it 
was equal to thirty-two Patards. See 
Dollar. 

Dabou. See Dub. 

Dadder. See Daalder. 

Dagger Money. A sum of money for- 
merly paid to the justices of assize on the 
northern circuit in England to provide 
against marauders. 

Dahab. An Abyssinian money of ac- 
count. See Wakea. 

Daidoog Chun. The Korean name for 
silver coins with porcelain centres on 
reverse minted in 1882 but never put into 
circulation. They come in three denomina- 
tions, one, two and three Chun. See Um- 
pyo. ^ 

Daing. The name given to the cast sil- 
ver ingots of Burmah. They are the earli- 
est types of money of this country. 

Data. See Akahi Dala. 

Dalar. The Polish equivalent of Thaler 
and like the German type divided into 
thirty Groszy corresponding to Groschen. 
It was originally struck by Sigismund III 
(1587-1632). 

Daler. See Plate Money, De Gortz 
Daler, Rigsdaler, and Species. 

Daler. A coin of the Danish West In- 
dies introduced in 1904 and equal to five 
Francs or five hundred Bits. It is issued 
in gold in four and ten Daler denomina- 
tions. 

Dam. A copper coin of Hindustan, and 
of about the same value as the Pais&, i.e., 
the fortieth part of the Rupee. Of the 
Moghul emperors, the Dams of Akbar 
(1556-1605) were minted at Lahore, Delhi, 
Malpur, etc. The Bahmanis of Eolbarga 
also employed this currency. 

The Phoka Dam is a Nepalese copper 
coin belonging to the reign of Surendra 
Vikrama (1847). See Thomas (p. 439 et 
seq,), and Sihansah and Suka (infra). 



See Demareteion. 
Damba. An African money of account. 
See Boss. 

Dampang. See Tampang. 

DamrL A copper coin of Hindustan 
and equal to one eighth of the Dam (q.v.), 

Danake. The AoEvaxtj of the Greeks. At 
first it designated a small silver coin in the 
East, but later came to be applied to a 
copi)er coin. In the Persian Empire it 
corresponded to the Greek Obol. It was 
also popularly applied to Charon's Obol 
(q.v.) according to Suidas and other an- 
cient authors. The word i)ersi8ted imtil 
the Middle Ages as the Arabic daneq, the 
Persian dangh and the neo-Sanscrit tanka, 

Danaretto. See Denaretto. 

Danaro. The Italian equivalent of the 
Denier, which can be traced in Beneven- 
tum to the reign of Grimaldo (793-806) 
and was current in nearly all the Italian 
states, provinces, and cities. 

It is frequently written Denaro, and a 
smaller coin which was issued by the Doges 
of Venice from circa 1170 to 1250 is called 
the Danaretto, or Denaretto. 

There are also multiples, and under 
Antonio I (1701-1731) and Onorato III 
(1731-1793) of Monaco, pieces of eight 
Danari in copper were struck. 

Dandiprat, also but rarely written Dan- 
dyprat. The colloquial name for a small 
silver coin which was current in England 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
It was probably the half Groat of Henry 
VII (1485-1509). 

Camden, in his Remaines, 1605 (188), 
refers to it thus: '*K. Henry the 7th 
stamped a small coine called dandyprats. * ' 

DanegelL An annual tax formerly laid 
on the English nation for maintaining 
forces to oppose the Danes, or to furnish 
tribute to procure peace. It was at first 
one shilling, afterward two, and at last 
seven, for every hide of land except such 
as belonged to the church. 

At a subsequent period, when the Danes 
became masters, the Danegelt was a tax 



[60] 



Daneq 



Decaen Piastre 



levied by the Danish princes on every 
hide of land owned by the Anglo-Saxons. 

Daneq. See Danake. 

Dangli. A small Persian silver coin cur- 
rent in the seventeenth century. The 
Dangh was primarily a weight, hence its 
equivalents, in silver, came to represent 
the fractions of the coin. See Larin and 
Danake. 

Danielstlialer. The name given to a 
Thaler struck in 1561 by the Princess Maria 
of the House of Jever. It has on the re- 
verse a figure of the prophet Daniel sur- 
rounded by four lions. See Madai (1734). 

Danik. The sixth of the Dinar and of 
the Dirhem: therefore of variable weight 
in reference to one or the other, and in 
respect of the varying weights of either. 
As one sixth of a dinar, it is equal to 12, or 
to 10, or to 8 habbehs, according to the 
number of habbehs to the dinar. Hence 
we find the following relations recorded: 
= 2 kirats (of silver, i.e., 2]/$, as there 
are 14 kirats or 6 daniks to the dirhem) ; 
or = 3 1/3 kirats {i.e., in relation to the 
dinar of 20 kirats) or = 10 habbehs or 
40 aruzzehs, i.e., in reference to the dinar 
of 60 habbehs ; or =» 12 grains, i.e., in ref- 
erence to the dinar of 72 habbehs. Five 
daniks of gold = 11 ^^/jg dirhems at Bag- 
dad, where the dinar was worth 14 '/S. The 
danik was the quarter of a dirhem in 
Khwarizm, afterward 4^. 

Danimu See Mahmudi. 

Darb* A silver coin of India and equiv- 
alent to the half Rupee. See Sihansah. 

Darby. An obsolete English slang word 
meaning ** ready money." Hickeringill, 
in his Works y 1682 (ii. 20), says, **down 
with the dust and ready Darby," and 
Shadwell, in his play The Squire of AU 
satia, 1688 (i. 1), uses the expression, *'the 
ready, the Darby." 

Dardenne. A copper coin of France 
struck in 1711 and 1712 for Provence. 1\jr 
value was six Deniers, indicated by six 
crowned figures L placed opposite the sides 
of an equilateral triangle with the figure 
& in the centre. 

Daric A Persian gold coin which is 
supposed to have obtained its name from 
the figure on the obverse of the Persian 
King Darius. They appear to have been 



originally issued by Darius I, the son of 
Hystaspes (B.C. 521-485). See Herodotus, 
Historia (iv. 166). The King is generally 
represented as a kneeling bowman, and con- 
sequently these coins are sometimes re- 
ferred to as Archers (q.v.). The reverse 
bears an incuse punch-mark. 

These coins are the Aapetx.oe of the 
Greeks, and in those parts of the Scriptures 
written after the Babylonish captivity, they 
are called Adarkonim. Ezra (viii. 26, 27), 
/ Chron. (xxix. 7), and by the Talmudists, 
Darkonoth; Nehemiah (vii. 70-72). Cojif. 
Hill, Historical Greek Coins (p. 2,7). 

Darkonoth. The Talmudic name for 
the Daric (g.v.). 

DaMu A silver coin of India and equal 
to one tenth of a Rupee. See Sihansah. 

Dauphin. A billon coin of France which 
receives its name on account of being spe- 
cially struck for Dauphiny. The Petit 
Dauphin was issued by Charles V (1364- 
1380), and the Grand Dauphin by Charles 
VII (1422-1461). 

Davkbthaler. The name given to a sil- 
ver coin of David, Coui^t of Mansfeld, is- 
sued from about 1605 to 1628. 

DavidstinTer. The name given to the 
double Gros of Utrecht issued in 1477 by 
David de Bourgogne, Bishop of Utrecht. 
See Prey (No. 182). 

A gold Florin issued by the same ruler 
with a figure of David and his harp, is 
commonly known as the Davidsharp, or 
Harpe d'or. 

Debased Coin is money that is lowered 
in character or quality. Macaulay, in his 
History of England (v. 3), uses the term 
'*a debased currency.'' See Embase and 
Imbasing. 

Decachalk. This multiple, 10 Chalkoi, 
seems to have been coined only under the 
Ptolemaic sovereigns of Egypt. 

Decadrachm, or Dekadrachmon, repre- 
sented the multiple of ten Drachms {q.v.). 
Next to the Dodecadrachm it is the largest 
of all the silver coins struck by the Greeks, 
and was issued principally in the Sicilian 
cities. 

Decaen Piastre. A silver coin of the 
value of ten Livres, issued in the Isle of 
Prance in 1810. The coins were struck 
from metal captured in the ship Oviedor, 
and obtained their name from Decaen, the 



[61] 



DecaKtron 



Demand Notes 



captain general. For a detailed account, 
see Spink (ix. 4415), and Zay (p. 265). 

Decalitron. The Corinthian Stater, we 
know from Pollux, was so called in Sicily 
because it equalled exactly 10 litrae of the 
native standard. Coins of this standard 
bearing Corinthian types were frequently 
struck in Sicily. 

Decanummion. See Nummus and Fol- 
lis. 

Decargynis. A Roman silver coin first 
issued by Honorius, and of one half the 
value of the Siliqua. See Babelon, Traite 
(L 581). 

Decenario. Th« name given to a vari- 
ety of mezzo Grosso struck by the Counts 
of Tyrol at Merano. Its value was ten 
Piccoli. See Bivista Italiana di Numis- 
matica (xx. 430). 

Decline. A copper coin of the first 
French Revolution, issued in 1794, from 
dies by Charles Wielandy, a medallist and 
engraver of Geneva. 

When the Franc system was introduced 
in 1803, the Decime was made the one 
tenth of the Franc, a position which it 
nominally still holds, though no longer 
struck. 

The Decime was issued in 1838 for Mon- 
aco, and in 1840 for France, as a pattern 
for a proposed new copper coinage. Mail- 
liet (cii. ciii. 3-6) cites Decimes struck in 
1814 and 1815 for Strasburg when block- 
aded by the allies. A cast Decime was 
issued for Santo Domingo in 1801. It is 
of very rude workmanship arid bears tlie 
reverse inscription in three lines: un 
DECIHE LAN 8, all of the letters N on both 
sides being reversed. 

Dedmo. A silver coin of the Central 
American States of the value 6f ten Cen- 
tavos, or the tenth part of a Peso. 

For Buenos Aires there was struck in 
1822 and later at copper Decimo equal to 
the tenth part of the copper Real of the 
same city; the Real, in fact, is stamped 

10 DECIM BUENOS AYRES. 

Declaration Type. See Oxford Unite. 

Decobol. Mentioned in inscriptions (C. 
I. G. Attic t. II, No. 387) was never struck, 
being solely a money of account. 

Decondonf or Aexcoyxcov, or Deunx (q.v.) 
was ten twelfths of the litra (or As of 
twelve ounces). Bronze coins of this de- 



nomination were struck at Centuripae in 
Sicily. 

Decunx. One of the divisions of the 
As, of the weight of ten ounces: It is 
sometimes called the Dextans. See Aes 
Grave. 

Deciis* A nickname for the silver 
Crown of James II of England, the first 
issues of which had an edge inscription 
reading decvs et tvtamen, i.e., **ari orna- 
ment and a safeguard." 

Thomas Shadwell, in his play. The 
Squire of Alsatia, 1688, has the phrase, 
*'To equip you with some Meggs, Smelts, 
Decus's and Georges;'' Sir Walter Scott 
mentions the term in his novel The For- 
tunes of Nigel (xxiii.) thus: ''noble Mas- 
ter Grahame . . . has got the decuses and 
the smelts. ' ' See Megg. 

DeciiMtt. A multiple of the Roman As 
after the first reduction. It bears on the 
obverse the head of Minerva or Roma and 
on the reverse the prow of a galley and 
the mark X, i.e,, ten Asses. 

De Gortz Daler, or Notdaler. The 

name given to a series of eleven copper 
coins struck in Sweden from 1715 to 1719, 
which are so called from Baron George 
Henry de Gortz, a nobleman who obtained 
the sanction of Charles XII to issue them. 
They were intended to pass for four times 
the value which they would have possessed 
if composed of an equal weight of fine 
silver. 

The death of the King in 1718, and the 
execution of de Gortz in the following 
year, put an end to the exaggerated valua- 
tion of these coins, and they were reduced 
to something like their actual worth, that 
is, about two Pfennige. 

Dehliwala. A base silver coin of the 
Path4n Sultans of Hindustan. They were 
imitated and adopted, with altered legends, 
by Altamsh, and his feudatories, until 
about A.H. 630 (A.D. 1232). See Thomas 
(p. 14). 

Dekadrachmon. See Decadrachm. 

Ddcanummion. A name given to the 
quarter PoUis, consisting of ten Nummi. 
See Follis. 

Demand Notes. The name given to a 
variety of paper money issued by the 
United States in 1861, of values from five 
dollars to twenty dollars. See Greenbacks. 



[62] 



Demareteioii 



Denarius Oscensis 



Demaretekm, or Damaretekm. The 

name given to a variety of Decadraehm 
struck at Syracuse circa B.C. 480. They 
were issued in celebration of the victory of 
Gelon over the Carthaginians at Ilimera 
and were named from Demarete, the wife 
of Gelon. 

These coins were each worth ten Attic 
Drachms; the Sicilians called them Pente- 
contalitra on account of their weight. 

Conf. Hill, Coins of Ancient Sicily (p. 
56). 

Demy* A Scotch gold coin issued by 
James I. It has on the obverse the arms 
of Scotland in a lozenge shape, and on 
the reverse a St. Andrew 's cross in tressure. 

Its weight was usually from fifty to 
fifty-three grains and the half in propor- 
tion. 

Delia. A silver coin of Tuscany of the 
value of ten Lira struck by the Queen 
Maria Louisa pursuant to an ordinance of 
July 21, 1803. 

Dcnar. The German equivalent of both 
the Denarius and Denier. 

Denaretto. A name given to such vari- 
eties of the Denaro as are of small fabric. 
They are common to the Venetian series 
from the twelfth to the fourteenth cen- 
tury. See Danaro. 

Denarii Augmentabfles. See Okelpen- 
ning. 

Denarii Corvonim, or Rabenpfennige, 
was the name given to small silver coins 
struck at Freiburg in Breisgau in the 
fourteenth century, on account of the head 
of a raven on the obverse, which was 
copied from the arms of the city. Raben 
was later corrupted into Rappen (q.v,), 

Denarino. A base silver coin of Mo- 
dena issued during the sixteenth century. 
It was equal to the half Soldo. 

Denarius. A Roman silver coin first 
issued B.C. 268 with the Quinarius and 
Sestertius as its divisions. At that time 
the Aes Libralis had been reduced to two 
ounces in weight and the Denarius was 
equivalent to ten of them. 

The original type bears on the obverse 
the head of Minerva and the numeral X, 
and on the reverse the Dioscuri on horse- 
back and the legend roma in the exergue. 
There is a tradition that the Romans won 
the battle of Lake Regilius, circa B.C. 496, 



by the aid of Castor and Pollux who ap- 
peared on the battlefield as youths riding 
white horses. These early types of De- 
narii are consequently also known as Cas- 
toriati. 

In B.C. 217 the value of the Denarius 
was changed to sixteen Asses, and the 
numeral XVI substituted, the latter being 
generally abbreviated by the sign *. 

The Denarius, in A.D. 296, was suc- 
ceeded by the Centenionalia as a silver 
coin, and the name Denarius was applied 
to a copper coin, commonly known as the 
*^ third bronze.'' See FoUis. 

The gold Denarius, of the same weight 
as the silver one and of the value of ten, 
was the same as the half Aureus or Quin- 
arius. It occurs both in the Roman Con- 
sular and Imperial series. 

The following table shows how exten- 
sively the silver Denarii were debased, and 
their corresponding values: 

Percentage ot 
copper alloy 

Under Augustus the Denarius was one 
eighty-fourth of a pound, copper 60 
grains 5 

Under Nero the Denarius was one nine- 
tieth of a pound, copper 55 grains 5 to 10 

Under Trajan the Denarius was one 
ninety-ninth of a pound, copper 51 
grains 15 to 18 

Under Hadrian the Denarius was one 
ninety-ninth of a pound, copper 51 
grains 18 to 20 

Under M. Aurelius the Denarius was one 
ninety-ninth of a pound, copper 51 
grains 20 to 25 

Under Commodus the Denarius was one 
one hundred and a third of a pound, 
copper 49 grains 25 to 30 

Under Sept. Severus the Denarius was one 
one hundred and a fifth of a pound, 
copper 48 grains 30 to 55 

Denarius Aereus. From the time of 
Gallienus the Denarius became so debased 
that it was little more than copper and 
was henceforth called D. Aereus (Vopiscus 
Aurelian, 9). 

Denarius Albus. See Albus. 

Denarius Communis. See Follis. 

Denarius Dentatus. See Serrated Coins. 

Denarius Novus Argenteus. This in- 
scription occurs on a large silver coin 
struck for Riga in 1574. It had a value 
of eighteen Ferding. 

Denarius Oscensb. A coin of the weight 
of a Roman Denarius but bearing as types : 
obverse, a youthful or bearded male head ; 
reverse, a horseman, was issued in the 
second and first centuries B.C. from vari- 



[63] 



Denaro Mancuso 



Desjat Deneg 



ous mints in Spain to facilitate exchange 
between the local population and the Ro- 
mans. This coin is spoken of as Argentum 
Oscense and Oscenses by Livy (xxxiv, 10; 
46; xl, 43). The name is derived from the 
city of Osca (the modern Huesca) in Tar- 
raconensis which was the capital of Ser- 
torius and, owing to the proximity of large 
silver mines, was the principal place of 
issue of this coinage. 

Denaro Mancuso. See Mancoso. 

Denaro Provisino. See Provisino. 

Denga* Also called Tenga and Den- 
uschka. A Russian word meaning money 
in general. The term was first applied to 
silver coins struck by the Dukes of Mos- 
kow and Kiev, as early as the second half 
of the fourteenth century, and subse- 
quently by the free cities of Novgorod and 
Pskof. The Dengi were intended for cir- 
culation among the Tartars, and the style 
and denomination of the Tartar money 
was naturally adopted. Their form is gen- 
erally oblong and irregular, but nearly 
circular specimens have been found. In 
numerous instances they bear a portrait 
of the ruler or the same personage on horse- 
back. They were divided into half Denga 
pieces and Poluschkas {q.v.). 

The later issues are of billon and copper 
and the value of the Denga degenerated 
to that of half a Kopeck. These were is- 
sued as late as the first half of the eigh- 
teenth century. A copper Para or three 
Dengi piece was struck by Catherine II 
of Russia in 1771 and 1772 for circulation 
in Moldavia and Wallachia. 

Denier. A silver and billon coin, corre- 
sponding to the Penny, and current 
throughout Western Europe from the 
time of the Merovingian Dynasty. 

The name is derived from the Denarius, 
which it resembled in size and fabric; and 
the Danaro, Dinero, Dinar, and Dinheiro, 
are modifications of the same coin, em- 
ployed according to the country or terri- 
tory where this type was in circulation. 

Its value fluctuated; under Charle- 
magne's reforms of the monetary system 
240 Deniers were ordered to be struck from 
one pound of fine silver, and the Denier 
was valued at one twelfth of the Solidus. 
When the Gros Toumois and later the 
Gros Parisis appeared, the same ratio of 

[ 



twelve to one was retained for the Denier, 
and it was styled Denier Tournois or 
Denier Parisis according to the place of 
mintage. In the reign of Louis XVI the 
base silver Denier was worth only one • 
eighth or one tenth as much as the fine 
silver one of Charlemagne. 

Last of all the Denier was struck in cop- 
per and its value diminished still more. 
Frederick the Great issued it in this metal 
for Upper .Silesia in 1746; the copper 
Denier of Prance was equal to four Liards, 
or the twelfth part of the Sol or Sou. 

Denier a la Reine. See Reine. 

Denier Bourdelois. A variety of the 
Denier struck by Louis XI of France and 
retained by his successors Charles VIII 
and Francis I. All the early types ap- 
pear to have a small shell as a mint-mark. 

Denier d'Or. A gold coin of Western 
Europe which appeared about the time of 
the Carlovingian Dynasty. It was exten- 
sively issued at Melle and occurs in the 
Anglo-Gallic series, where it corresponds 
to the Salute and was valued at 25 Sols. 

Denier d*Or. Another name for the 
Mouton (q.v,) and generally applied to 
such types as were struck by the Counts "^ 
of Bar and throughout Flanders. Louis 
of Malle, Count of Flanders, by a com- 
mission dated April 13, 1357, ordered his 
moneyer, Andrieu du Porche, to strike 
Deniers d'or au Mouton for the Seignory 
of Rethel, with the inscription Ludovicus 
Comes Regitestensis. 

Denier Faible. See Lausannais. 

Denier Noir. See Black Farthing and 
Zwarte Penning. 

Denier Palatin. The name given to a 
silver coin of the Carolingian series issued 
by Louis I (816-840) with the inscription 
PALATiNA MONETA. Conf, also Moucta Pal- 
atina, infra. 

Denier Parisis. A billon coin belonging 
to the Anglo-Gallic series, and struck by 
Henry VI pursuant to an ordinance of 
May 31, 1424. 

Deniers pour £pouser. See Arrhes. 

Denkmiinze. A commemorative coin or 
medal. See Jubileums Thaler. 

Denuschka. See Denga. 

Desjat Doieg. The name given to the 
Russian base silver coin of five Kopecks, 

64] 



Deuce 



Didrachm 



which was first struck at the beginning of 
the eighteenth century under Peter I. 

Deuce, also written Duce. An English 
dialect term for two pence. See Mayhew, 
London Labour and London Poor, 1851 
(i. 256). 

Deunx, or labus. A division of the As 
and equal to eleven ounces. See Acs Grave 
and Deconcia. 

Deventergans. A nickname given to 
the Grosso issued in Deventer by Frederick 
von Blankenheim, Bishop of Utrecht (1393- 
1423). This coin bore a poorly executed 
figure of an eagle which was mistaken for 
a goose. 

Device* This term is used by numis- 
matists to describe the emblem or armorial 
design on a coin in conjunction with a 
national motto. Thus the United States 
uses a figure of Liberty and the words **In 
God we trust.'' Great Britain has **Dieu 
et mon droit/' etc. 

Devfl's Bit. An English dialect term 
current in Lincolnshire and meaning a 
threepenny piece. 

It is so called because proud people 
will not give copper at collections in 
church, and therefore provide themselves 
with the smallest silver coin. 

Deztans. See Decunx. 

Dhabbuy or Dhabu. A copper coin for- 
merly current in the Deccan principality; 
it was valued at two of the Alamgiri Pice 
or one thirty-second of a Chandor Rupee. 
See Kori and Pice. 

Dbarana. A silver coin of ancient In- 
dia, the same as the Purana (q.v.). 

The name is from dhriy "to hold," and 
probably means, according to Cunning- 
ham, *'a handful of sixteen copper Panas.'' 
See Pana. 

Dhebua. A rough unstamped lump of 
copper used in the currency system of 
Nepal. It was computed at four Dams. 
See Suka. 

Dhingalo, or Dhinglo. A copper coin 
of Cutch and Kathiawar, of the value of 
one sixteenth of a Kori (q.v.). Codring- 
ton states that ''Dhingo" is a Cutch term 
meaning **fat," and *'lo'' is a masculine 
suffix, and he adds, '*so Dingalo means 
something fat, hence the fattest coin. 
Though at present it is used for a pice 

[65 



and a half, I think it was originally three 
pice or tambios." 

Diamante. A silver coin of Ferrara, 
corresponding to the Grosso, first struck 
by Borso (1450-1471) and imitated by 
several of his successors. It receives its 
name from a figure resembling a diamond 
on the obverse. A smaller coin of similar 
type is known as the Diamantino. 

Dibsy or Dibbs. A slang term for money 
and possibly a corruption of **tips," i.e., 
gifts for service rendered. Horace and 
James Smith in their Rejected Addresses, 
1812, George Barnwell use the phrase 
**make nunky surrender his dibs," and 
Smyth, in The Sailor's Word-hook, 1867, 
has, ** Dibbs, a galley term for ready 
money. ' ' 

DicciottinOy or Diciottino. This word 
means eighteen and it was used in Parma, 
Milan, etc., during the fifteenth century 
to indicate the pieces of 18 Danari struck 
in Savoy. 

Dichallum. ^ A Greek copper coin of the 
value of double the Chalcus or one fourth 
of the Obol (q.v.), 

Dicken, Dickpfennige. A popular name 
to distinguish coins of thick fabric, and 
usually applied to the silver issues of 
Switzerland of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. These pieces were patterned 
after the Italian Testones but did not have 
the light weight. The Dicken of Berne, 
dated 1492 (Frey, No. 369), is a good ex- 
ample. 

Dick Thaler, Dick Groschen. A name, 
like Dicken, employed to designate the 
thick characteristics of a coin, to distin- 
guish it from the broad type. See Breite 
Groschen, and Gros. 

The term Dick Groschen, or Nummi 
Grossi, was originally applied in the four- 
teenth century in France, Bohemia, Ger- 
many, etc., to coins of the Gros Tournois 
variety but struck on much thicker planch- 
ets. 

The Dick Thaler of Tyrol, dated 1484 
(Frey No. 260), is one of the earliest of 
these, and its small and thick fabric was 
imitated in a number of the German 
states, as well as in Denmark. 

Didrachm, or Didrachmon. A Greek sil- 
ver coin of the value of two Drachms 
{q.v.). It was copied from the silver 

] 



Die 



Dirhdn 



Stater of the Persians, and is consequently 
frequently referred to by this name, 
though as a monetary unit it was soon re- 
placed by the Drachm. The Didrachm 
was extensively struck in Corinth and its 
colonies (see Stater, Poloi) and also in the 
cities of Sicily and lower Italy. 

Die. The stamp used in coining. An 
early reference to it is found in M. Smith's 
Memoirs of the Secret Service, 1699 (App. 
19), viz., "to bring or send to him some 
Deys ... to coin some milled Money." 

Digenoit. See Divionensis. 

DOcoUjrboii* A Greek copper coin of 
the value of half of the Chalcus (g.v.). 
Conf. CoUybos {supra). 

Dilitrcm. Silver coins of two Litra in 
value were struck at Rhegium in Italy. 
See Litra. 

Dime. A silver coin of the United 
States, the tenth part of a Dollar. This 
coin, and its corresponding half, \yere au- 
thorized by Act of Congress, April 2, 1792. 
The half Dime was first coined in 1794 
and discontinued in 1873. The Dime was 
struck in 1796 and is still coined. See 
Disme. 

The name is probably derived from the 
French, dixieme. 

Dinar. A Muhammadan gold coin, first 
issued in the latter part of the seventh 
century. The name is derived from the 
Roman Denarius. The weight of the early 
Dinars was about sixt^'-six grains, but at 
later periods the same term was used for 
gold coins of greater or less weight and 
size. 

The quality of the metal was almost al- 
ways fine gold, the chief exceptions being 
the coins struck in Turkey and Morocco, 
some of which contain a large amount of 
alloy. 

Dinar. A money of account used in 
modern Persia, and computed as follows: 

1000 Dinar — 1 Kran Bllver 
100 Dinar — 1 Sonar silver 
.'JO Dinar = 1 Shahi copper 
2T) Dinar = 1 Pul copper 

Dinar. A silver coin of Servia adopted 
in 1867 when that country followed the 
Latin Union in its monetary system. It 
is of the same value as the Franc, Lira, etc., 
and is subdivided into one hundred Paras. 
There are pieces of ten and twenty Dinara 
in gold. 

[ 



Dindcrt, also written Dynders. Phil- 
lips, in his History of Shrewsbury (pp. 
199, 200), in referring to Wroxeter, has 
the following note: *'The Roman coins 
found here are a proof of the antiquity of 
the place; the inhabitants call them din- 
ders, a corruption of the Roman denarius." 

Dinerilloy or Dincrudo. A small cop- 
per coin struck by Philip III and Philip 
IV of Spain during the seventeenth cen- 
tury for Valencia and Barcelona. The 
name is a diminutive of Dinero. 

Dinero. The Spanish equivalent of the 
Denier. It appears to have been intro- 
duced about the reign of Fernando III of 
Castile (1230-1252), and is mentioned as 
late as the French occupation of Navarre 
under Henri II d' Albret (1516-1551). 
The half is called Malla. 

Dinero* A silver coin of Peru of the 
value of one half the Peseta or ten Cen- 
tavos. 

Dinga. A Burmese word signifying a 
coin. It is probably a corruption of Tanga 
(q.v.). See also the Indian Antiqu4xry 
(xxvi. 235-245). 

Dinheiro* The Portuguese equivalent of 
the Denier. The coinage of these pieces 
begins under Alfonso I (1128-1185) and 
extends to the latter part of the fourteenth 
century. See Caixa. 

Dinomos. The ancient name for the sil- 
ver piece of the value of two Nomoi struck 
at times in South Italy, notably at Thu- 
rium and Metapontum. See Mommsen- 
Blacas, Monnaies Romaines (i. 155). They 
are known to modern numismatists as Te- 
tradrachms or Distaters. 

Diobol<m. A piece of two Oboli. See 
Obol. 

Dirhem. A Muhammadan silver coin, 
first issued in the latter part of the seventh 
century. The name is a modification of 
the Greek Drachma. The weight of the 
Dirhem originally was forty-six grains, 
but both the weight and size have under- 
gone many variations. 

Originally the Dirhem was one tenth of 
the Dinar, but this relation was not kept 
up. 

The legal Dirhem is a money of account ; 

the actual Dirhem of currency varied 

greatly in weight, e.g., in 710 the Egyptian 

Dirhem weighed 64 Habbehs, at other 

66] 



Disk 



Dobler 



times 48. The divisions of the Dirhem are 
into 6 Daniks, or 14 Kirats, or 70 Barley- 
corns. 

Disk. An English dialect term for a 
half Crown. 

Boswell, Poetical Works, 1811, has the 
lines 

"I ask but half-a-crown a line 
The song be your's, the disk be mine." 

Disme. A pattern or experimental coin 
of the United States issued in 1792, with 

a corresponding half. See Dime. 

Di-Stater. The double of the gold Stater 
(q.v.). It occurs in the coins struck by 
Alexander the Great. This name also 
designated a silver coin equal to two silver 
Staters. 

Ditto Bolo. An obsolete copper coin of 
the Ionian Islands. The name is probably 
a corruption of di oholi. 

Diviniy or DiwanL The Abyssinian 
name and equivalent of the Para. See 
Wakea. 

Fonrobert (Nos. 4989-5003) enumerates 
silver coins of San 'a, in Arabia, called 
Diwani, forty of which were equal to one 
Ghrush. 

Divionensisy Digenois, or Dijonnois, 

The name usually applied to the money 
struck at Dijon, the capital of the ancient 
Duchy of Burgundy. Silver issues date 
from the eleventh century. See Blanchet 
(i. 395) and Poey d'Avant (iii. 192). 

Dixain. A French billon coin ^lich, as 
its name indicates, was the teutli part of 
the silver Franc and later of the Ecu. 

In the reign of Louis XII (1498-1515) 
were issued the Dixain a Couronne and 
the Dixain du Dauphine, both of a similar 
type to the Douzain (q.v,). Under Fran- 
cis I (1515-1547) it received the name 
Franciscus, probably from the large letter 
F with the crown above, which is a promi- 
nent feature. 

In 1791 an essay was struck in bell- 
metal of a coin to equal one tenth of the 
Livre, and the prototype of the Decime 
(q.v.). It bears on one side the date in 
a wreath and on the reverse the word 
DIXAIN surrounded by the inscription 

METAL DE CLOCHE. 

Djampely or Jampal. A silver coin of 
the Malay Peninsula of the value of one 
half the Real. See Pitje. The name is 
also given to the Krishnala {q*v.). 



Do-am. In the Nepalese system this is 
half of the Suka (q.v.), 

Dobla. A gold coin of Spain, intro- 
duced about the time of Peter I (1350- 
1368) and struck at Seville, Toledo, etc. 
The original type bore on one side a three- 
turreted castle, but this was followed by 
the portrait variety under Ferdinand and 
Isabella (1474-1516). The earlier variety 
is frequently known as the Dobla Castel- 
lana and the other as the Dobla a la 
Cabeza. 

The value of the Dobla, also called Dob- 
Ion, was two Escudos or one eighth of 
the Onza. There were multiples, called 
Doblon de a Cuatro and Doblon de a Ocho, 
the latter was of course the same as the 
Onza ; it was struck principally for Mexico 
and other Spanish colonies, and is com- 
monly known as the Doubloon. 

Another variety, the Dublone, was is- 
sued by Charles V during the Spanish 
occupation of the Low Countries. 

By a royal decree of 1849 the metric 
system was introduced in Spain, and the 
money of account was made as follows: 
One Doblon de Isabel was equal to ten 
Escudos, or one hundred Reales, or five 
gold Piastres. 

In the Italian coinage the term Dobla 
is generally applied to the double Ducato 
di Oro, such as was struck by the Emperor 
Charles V for Naples and Sicily, etc. See 
Chalmers (p. 395). 

Dobla de la Banda. A gold coin of 
Castile struck by Juan I (1379-1390). It 
receives its name from the band crossing 
the shield, which was a feature of the 
Ordre de la Vanda (Band), an Order of 
Knighthood instituted by Alfonso XI. 
Cojif, De La Torre (No. 6427). 

Dobla de lot Excelentes. See Aguila 
de Oro. 

Doblado. Another name for the Dobla, 
but usually applied to the gold coin of 
two Escudos struck in Ecuador in 1835 
and later. See Fonrobert (8298). 

DoblengOy or Duplo. A denomination 
struck by Berenger Ramon IV, Count of 
Barcelona (1131-1162), and later adopted 
by the Kings of Aragon. It probably rep- 
resented a piece of two Deniers in value. 

Dobler. A name given to the billon 
double Gros of the Island of Majorca. It 



[67] 



Doblon 



Dog Dollars 



was issued as early as the thirteenth cen- 
tury and continued in use until the time 
of Philip V (1700-1746). The general 
type has on one side a crowned bust be- 
tween two roses, and on the reverse a cross 
or armorial shield. The later issues were 
struck in copper and reduced to the value 
of two Dineros. 

Doblon. A Mexican gold coin, the Onza 
of eight Escudos. See Dobla. 

The name is still employed in Chile and 
Uruguay for the piece of ten Pesos. 

DobI<me* The name given to a gold 
coin struck in Bologna in 1529 by the 
Dominicans at the time of a famine; its 
value was four Scudi d' Oro. The Papal 
mint at Rome used the same name for the 
Doppia da due, also valued at four Scudi 
d'Oro, which was issued as early as the 
reign of Innocent X (1644-1655). 

In Modena the Doblone was a gold coin 
of the value of eight Scudi struck by 
Francis I (1629-1637). 

Doblon Sencillo. This was not an ac- 
tual coin but a money of account in the 
old Spanish system representing a value 
of sixty Reales. 

Dobra. A gold coin of Portugal which 
was first issued in the reign of Pedro I 
(1357-1367) and equal to 82 Soldi. 

At the beginning of the reign of John 
V (1706-1750) appeared the Dobra de 
oito Escudos, and the Dobra de quatro 
Escudos, valued respectively at eight and 
four Escudos, or 12,800 and 6400 Reis. 
The former coin was commonly known as 
the Joannes, and in the British West In- 
dies, where they circulated extensively, this 
was abbreviated into Joe, the latter coin 
being called the half Joe. The striking of 
these coins ceased by virtue of a Portu- 
guese proclamation of November 29, 1732. 
They gradually disappeared from circula- 
tion^ and in time the half Dobras were im- 
properly alluded to in some places as Joes 
instead of half Joes. 

It should be added that in 1731 a Dobra 
of twenty-four and another of sixteen Es- 
cudos were struck. These large gold coins 
are illustrated by Aragao (pi. xli. 23, 24) 
and described by Meili. 

In 1750, the Dobra, now reduced to four 
Escudos, or 6400 Reis, received the name 
of Peca, and this designation continued 



until its abolition early in the nineteenth 
century. 

Dobra Gentil, also known as Gentil, a 
Portuguese gold coin issued in the reign 
of Fernando I (1367-1383). Like the 
Chaise d'Or it represents the King seated 
on a throne under a canopy, and on the 
reverse a cross formed of five shields with- 
in an outer circle composed of eight 
castles. 

Doddane. Lewis Rice, in the Mysore 
Gazetteer, 1877 (p. 8), states that a silver 
coin of this name and of the value of two 
Annas was in circulation in the above- 
mentioned year. 

Dodecadrachm* A Greek silver coin of 
the value of twelve Drachms (g.v.). See 
Hexastater. 

Dodicesimo. The name given to the 
one twelfth of the Apuliense {q.v.). 

Dodkin. A diminutive of Doit (^.v.), 
and usually applied to inferior coins 
brought into England by foreign traders. 

Dodrans. One of the divisions of the 
As, of the weight of nine ounces. 

The reverse of this very rare coin bears 
an S, as in the Semis, and three bosses in 
addition. See Aes Grave. 

Dolpeltbaler. A name used in Adam 
Berg's Milnzbuch, 1597, to describe the 
issues of Philip II of Spain for Burgundy 
and the Spanish Netherlands. The word 
means *' clumsy*' and the nickname is ap- 
plied on account of their coarse and thick 
fabric. 

DoewL The Malay equivalent of the 
word Duit. It occurs on the copper coin 
of Celebes dated A.H. 1250, i.e., 1834- '35. 

Dog. See Black Dogs. 

Dog Dollar, or Lion Dollar. The 

Leeuwendaalder of the United Provinces 
{q. v.). 

Dog Dollars. In an act of the Assem- 
bly of West Jersey, dated October 3-18, 
1693, it is stated that *'Dog Dollars not 
dipt," are worth six Shillings each, being 
of the same value as Mexican ''pieces of 
eight" of twelve pennyweight. 

The Assembly of the Province of Mary- 
land in 1708 passed a law fixing the rates 
of exchange, and this act mentions Dog 
Dollars as being the money which was 
most plentiful in the Province, and with 



[68] 



Dogganey 



Doppia 



which the inhabitants were best ac- 
quainted; upon them the value of four 
shillings and sixpence was placed. In the 
laws of Pennsylvania, these coins are fre- 
quently mentioned as the Lion or Dog 
Dollars, and are rated in 1723 at five Shil- 
lings. 

Dogganey. See Duggani. 

Doit, or DoyL The English equivalent 
for the Duit {q.v.). The name is evi- 
dently a corruption of the French d^huit, 
an eighth, this being their value as com- 
pared to the Stuiver. 

Doits were current in Scotland during 
the reign of the Stuarts, but their im- 
portation was prohibited in 1685. See 
Ruding (ii. 22). 

DokanL See Nasfi. 

Dokdoy or Dokro. A copper coin of 
Cutch and Kathiawar, of the value of one 
twenty-fourth of a Kori (q.v.), Codring- 
ton states that it is from the Prakrit Duk- 
kado, or the Sanscrit Dvikrita, meaning 
** twice done,*' i.e,, twice a Tambio. He 
adds that ** though now used to mean one 
pice, it must originally have been two 
pice. ' ' 

Dolche, i.e., daggers. A name given to 
the ducal Groschen of Lorraine struck 
during the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies. The obverse of these coins bore the 
figure of an arm holding a short sword 
which was easily mistaken for a dagger 
or poniard. 

Dollar. The derivation is generally sup- 
posed to come from the German word 
Thaler (^.v.), and this in its turn takes 
its name from the silver coins struck about 
1525 in the mining region of Joachimsthal 
in Bohemia. 

It is the unit of value of the United 
States and is worth ten dimes or one hun- 
dred cents. The silver dollar was author- 
ized to be coined by an Act of Congress 
dated April 2, 1792, and the first coins 
were issued in 1794. They were originally 
of 416 grains; reduced in 1837 to 412.5 
grains. The coinage of the silver dollar 
ceased in 1904. 

The gold dollar was authorized by an 
Act of March 8, 1849, and abolished in 
1890. It is of the weight of 25.8 grains, 
and was designed by James B. Longacre, 
the chief engraver of the mint. 



Many of the British Colonies now use 
a silver dollar, called the British Dollar, 
and based on a metric system. This piece 
was authorized in 1895 and first struck for 
circulation in 1896, being intended prin- 
cipally for Hong Kong and the Straits 
Settlements. It was originally 416 grains 
fine. The Bank of England dollar of the 
value of five shillings, and the Bank of 
Ireland dollar of the value of six shillings 
were both issued in 1804. 

Dollar. A silver coin struck by Charles 
II for Scotland from 1676 to 1682, and 
constituting his second coinage. It is of 
the weight of 429 grains, the same as the 
Four Merk piece of the preceding issue. 
There are divisions to one sixteenth of a 
Dollar. 

Donarioy or Donathr. This, as the name 
indicates, is a coin or medal issued to com- 
memorate some event and not sold, but 
distributed on an anniversary. -One of 
Carl Gustav of Sweden struck f«r Riga 
prior to his accession in 1645, reads: EX 

AVREO SOLIDO CIVITATIS RIGENSIS ME FIERI 
FECIT. 

Pietro Virgilio on his accession to the 
Bishopric of Trent in 1776 coined the 
Donario in both gold and silver for pres- 
entation purposes. 

Donativ. See Donario. 

Dong. Another name for the Sapeque 
(g.v.). A piece of 100 Dong of the Em- 
peror Hien-Tong of Annam (1740-1785) 
is described by Lavoix (xxv. 389). Dong 
and Dong-thien is the Annamese equiva- 
lent for the Chinese Cash. 

Doppel in German, and Doppio in Ital- 
ian, means double, and is generally used 
in conjunction with Thaler, Grosso, etc. 

Doppia, from doppio, double, is the 
name of a former gold coin of a number 
of the Italian States, and the double of 
some recognized unit. 

It appears in Milan in the fifteenth cen- 
tury under the Sforza dynasty as a piece 
of two Zecchini, and it bore the same value 
in Malta. , 

As a coin of two Scudi it occurs in the 
coinage of Genoa, Venice, Mantua, the 
Papal series both at Rome and Bologna, 
etc. 



[69] 



Doppia da Due 



Drachm 



The name is variously written as Dop- 
pione and Doppietta, the latter form usu- 
ally for Sardinia. 

Doppia da Due. See Quadrupla. 

Doppietta and Doppi<me. See Doppia. 

Doppler, like Doppia, is a general term 
used to express the double of any recog- 
nized standard, e.g., pieces of two Kreuzer, 
two Thaler, etc. 

Dorea, or Durih. A money of account 
of Bombay, etc., computed at six Reis. 
See Mohur. 

Dos. A Siamese gold coin of the value 
of ten Ticals issued pursuant to an order of 
King Chulalongkorn, dated November 11, 
1908. The reverse has the figure of Gam- 
da, with a shield bearing the **Chakra'' 
and trident. Legend, one dos siama rath 
(in Siamese), and the date of mintage. 

Do Sen. The name given by the Jap- 
anese to their coins with central holes that 
were issued from A.D. 708 to 1868, when 
the modern coinage, began. 

Double. The abbreviated name for the 
French piece of two Deniers. In the 
Anglo-Gallic series the same term was ap- 
plied to the double Gros, and in the Irish 
series under Edward IV to the double 
Groat, which was current for eight pence. 
See Ruding (i. 284). 

The earliest varieties of this coin bear 
the inscription moneta dvplex and they 
are found in Brabant under Jean III 
(1312-1355). 

Double. A copper coin of the Island 
of Guernsey, introduced in 1830, and of 
the value of one eighth of the English 
penny. There are multiples of four and 
eight Doubles. Bronze replaced the copper 
in 1861. 

Double Key. A corruption of Dub- 
beltje (q.v.). Chalmers (p. 382) men- 
tions Double Keys, or Kupangs, as being 
the Dutch coin of two Stuivers. See also 
the Indian Antiquary (xxvi. 335). 

Double Lorrain. A variety of the 
Double Tournois struck by Louis XIII of 
France in 1635 and 1636. It has on the 
reverse three lilies and the words dovble 
LORRAIN with the date. See Hoffmann 
(134, 135). 

Double Merk. See Thistle Dollar. 

[ 



DoubI<m. The French equivalent for 
Doblon and Doubloon. The name is used 
on a series of silver tokens ranging from 
one eighth to one Doublon struck in Paris 
in 1825 for Guadeloupe. See Zay (p. 
203). 

Doublo<m. See Dobla. 

Doudou. See Duddu. 

Dough. A slang term for money. 

Douzain. A billon French coin, which, 
as its name indicates, was the douzieme or 
twelfth part of the silver Franc and later 
the twelfth part of the Ecu. It appears 
to have been introduced in the reign of 
Charles VIII (1483-1498), and the gen- 
eral type represents on one side a crowned 
shield with three fleurs-de-lis, and on the 
reverse a cross with crowns and fleurs-de- 
lis in the angles. The issues for Perpig- 
nan have a P over the cross, and the Dou- 
zain pour le Dauphine has dolphins in the 
angles. Among the numerous other varie- 
ties are the Douzain de Bretagne with the 
letters R or N on the cross to represent 
Rennes or Nantes ; the Douzain a la Cour- 
onne, and the Douzain au pore-epic, the 
latter with a porcupine under the shield, 
both of which appeared under Louis XII 
(1498-1515) ; the Douzain a la Salamandre 
issued in the time of Francis I (1515- 
1547) on which the shield has two crowned 
Salamanders as supporters; the Douzain 
a la Croisette of the same monarch, on 
which the cross appears in a quadrilobe; 
the Douzain aux Croissants of Henri II 
(1547-1559), having two interwoven cross- 
es on the reverse; and besides all these 
there are special issues for Beam, Navarre, 
etc. Under Louis XIII specimens occur 
countermarked with a lis or lily, pursuant 
to the ordinance of June, 1640. 

There is an obsidional Douzain struck 
for the Low Countries during the French 
occupation in 1672. See Mailliet (lii. 9). 

Doyt. See Doit. 

Dozzeno. The double of the Sesino 
(q,v.), and consequently the third part of 
the Grosso. It exists as a coin of Frinco 
in the latter part of the sixteenth century. 

Drachm, or Drachnum. The unit of 
the silver coinage of Greece, the normal 
weight of which in the Attic standard was 
4.367 grammes, or 67.28 grains. 

70] 



Drachma 



Dripmy Bit 



The name is derived from the Greek 
verb 5paTT0|i.at, i.e., to grasp, to hold, liter- 
ally a handful, or as much as can be con- 
veniently held in the hand to be put in the 
scales for weighing. 

The multiples of the Drachm are : 

Dodeoadrachm = 12 Drachms 

Decadrachm = 10 Drachma 

Octodrachm = 8 Drachms 

Hexadrachm = « Drachma 

Pentadrachm = »'> Drachma 

Tetradrachm = 4 Drachma 

Dldrachm, or Stater = 2 Drachma 

But no single monetary system possesses 
all of these types. 

The Drachm was equal to six Obols or 

Oboli (g.v.)- , „ 

The first coined piece known to the He- 
brews was the Persian Daric (g.v.). This 
is rendered as Dram in the authorized ver- 
sion. See I Chronicles (xxix. 7), Ezra (ii. 
69), and Nehemiah (vii. 70-72). 

Drachma. (Plural Drachmai.) The 
unit and basis of the coinage of modem 
Greece since 1833, and also adopted by 
Crete in 1901. It is a silver coin of the 
same value as the Franc, Lira, and other 
coins of the Latin Union, and is divided 
into one hundred Lepta. 

Drakani, or DrahkanL Brosset, in his 
Hisloire de la Oeorgie (pp. 159, 169), 
states that this name is given to a gold 
coin, the same as the Armenian Tahegan 
(q.v.). 

Drake. A popular name for the silver 
milled Shilling of Elizabeth, with a mart- 
let, commonly called a drake, as a mint 
mark. They were usually struck at the 
York mint. See Murdoch Catalogue (No. 
646). 

Dram. See Drachm. 

Dramma. A name given to the large 
gold coins of the mediaeval dynasties of 
Central India, notably the Chandellas 
(A.D. 1015-1150). Detailed descriptions 
will be found in the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, 1897 (Ixvi. p. 306). 

Cunningham (p. 3) cites an inscription 
from Jaunpur of A.D. 1216, where it is 
referred to as equal to six Vodris, and 
adds that this '* certainly refers to the 
Greek Drachm of six Oboli." 

Dreibaetzner. See Baetzner. 

Dreier. A common name for the base 
silver piece of three Pfennige or three 
Kreuzer which was struck in a number of 



the German States since the sixteenth cen- 
tury. See Sechser. 

Dreigroscher. A popular name for the 
triple Groschen which were struck in 
Poland, Lithuania, and some portions of 
Prussia in the sixteenth century. At a 
later period the Electors of Brandenburg 
issued Dreigroscher of the value of three 
Prussian Groschen plus four Pfennige, with 
corresponding larger coins called Sechs- 
groscher and Zwolfgroscher. All of the 
above named were of base silver. 

Drdkaiterthaler. A name given to a 
variety of Thaler struck by the Emperor 
Ferdinand I (1556-1564) which bear the 
triple crowned profile busts of himself, the 
Emperor Maximilian I, and Charles V. 
They are without date. 

Dreilander. A name given to the double 
Gros when the same type was adopted by 
three districts or territories. Thus Jean IV 
of Brabant (1415-1427) struck a Dreilan- 
der current in Brabant, Hennegau, and 
Holland. The name is also written Drie- 
lander. 

Dreiling. A term formerly employed in 
the North German States, e,g., Holstein, 
Hamburg, Mecklenburg, etc., to indicate the 
triple of the lowest existing denomination 
in use at the time, or the one fourth of 
some standard like the Groschen. 

During the French occupation of Ham- 
burg in 1809 a billon piece was issued with 
the inscription i. dreiling. An essay of 
this coin struck in gold appeared in 1807. 

Dreipolker. The half of the Dreigros- 
cher, i.e., a piece of one and one half 
Groschen. It was common in Prussia dur- 
ing the seventeenth century. See Poltora. 

Dreissiger. A general term for a coin 
of thirty Kreuzer. See Sechser, Zwanziger, 

etc. 

Dreizehner. The popular name for the 
silver coins of Dortmund, issued during 
the seventeenth century. They had a figure 
13 stamped on them to indicate that their 
value was one thirteenth of the Thaler. 

Drie Diiitstuk. See Duit. 

Drielander. See Dreilander. 

Dripmy Bit. A corruption of three 
penny piece ; it is an English dialect word 
used in Devonshire. 



[71] 



Druttainer 



Ducato d'Argento 



Druttainer, or Dritteiner. The name 
used in Munster to designate the Prussian 
coin of five Silbergroschen. See Kasten- 
mannchen. 

Dtchingara. A pale gold coin with Ara- 
bic inscriptions issued for Gowa in Celebes, 
A.H. 1078, and later. It was valued at 
four Koupas. Conf. Millies (p. 177), and 
Fonrobert (Nos. 899, 901). 

Duariiis. The common name for the base 
silver two Kreuzer piece struck for Hun- 
gary and Transylvania during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. 

Dub* A Persian word meaning thick, 
and applied to various Indian coins of the 
Fels type having a thick or heavy module. 

The French equivalent is Dabou, and 
Zay (p. 287) states that at Yanaon in the 
French Indies forty-six to forty-eight Da- 
bous are equal to one Rupee. 

The Dub with multiples was also Issued 
by the Madras East India Company in 
1807 and later. See Neumann (19906), 
and Faluce, infra. 

Dubbeltje, or Dubeltje, meaning twice, 
or double, is the popular name for the 
former Dutch coin of two Stuivers. 

In the currency of the Malay Peninsula 
it is equal to two and one half Duits, and is 
called by the natives Wang Baharu, mean- 
ing ** small change.'* Conf, Pitje. 

The word is still retained in Holland to 
designate the silver coin of ten Cents. 

Dublone. See Dobla. 

Ducat. Also called Ducato and Dukat. 
The best known of all gold coins. It is 
generally supposed to have been first issued 
by Roger II, King of Sicily, about 1150. 
This coin bore the figure of Christ, and the 
inscription sit tibi xre dat q tv regis iste 
DVCAT, i.e., Sit tibi Christe datus, quem tu 
regis iste ducatus — '*To thee, O Christ, be 
dedicated this duchy which thou rulest." 
From the last word of the inscription the 
coin received its name. 

The Ducat was extensively copied by the 
chief rulers of Europe, and has almost uni- 
versally retained its fineness. The last 
country to issue this denomination was 
Austria. 

There are divisions as low as one thirty- 
second, and multiples as high as pieces of 
over one hundred ducats. It also occurs in 



square and hexagonal shapes. See Zec- 
chino. 

Ducat. A gold coin of Scotland, struck 
in 1558 after the marriage of Mary Stuart 
to Francis, the Dauphin of France. Its 
weight is 118 grains. See Bonnet Piece. 

DucaL A money of account in the Vene- 
tian Republic during the fifteenth century. 

Coryat, in his CrMdities, 1611 (286), has 
the following : * * Now whereas the Venetian 
duckat is much spoken of, you must con- 
sider that this word duckat doth not sig- 
nifie any one certaine coyne. But many 
severall pieces do concurre to make one 
duckat, namely six livers [ ? livres] and two 
gazets,'' i.e., Gazzetti. 

Ducatdlo. A silver coin of the Republic 
of Venice, which appeared under the Doge 
Marco Foscarini (1762-1763). It was evi- 
dently intended for foreign trade, and as 
late as 1823 the Ducatello is referred to 
in Alexandrian coinage as equal to ten 
Medini, or one fourth of the Piastre. 

Ducato. A coin struck in both gold and 
silver for several parts of Italy but espe- 
cially for Naples and the two Sicilies. In 
order to indicate the complicated relation- 
ship of these coins to their multiples and 
divisions the following table is appended : 
Ducato d'Oro = 10 Neapolitan Carlini; 
Ducato d'Argento = 100 Grani; the half 
of the silver Ducato, of the value of 50 
Grani, being also known as the Pataca. 

Following the ordinance of April 20, 
1818, there were issued the Oncetta, a gold 
coin of three Ducati, with double, quintu- 
ple, and ten Oncetta pieces, and the Ducato 
d'Argento, of ten Carlini or 100 Grani. 

In Sicily the divisions of the Ducato, 
prior to 1818, has only half the value of 
those in Naples, i.e. — 






^■4 *^ ^^ V ^*4 ^p4 

^ ^ %^ i^ X Z a es ^ > 

9 cs ei oi 5 u o 9 ij es 

QCmHOO O H O dn O 



Naples 1 2 5 10 40 100 200 300 600 1200 
Sicily 1 10 20 200 1200 

pspeclally called 

Palermo Baloccl 

The silver Ducato of Ragusa, struck only 
in the years 1722 and 1723, had a value 
of forty Grossetti. See Vislino. 

Ducato d'Argento. A silver coin of the 
Danaro size, issued for Naples and Sicily, 



[72] 



Dacalo di Banco 



Duit 



Apulia, etc., as early as the twelfth cen- 
tury. Roger II (Ruggiero), Duke of Na- 
ples (1105-1130), and King (1130-1154) 
struck it in concave form in imitation of 
the Byzantine types, with the reverse in- 
scription ii< ic XC RE IN AETERN, i.e., JcSUS 

Christus regnat in aeternum. It was issued 
in Venice under the Doge Girolamo Priuli 
(1559-1567), with a value of 124 Soldi. In 
Savoy, Duke Philibert II (1497-1504) 
struck pieces of the same name, and it is 
to be found in the currency of other Italian 
states. It must, however, be remembered 
that these latter Ducats in silver were ap- 
proximately of the size of a Thaler or 
Crown. See Romesine. 

Ducato di Banco. A money of account 
instituted by Cardinal Paletti in 1581 by 
which he decreed that ten Ducati di Banco 
were the equivalent of twelve ordinary cur- 
rent Ducati. As it was simply a scheme 
for local profit it never went into effect. 

Ducato di Camera. Another name for 
the Zecchino of the Papal States, which 
later became a money of account. 

Docatony also called Ducatone. A silver 
coin of crown size first struck in 1598 by 
the Spaniards during their occupation of 
the Low Countries. The original types had 
on one side the busts of the Archduke Al- 
bert and his wife Elizabeth, but the name 
had been previously employed to designate 
the Philippus Daalder {q.v.). It was usu- 
ally computed at thirty Stuivers. 

The Ducaton Wjas extensively copied in 
Savoy, Milan, Parma, etc., and an issue for 
the Dutch Colonies bears the special colo- 
nial mark. 

An obsidional Ducaton was issued for 
Amsterdam in the war against France, 

1672-1673. See Mailliet (Suppl. iii. 4-6). 

Ducats, always used in the plural, is a 
slang or colloquial term for money. 

Whyte Melville, in Dighy Orand (vi.), 
has the following: **From spendthrift King 
John downwards, the Christian has ever 
pocketed the ducats, and abused the do- 
nor." 

Duce. See Deuce. 

Dudduy also variously written Dudu, 
Doudou, and Tuttu. A copper coin of 
Southern India, the value of which varied 
according to the locality. In the Travan- 



core State there are varieties marked Ara 
Chakram, meaning half a Chakram. See 
Elliot (p. 139), who describes two varieties 
of the value of four and eight Cash re- 
spectively. 

In the Madras Presidency these coins 
were issued early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and in Bengal they were computed 
as equal to the half Paisa. 

When the French operated their mints 
at Pondichery and Karikal, they struck the 
Doudou, as they called it, with a rude fleur 
de lis on one side, and a Tamil inscription 
on the reverse. There is a dated variety of 
1836, with the Gallic cock on the obverse. 
These coins were also valued at four Cash. 
See Zay (pp. 278, 285). 

Diitchen. The name given in the prov- 
inces of Bast and West Prussia to the for- 
mer Silbergroschen equal to one sixteenth 
of the Thaler. It is very extensively found 
in the coinages of Bremen, IIolstein-Got- 
torp, Stralsund, etc., at the beginning of 
the seventeenth century. 

See a curious treatise on the etymology 
of the name by Schroder, in the Nieder- 
detttsches Jahrhuch, 1907 (xxxiii.). 

Duetto. A copper coin of Florence, 
Lucca, etc., of the value of two Quattrini. 
It was issued throughout the eighteenth 
century and was gradually abolished from 
the coinage before 1850. 

Duffer. An English slang term for a 
counterfeit coin or non-negotiable money. 
W. S. Jevons, in his work on Money, the 
Mechanism of Exchange, 1875 (xxi. 289), 
has the following: **The cheques, bills, 
[etc.] are regarded by thieves as * duffer,' 
with which they dare not meddle.*' 

DugganL Lewis Rice, in the Mysore 
Oazetteer, 1877 (p. 8), states that a copper 
coin of this name, and of the value of half 
the Duddu, was in circulation in the above- 
mentioned year. 

The Duganih, or Dogganey, probably a 
variant of the above, was a name some- 
times given to the Pice of Bombay, etc., 
when used as a money of account. See 
Mohur. 

Duit, also variously written Duyt, Dute, 
and Doit (q.v,), is a copper coin of the 
value of one eighth of a Stuiver, issued in 
the various provinces of the Low Countries 



[73] 



Asarfi 



Dynders 



from about 1580 to the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. According to the 
Munt Ordonnantie of 1586 it was equal to 
two Penninge. 

The Dutch Government also issued Duits 
in copper and lead for their possessions in 
Ceylon from 1782 to 1792, and for Java 
from 1764 to the early part of the nine- 
teenth century. See Oord, and Pitje. 

The name is retained in the Dutch In- 
dies as a popular appellation for the cur- 
rent one cent copper coin of Holland, and 
the two and one half cent piece is usually 
referred to as a Drie* Duitstuk. 

Duitole Asarfi. A gold coin of Nepal 
of the value of four Mohurs. See Suka. 

Duk. The name given to a silver amulet 
resembling a coin, and current in Annam. 
It usually bears an inscription on one side, 
and a figure (rose, swastika, vase, etc.) on 
the reverse. See Fonrobert (2125, 2136). 

Dukat. The German equivalent of Du- 
cat (g.v.). 

Dumare. According to Kelly (p. 232), 
this was a former money of account used 
on the Malabar coast and equal to four 
cowrie shells. Twelve Dumares were equal 
to one copper Pice. 

Dump, A name generally applied to any 
small coin of unusual thickness, irrespec- 
tive of the metal or value. Well known 
examples are the early coins of Ceylon with 
elephants on the obverse; the thick small 
half penny of George I of England, issued 
in 1718 ; the Bit (g.v.) cut out of the Span- 
ish Pesos ; and the centre piece of the Holey 
Dollar {q.v.), 

Dimg-tangy and Dimg-tse, are names 
given to the Pa-nying Tang-ka by the Ti- 
betans. See Ang-tuk. 

Duodeciaere. Another name for the 
Dodrans, which see. 
Duplo. See Doblengo. 

Duplone. A gold coin of a number of 
the cantons of Switzerland and adopted by 
the Helvetian Republic in 1800. It repre- 
sented in value a double Ducat or sixteen 
Francs, some of the issues reading 16 
SCHWEIZER FRANKEN. Quadruples and 
quintuples were occasionally struck. 

Dupondius. A multiple of the Roman 
As after the first reduction. It bears on 



the obverse the head of Minerva or Roma, 
and on the reverse the prow of a galley and 
the mark n, i.e., two Asses. 

The Dupondius continued to be coined 
under the Roman Emperors but in brass 
(in contradistinction to the As, which con- 
sisted of more or less pure copper). Be- 
cause in size it was about equal to the As 
it was distinguished from the latter by 
placing a radiate crown upon the Em- 
peror's portrait on the obverse. It was 
discontinued under Trajan Decius and Tre- 
bonianus. 

Durantingi, or Durantmi. A mediaeval 
monej'' of Clermont-Ferrand, in Auvergne. 
Du Cange cites an order of the eleventh 
century showing that these coins were then 
in common use. They were probably some 
variety of Denier or Maille. 

Duriglio. The name given to the gold 
Pezzetta of Philip V of Spain and his suc- 
cessors to the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. 

Durih. See Dorea. 

Duro. The same as the Peso (^.t;.). 
But the name Duro was used as a designa- 
tion on an obsidional silver piece struck 
for Gerona by Ferdinand VII in 1808 
(Mailliet xlii. 10). 

h\ the Morocco coinage the gold piece of 
twenty Rials is called a Duro. 

Duro de Plata. See Vellon. 

Duro de Vell<m« See Vellon. 

Duro Resellado. See Resellado. 

Dust. A colloquial term for gold dust, 
hence money. Wilkins, in his play The 
Miseries of Enforced Marriage^ 1607 (iv.), 
has the phrase **come, down with your 
dust,*' and Smollett, in Ferdinand Count 
Fathom, 1753 (i. 122), says, **I have more 
dust in my fob.'* 

John G. Saxe in his poem Jupiter and 
Danae has the line, * * open your purse, and 
come down with the dust." See Darby. 

Dvoiak. The name given to the Polish 
silver coin of two Grossi. See Szelong. 

Dvougrivenik. See Grivna. 

DwL A word meaning '^two," and used 
in conjunction with the Pana {q.v.). 

Dyak. A silver coin introduced by the 
Gorkhas into Nepal and equal to two Paisa. 
See Suka. 
Dsmdert. See Dinders. 



[74] 



Eagle 



Ecu 



E 



Eagle. A base silver coin current in 
Ireland in the latter part of the thirteenth 
century. For a time they were accepted 
in England at the rate of two for a penny, 
but were prohibited in 1310. W. Hemin- 
burgh, in his Chronicon, circa, 1350 (repr. 
ii. 187), says Monetas . . . pessimi metalli, 
pollardorum, crocardoriim, . . . aquilariim. 

See Brabant. 

Eagle* The standard gold coin of the 
United Sates of the value of ten dollars. 
They were authorized to be coined by an 
Act of Congress dated April 2, 1792, and 
were to have a fineness of .916 2/^ and a 
weight of 270 grains. They were issued 
from 1795 to 1804 with the exception of 
1802. In 1838 a new design appeared, en- 
graved by William Kneass, and of a fine- 
ness of .900, as provided by an Act of 
Congress dated January 18, 1837. This 
issue continued until the year 1907 when 
it was succeeded by the new design of 
Augustus St. Gaudens. There are also 
double, half, and quarter Eagles. 

Ea^e Cent The popular name for the 
cent of small size issued in the United 
States from 1856 to 1858. It has the figure 
of a flying eagle on the obverse. 

Earnest. Money or goods given to bind 
an agreement ; specifically in law, the pay- 
ment of part of the price by the buyer of 
a commodity as a guarantee that he will 
uphold the bargain. 

*'If any part of the price is paid down, 
if it be but a penny, or any portion of the 
goods delivered by way of earnest (which 
the civil law calls arrha and interprets to 
be empiionis venditioni^ contractae argu- 
menhm), the property of the goods is abso- 
lutely bound by it. ' '— Blackstone, Com- 
mentaries (ii. 30). 

'*To constitute earnest the thing must 
be given as a token of ratification of the 
contract, and it should be expressly stated 
so by the giver." Chitty, Common Law 
Practice (iii. 289). 

[ 



**Argentum Dei, God's money, i.e., 
money given in earnest upon the making 
of any bargain.'' Blount, Law Dictionary, 
1670. 

Easterling. See Esterlin. 

Ebenezer. A variety of the double 
Krone or piece of eight Marks struck by 
Frederick III of Denmark is so called. It 
was issued to commemorate the unsuccess- 
ful attempt of the Swedes to take Copen- 
hagen on February 11, 1659. 

The obverse has the King's initials 
crowned, with the inscriptions dominvs 
PROViDEBiT and ebenezer, the latter word 
referring to the memorial stone mentioned 
in I Samuel (iv. 1 and vii. 12). 

On the reverse is a hand grasping at a 
crown which is being severed from the arm 
by a sword. The motto reads soli deo 

GLORIA. 

Ebraer, or Hebraer. The name given to 
certain gold and silver coins of Denmark 
issued by Christian IV from 1644 to 1648 
to commemorate the expulsion of the 
Swedes. The reverse of these coins bears 
the inscription iustus iudex, and between 
these words occurs the name Jehovah in 
Hebrew script. 

Ecclesiastical Coins. A name given in 
general to such pieces as were issued by 
archbishops, bishops, and abbots, to dis- 
tinguish them from those struck by sov- 
ereigns and rulers. 

In England ecclesiastical coins were not 
issued after the reign of Henry VIII. 

Eckige Pfennige. A common designa- 
tion for the mediaeval German issues which 
were not struck on circular planchets. The 
word means ** having corners." 

Ecu, corresponding to the Italian scudo, 
meant originally a shield, from the device 
on the coin. Similarly the Dutch employ 
the term Schild, the Spaniards Escudo, etc. 

The silver Ecu, or Ecu Blanc, as it is 
frequently called, appeared under Louis 
XIIT in 1641, and had a value of sixty 

75] 



Ecu a la Couronne 



Ecu du Parlement 



Sols. There were also struck a number of 
sub-divisions. See Hoffmann {pdssim). 
Under Louis XV the value of the Ecu 
varied at three, five, and six Livres, and 
under Louis XVI it was made equal to the 
latter figure. 

Ecu a la Couronne, also called Couron- 
nelle. A large French gold coin first is- 
sued by Charles VII (1422-1461). It ob- 
tains its name from the crowned shield, the 
principal design on the obverse. It was 
struck at Paris, Rouen, and Tournay. 

Ecu a la Croisette* A variety of the 
Ecu au Soleil issued by Francis 1 of France 
in his second coinage (1540-1547). It has 
a small equilateral cross on the reverse and 
was struck at Montpellier, Saint Andre, 
Lyons, Paris, and Marseilles. The type 
was retained by his successor, Henri II. 

Ecu a la Croix de Bourgogne. See 

Kruisdaalder. 

Ecu a I'Aigle. A silver coin, the one 
third of the Arends-Rijksdaalder (g.v.), 
and having a value of twenty Groten. 

Ecu a la Perruque. A name given to a 
variety of the silver Ecu of Louis XIV 
struck in 1686 and later, on account of the 
elaborate head-dress on the bust portrait. 

Ecu a la Salamandre. A variety of the 
gold Ecu issued by Francis I in his second 
coinage (1540-1547). It receives its name 
from the obverse design, two salamanders 
supporting tlie armorial shield of France. 

Ecu au Bandeau. The name given to a 
variety of the silver Ecu of Louis XV is- 
sued in 1740 and later, on account of the 
broad band or ribbon which is a prominent 
feature in the head-dress. 

Ecu au Briquet. A variety of the Ecu 
k la Couronne, having on the reverse alter- 
nate lozenges and fleurs de lis in the angles 
of the cross. 

Ecu au Licm. See Leeuwendaalder. 

Ecu au Pore-epic. A name given to the 
Ecu d'or of Louis XII of France, on ac- 
count of the porcupines on the reverse, in 
the angles of the cross. 

In 1522, in consequence of the lack of 
English coins, several foreign coins of both 
gold and silver were proclaimed current in 
England; among these were ** crowns 
named Porpynes, at four shillings and four 



pence Sterling.'* Possibly this reference is 
to a silver coin with a porcupine on it, as 
Louis introduced a Gros au Pore-epic into 
his Franco-Italian series, which was issued 
at Milan. 

Ecu au St Victor. See St. Victor Daal- 
der. 

Ecu au SoleO. The name given to the 
variety of Ecu struck by Louis XI (1461- 
1483) which bears the figure of a small 
sun over the crowned shield of France. It 
was also copied by Charles VIII, Louis XII, 
and Francis I. 

Ecu aux Colliers. A name given to a 
variety' of the silver Ecu of Louis XIV 
struck in 1684 and 1685, on account of the 
chains or ribbons of the Order encircling 
the shield. 

Ecu aux Lauriert. The name given to 
a variety of the silver Ecu struck by Louis 
XV in 1737 and later, on account of the 
reverse design which represented a crowned 
shield between two branches of laurels. 
There are divisions of one half, one fifth, 
one tenth, and one twentieth. 

Ecu aux Lunettes. See Louis aux Lu- 
nettes. 
Ecu Blanc. See Ecu. 

Ecu de Six Livres. See Laubthaler. 

Ecu d'Or. A gold coin of France in- 
troduced by Philip VI (1328-1350). The 
earliest types have a figure of the King 
seated, holding a shield in his hand, and 
this was imitated by Edward III in the 
Anglo-Gallic series. Under Charles VI 
(1380-1422) the new type, with the large 
shield on the obverse, was struck. This 
varietv was copied in Gueldres by Maria of 
Brabant (1361-1399). 

A Scottish gold coin issued in 1525 and 
again in 1543 has received the same name. 
See also Chaise. 

Ecu du Dauphine. A gold coin issued 
by Francis I of France (1515-1547) for 
Dauphiny, and struck at Grenoble, Cre- 
mieu, etc. It differs from the Ecu au Soleil 
in having the quartered arms of France- 
Dauphiny on the obverse. 

Ecu du Parlement. A variety of the sil- 
ver Ecu of Louis XIV struck in 1680 and 
later. It has a bust in armor with peruke 
and embroidered cravat, and on the re- 
verse a crowned shield. 



[76] 



Ecu Heaume 

Ecu Heaume. The name given to any 
variety of the Ecu on which a helmet ap- 
pears above the shield. See Ileaume. 

Ecu Pistolet. A gold coin of Geneva is- 
sued from about 1562 to 1585. It has on 
the reverse a radiating sun with the motto 
POST TENEBRAS Lvx. A larger gold coin of 
the same type but struck in the following 
century is known as the Quadruple. 

Edelrost, i.e., ** noble rust.'* An ex- 
pression used by German numismatic writ- 
ers for patina. 

Egitthaler. A name formerly used in 
Hungary for the Convention Thaler. 

Eight Brothers' Thaler. See Achtbrii- 
derthaler. 

Eintrachtsthaler. A name given to such 
coins as were struck jointly by two or more 
rulers ostensibly from pure motives of 
friendship, but frequently a political pur- 
pose of unity is also to be served. 

The following are the principal ones : for 
Baden, struck by the Margraves Bernhard 
and Ernst in 1533 ; for Saxony, struck by 
the Dukes Kasimir of Gotha and Johann 
Ernst of Eisenach in 1598 ; for Brunswick, 
struck by Julius Ernst and August in 1599 
and 1617; and for Stolberg, struck by 
Christian Friedrich and Jost Christian in 
1704. 

All of these have the busts facing or the 
names of the contracting rulers and fre- 
quently a device of clasped hands, etc. 

Eiraku Sen. Originally a Chinese cop- 
per coin introduced into Japan in the fif- 
teenth century and made the sole lawful 
currency of Japan in 1573. The piece was 
coined by the Ming Emperor Cheng Tsu 
in 1403-1425 and has the inscription yung 
Lo TiTNG-PAO. Eiraku Tsuho is the Japan- 
ese pronunciation. 

Ekaba. A name given to a variety of 
glass beads used as money by the Galla 
tribes of Abyssinia. Those most esteemed 
are red with an equatorial zone of white 
enamel. See A. Thomson D'Abbadie, in 
the Nvmisma tic Chronicle (ii. 1839- '40). 

Ek-anL The one eighth Mohur intro- 
duced by the Gorkhas in the coinage of 
Nepal. See Suka. 

Ekilik. See Ikilik. 

[ 



Engel 

V 

Electro. An abbreviation of electrotype 
and used in numismatics to indicate a copy 
of an original coin or medal by the elec- 
trotype process. 

Electron, or Electrum. A natural alloy 
of gold and silver employed by the Ionian 
Greeks at an early period for money. The 
name seems to be derived from the Greek, 
tjXexTpov, i.e., amber, the color of the al- 
loy resembling this product. It was 
found in considerable quantities in the 
river Pactolus in Lydia, and is mentioned 
by Pliny and Sophocles. The electrum of 
Asia Minor contained approximately twen- 
ty-seven per cent of silver, but coins of 
Africa and Sicilian coins of Agathocles in 
this metal contain a larger percentage. 
The pale gold coins of the Merovingians 
and the Postulatsgulden of Liege, issued 
about A.D. 1500 and containing about fifty 
per cent of silver, are not natural electrum, 
but a mixture purposely effected. 

Eleemosyna Aratri. A tribute or tax 
mentioned in the Leges Athelstan aptid 
Lamlyard, and consisting of **a penny 
which King Ethelred ordered to be paid for 
every plough in England towards the sup- 
port of the poor.*' It is also known by 
the name of Carucage. 

EUilik. A gold coin of the modern Turk- 
ish series of the value of fifty Piastres. 

Elm Seed Money. See Yu Chia Chien. 

Embase. To depreciate coins in price or 
value. Holinshed, in his Chronicles , 1577 
(iii. 1192), states that '*the teston coined 
for twelue pence and in the reigne of King 
Edward embased by proclamation to six 
pence.'' See Debased and Imbasing. 

EmoL The salt money of Abyssinia. 

See Amole. 

Encased Stamps. See Postal Currency. 

Enest. A word meaning "female" and 
used in Abyssinia to designate the Maria 
Theresa Thaler. See Wand. 

Engel. The name frequently applied to 
any coin with the device of an angel. In 
Brabant the Brusselaar {q.v.) receives this 
name from the figure of the archangel Mi- 
chael on the same. 

An ordinance of 1404 in the archives of 
Frankfort a M. orders the striking of En- 
gels, these coins to be valued at one third 
of the Turnose. Cf. Paul Joseph (p. 223). 

77] 



Engelsgroschen 



Esralin 



Engdtgroschen. In the year 1490 rich 
silver deposits were discovered in the 
Schreckenberge in Saxony, and two years 
later mining operations were instituted. 
Prom the product of these mines the Elec- 
tor Frederick III (1486-1525), in conjunc- 
tion with Dukes Albrecht and Johann, or- 
dered a new variety of Groschen to be 
struck in 1498. These coins had on the 
obverse the figure of an angel standing and 
holding a shield, and received the name of 
Engelsgroschen or Schreckenberger. Their 
actual value was four Groschen and twelve 
Kreuzer, and they were issued for a long 
period by both the *Albertinian and the 
Ernestinian Lines. 

Engelsk. A Danish coin corresponding 
to the Esterlin. It was current in the latter 
part of the fourteenth century. See Blan- 
chet (ii. 314). 

Engelthaler. A silver coin of the same 
type as the Engelsgroschen but of a larger 
size and of the value of fortv Groschen. It 
was struck for Juliers, Cleve, and Berg at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

Engenhoso. A gold coin of Portugal of 
the value of five hundred Reis, first issued 
by Sebastian in 1562. It differed from the 
older Cruzado in having the date and the 
words IN HOC siGNO viNCES in the four an- 
gles of the cross. The letters G.A., the 
initials of the engraver Guimarens, are at 
the side of the shield. The name of the 
coin means artistic or novel. 

Engl Tsiiho. See Jiu Ni Zene. 

Engrafledy when applied to coins, means 
having an edge or border formed by a ring 
of dots or curvilinear indentations. 

Engroigne. See Angroigne. 

Enneobol (evveo^oXov) is a sum of nine 
Obols or 114 Drachms. A money of ac- 
count mentioned in inscriptions. 

Enriciy or Enriciani. The name given to 
Deniers struck in Lucca, with the name of 
Henry II (1004-1024), but also used in the 
early coinage of Milan where there were 
several rulers named Henry prior to the 
first Republic (1250-1310). 

Enrique. A Spanish gold coin which 
takes its name from Henry IV (1454-1474) 
in whose reign it was struck at Madrid, 
Toledo, and Villalon. It has on one side 



the King seated on a throne and on the 
reverse the quartered arms of Castile, etc. 
There is a half or Medio Enrique of sim- 
ilar type. Conf. Henri d'Or. 

Ephraimiten. A nickname given to a 
series of coins of debased silver and gold 
issued by Frederick the Great in Saxony 
from 1753 to 1756, during the Seven Years' 
War. 

The King appointed a merchant named 
Itzig Ephraim as mint-master and he 
caused these coins to be struck from dies 
of the year 1753 found in Leipzig. They 
consisted principally of the August d'Or 
(g.v.) and pieces of eight and four Gros- 
chen in silver, and they were so debased 
that they contained two thirds or more of 
base metal alloy. They were gradually 
withdrawn from circulation after the peace 
of 1763. 

Equipaga. A Portuguese copper coin 
struck for Angola and other African pos- 
sessions. It is the fourth of the Macuta 
iq.v.). A corresponding half was called 
Pano. 

Emestus. A silver coin of the Denier 
tvpe issued by Ernest of Bavaria as Bishop 
of Liege (1581-1612). See de Chestret 
(533, etc.). 

Ernst d'Or. The name given to the gold 
Pistole or piece of five Thaler struck by 
Ernst August, Duke of Hanover (1837- 
1851). 

Escalin. A silver coin current in the 
various provinces of the Low Countries 
since the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. It is the same as the Schelling (q,v.)j 
but the term Escalin was generally applied 
to such coins as were employed in the trade 
outside of the Netherlands proper. Thus 
the issues of the Compagnie van Verre of 
Amsterdam struck for Java in 1601 were 
called Escalins or Reals, and had a value 
of 48 Dutes. See Netcher and v.d. Chijs 
(i. 4). Verkade (199. 4). 

Mailliet (cxxxi.) cites an obsidional Esca- 
lin struck for Zeeland in 1672. 

Escalin. A silver coin issued for Santo- 
Domingo and Guadeloupe. The type for 
the former province was struck by order of 
General Leclerc about 1801. The pieces for 
Guadeloupe issued during the English occu- 
pation of 1810 and 1813 are countermarked 



[78] 



/ 



Escalin a la Rose 



Esterlin 



with a letter G crowned, and those under 
French rule have the initials R. P. for Re- 
publique FranQaise. See Zay (pp. 227, 
230). The Escalin of Curagao was com- 
puted at three Sous. 

Escalin a la Rose. See Roosschelling. 

Escalin au Cavalier. See Snaphaan. 

Escalin au Lion. See Bankschelling. 

Escalin au Navire. See Scheepjeschel- 
ling. 

Escoufle. The nickname given to a coin 
of Flanders of the fourteenth century, of 
the value of twelve Deniers Parisis. Du 
Cange, who cites several ordinances show- 
ing its value, thinks that it is from the old 
French word escouhle, meaning a kite, the 
eagle on this coin being mistaken for this 
bird. 

Escudfllo d'Oro. A gold coin of Spain 
struck by Charles III about 1770 and con- 
tinued by his successor, Charles IV. It 
was valued at ten Reales. 

Escudoy meaning a shield, is the Spanish 
equivalent for the French Ecu, and the 
Italian Scudo. The term Escudo de Oro 
is generally applied to the gold Ducat type 
issued in the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and the value appears to have been 
one eighth of the Doubloon. 

In the silver series there is an obsidional 
Escudo of five Pesetas issued for Tarra- 
gona in 1809, and another for Lerida of 
the same date. The silver Escudo was also 
extensively struck during the Spanish occu- 
pation of the Low Countries. Under a 
law of 1864 the Escudo was made the Span- 
ish monetarv basis with a value of ten 
Reales. 

It has now disappeared as a monetary 
unit in Europe, and the only country where 
it is still in use is Chile, where the Escudo 
is a gold coin of the value of five Pesos. 

Escudo. A gold coin of Portugal origin- 
ally issued about 1720 with a value of 1600 
Heis, and which receives its name from the 
large shield on the reverse. It was imme- 
diately adopted by the colonial possessions 
and struck at Rio and Minas. 

When the new monetary system went 
into effect, on May 22, 1911, the unit fixed 
for the entire territory of the Republic, 
except the possessions in India, was the 

[ 



gold Escudo, which contains the same 
amount of gold as the Milreis, and is di- 
vided into one hundred equal parts called 
Centavos, so that one Centavo is equal to 
ten Reis of the old system. There are mul- 
tiples of two, five, and ten gold Escudos, 
and a silver Escudo was struck, bearing the 
date October 5, 1910, to commemorate the 
proclamation of the new Republic. 

E Sen, or Picture Sen. Japanese tokens 
or charms ; they are either made at govern- 
ment mints or privately, and for the most 
part have pictures on them rather than 
inscriptions. They are about the size of 
the old Japanese copper coins and often- 
times passed as money. 

Espadim. A gold coin of Portugal is- 
sued by Joannes II (1481-1495), and the 
half of the Justo iq,v,). It obtains its 
name from the device of a hand holding a 
sword (espad<i), A silver coin of the same 
type was issued by Alfonso V (1438-1481). 
See Spadin. 

Esphera. The name given to a gold semi- 
Cruzado, issued under Manuel I (1495- 
1521), and struck at Goa under the govern- 
ment of Alfonso de Albuquerque (1509- 
1515). The obverse has the word mea 
(half) under a large crown, and the re- 
verse shows a large sphere from which the 
coin derives its name. See Teixeira de 
Aragao (i. 1). 

A copper coin of the same name was 
struck under Antonio (1580) for the Por- 
tuguese colonies in India. 

EssaySy called in French Monnaies d'- 
essai, and in German Probemiinzen, are 
trial pieces, the object of which is to test 
the die and note the details of the design. 
They are frequently made of a different 
thickness and in other metals than the 
coins subsequently to be struck from the 
same die. 'See Piefort. 

• Esterlin. A small silver coin current in 
the thirteenth century and later. The 
name is also found written as Easterling, 
Sterling, and in a mint ordinance issued 
at Antwerp in 1525 there is a reference to 
Estrelin. 

Their characteristic is a bust or head of 
the ruler or mint master on the obverse, 
and a cross with pellets in the angles on 
the reverse. 



79] 



v 



Efttevenante 



. * 



E Yien Ch'ien 



The Esterlins were originally introduced 
into England and were copied in Brabant, 
Flanders, various parts of France and in 
Germany. 8ee Sterling. 

Estevenante, or Stephanenm. The name 
given to money struck in Besan^on, the 
original issues bearing a figure of St. Ste- 
phen. The town had a mint as early as 
the ninth century. The type was imitated 
in other places, especially in Burgundy, 
and by the Princes of Orange. 

Etampe. See Tampe. 

Etschkrettzer. See Kreuzer. 

Etschvierer. See Vierer. 

Euboean League. See League Coinage. 

Eulendukaten. A name given to certain 
gold coins struck by the Emperor Charles 
VI from 1712 to 1715 from metal obtained 
from the Eule mine near Prague. A figure 
of an owl which they bear refers to this 
incident. 

Ewiger Pfennig. The name given to a 
variety of Bracteate issued by Henry II of 
Klingenberg, Bishop of Constance (1293- 
1306). The word means eternal, and was 
applied to the coin because the type was 
retained for many years. 



Exagium. A piece of circular or rectan- 
gular bronze which was employed to deter- 
mine the standard weight of the Solidus. 

Ezcelente. A Spanish gold coin first 
issued in the reign of Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella. It is of the size of a Ducat and its 
value was eleven Reals and one Maravedi 
or 375 Maravedis. There are quadruples, 
doubles, and halves of corresponding val- 
ues. See Aquila de Oro. 

Ezcoctum. Axiruin excocticm is a Latin 
term for pure gold. See also Obryzum. 

Exergue. The lower segment usually on 
the reverse of a coin and separated by a 
horizontal bar. It frequently contains the 
date, initials of the designer, and in some 
instances the place of minting. 

Eanirgat Money. A name applied to the 
Oxford Crowns issued in the reign of 
Charles I, derived from the inscription on 
these pieces which reads: Exurgai Dens 
dmipentur immici, from the Book of 
Psalms (Ixviii. 1). See Oxford Unite. 

E Yen Ch^en. See Goose Eye Coins. 



[80] 



Face 



Farthing 



F 



Face. The two faces of a coin are the 
Obverse and Reverse (q.v,). 

Face. The French term for obverse. 

Face. A French slang expression for 
any coin having a portrait stamped upon it. 

Fadge is cited by J. H. Vaux, in his 
Flash Dictionary, 1812, as a slang term for 
a Farthing. 

Falconer's Half Crown. A name given 
to a variety of half Crown of Charles I, 
issued by the Scottish mint, and bearing 
the letter F under the horses' feet. This 
type was executed by John Falconer, the 
son-in-law of Nicholas Briot and the war- 
den of the Edinburgh mint. 

Falkendukat. The name given to a 
variety of the gold Ducat issued by the 
Margrave Karl Wilhelm Friedrich, of 
Brandenburg- Anspach ( 1729-1757 ) . It 
bears on the obverse a hooded falcon, and 
on the reverse a falconer on horseback. A 
corresponding silver coin is known as the 
Falkenthaler. 

Falken Schfld. The Chaise d'Or struck 
at Antwerp during the fourteenth century 
is so called, from Falco of Pistoia, the 
mint master. 

Fak. See Fels. 

Fakche Miinzen. The German equiva- 
lent for counterfeit coins. 

Faluce, or Faliis. A copper coin of 
Madras and vicinity, issued early in the 
eighteenth century, and of a value of 
twenty Cash, or Kas. 

On a Madras copper of 1801 the obverse 
has an Arabic inscription indicating its 
value to be two Falus, and the reverse in- 
scription is partly in English and partly 
in Telugu, stating a value of two Dubs. 
The Dub and the Falus may therefore be 
considered as synonymous. 

In 1794 a one forty-eighth copper Rupee 
was struck by the United East India Com- 
pany for the Circars, a large district on 
the coast of the Bay of Bengal to the north 

[ 



of the Carnatic country. In this coin an 
attempt was made to assimilate the Mu- 
hammadan with the Hindu monetary sys- 
tem, as the forty-eighth part of a Rupee 
is just equal to the piece of twenty Kas. 

Falus. The plural of Fels (q.v,). 

Fanuly Coins. See Consular Coins. 

Fanam. A word probably corrupted 
from Panam by Europeans. A name given 
to both gold and silver coins which are 
common in the southern part of India. 

The gold Fanam is a minute coin circu- 
lating in Travancore and on the Malabar 
Coast. 

The silver Fanam probably originated at 
the Bombay mint in the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The earliest types 
have on the obverse two C's interlinked, 
and on the reverse the figure of a deity, 
Vishnu or Swami. 

In Travancore the silver Fanam has a 
value of four Chakrams; in Madras it is 
equal to four Falus. 

A silver piece of five Fanams was issued 
by Denmark, in 1683, for its possessions 
in Tranquebar. France struck Fanams 
from the time of Louis XIV to the year 
1837 for its possessions in Pondichery, 
Chandernagor, etc. There are many varie- 
ties, for detailed account of which see Zay 
(p. 295 et seq,). 

The Fanam struck by the French at 
Pondichery for use at Mahe on the Mal- 
abar Coast is the fifth part of a Rupee and 
is divided into fifteen Biches, i.e., Pice. 
Conf. also Elliot (part IV). 

In the coinage of early India the Fanam 
was a gold coin weighing somewhat over 
five grains and equal to the tenth part of 
the Pagoda. See Pana and Panam. 

Fanon. The French name for the Fa- 
nam iq.v.). 

Farthing. This word was originally 
feorthing, and the term * * f ourthling ' ' oc- 
curs in the Anglo-Saxon version of the 
Gospels (Matthew v. 26, and Luke xxi. 2). 

HI] 



Farthing 



Pels 



At first the Farthing was the fourth part 
of a silver penny, and it no doubt received 
its name from the practice of cutting pen- 
nies into quarters ; specimens of these have 
been found dating back to the time of Ed- 
ward the Confessor. 

Farthings of silver were first struck un- 
der Edward I for England, although John 
had coined them as Lord of Ireland in 
1210. Gold farthings are mentioned in an 
Act of the ninth year of Henry V, i.e., 
1421; and a project for coining farthings 
in tin was brought up about 1679, and this 
metal was used for them to a small extent 
in the latter part of the reign of Charles II. 

James I, in 1613, granted a patent to 
Lord Harington, of Exton, in the county 
of Rutland, to strike Royal Tokens, each 
of the nominal value of one farthing. 
These pieces were nicknamed Haringtons. 

The silver farthings were last coined in 
the reign of Edward VI, and in 1561 a 
three-farthing piece was ordered to be 
struck. This was discontinued in 1582. 

The copper farthing was originally 
struck in the reign of James I. In 1635, 
a farthing token, called the Rose Farthing, 
or Royal Farthing, was issued; it was 
coined in copper, but was sometimes com- 
posed of two metals to make counterfeiting 
more diflBcult. It obtained its name from 
the rose surmounted by a crown on the re- 
verse. 

The proclamation of Charles II, dated 
August 16, 1672, made the farthing a legal 
tender only for sums less than sixpence. 
In the reign of James II the farthings 
were made of tin, with a square plug of 
copper in the centre. 

During the reign of Queen Anne no cop- 
per money was struck for currency, but 
patterns for farthings were minted. One 
of these, executed shortly before the 
Queen's death, gave rise to the vulgar 
error that only three farthings were issued 
in this reign. This variety was put in cir- 
culation and is not rare. 

Half Farthings were struck in 1828 and 
later, for use in Ceylon ; one third Farth- 
ings appeared in 1827 to supersede the 
Grani of Malta; quarter Farthings have 
also been issued for colonial use. 

Farthing. The translators of the New 
Testament use this word several times, and 



in each instance the original text indi- 
cates a different coin. 

In the Gospel of St. Matthew (x. 29) 
the Greek text reads iadapiov; in St. Luke 
(xii. 6) the Vulgate has dupondius; finally 
in St. Matthew (v. 26) and St. Mark (xii. 
42), the Greek word is xoBpovxTj?. 

FarukL The name given to the gold 
Pagoda of Mysore by Tipu Sultan in the 
year A.M. 1216, i.e., 1787, that is the year 
following his new system of dates based on 
the Muludi, the year of the birth of the 
Prophet. 

The name is derived from Omar Faruk, 
the second Khalifa. 

Federal Coinage. See League Coinage. 

Fedem Thaler. A popular name for a 
Thaler which was supposed to be worth one 
Groschen more than the ordinary issues. 
Berthold Auerbach refers to them in his 
novel Barfiissele (p. 245), but does not 
specify what district they belong to. 

Fedgat. A name given to pieces of 
coarse cotton cloth, about nine inches in 
width, and eighteen or twenty feet in 
length, which circulated as money in Ethio- 
pia and other parts of Africa. One piece 
of this cloth is of the value of sixty pieces 
of the iron **Hashshah'* {q-v,), 

Fehrbelliner Sieges Thaler. See Sieves 
Thaler. 



The native name for the Stone 
Money iq,v.) used on the Island of Yap. 

Feingoldgulden. The name given by 
German numismatists to the Fiorino d'Oro. 

FeinsOberthaler. A denomination struck 
by William IV of Hanover in 1835 and 
1836 and copied by Ernst August in 1838. 
See Schwalbach- (88, 92). 



Feldthaler, Feldklippe. The general 
name for a coin struck during the course 
of a campaign. See Mailliet {passim). The 
Dutch have a similar term, Velddaaldcr, 
which includes obsidional coins. 



See Filippo. 

Feb, plural Falus. The general Arabic 
name for a copper coin; the name denotes 
any piece of money accepted by weight, 
though it is commonly used to indicate a 
particular copper issue. Possibly the name 
was derived from the Roman FoUis. See 
Pagoda. 



[82] 



Felu8 



Fewreysen 



The coin is very common in Morocco, 
where multiples of two and four Falus 
occur as early as the reign of Muley Solei- 
man (A.H. 1207-1238). Its characteristic 
design consists of two equilateral triangles 
so overlaid as to form a six-pointed star. 
The type was copied in other Muhamma- 
dan countries. 

Felus. See Kasbegi. 

Femtia. The popular name for the 
Swedish bank-note of fifty Krona. 

Fen, or Fun. The Chinese name for 
what foreigners call the Candareen. The 
modern Chinese silver coins are found with 
the following values inscribed on them: 

7 Mace, 2 Candareens = one Yuan, or Dollar 

3 Mace, 6 Candareens = one half Yuan, or Dollar 

1 Mace, 4.4 Candareens = one fifth Yuan, or Dollar 

7.2 Candareens = one tenth Yuan, or Dollar 

3.6 Candareens = one twentieth Yuan, or Dollar 

The Fen is used in some instances as 
the equivalent of the Cent. 

In the Sino-Tibetan coinage a Tael of 
silver is computed at eighteen Fen. The 
latter coin is valued at one tenth of the 
Chien (q.v.). Pieces of five Fen issued for 
Kashgar have a square hole in the centre 
and Chinese characters. 

The Chinese rebel ruler, Wu-san-Kwei, 
of the Tschao-wu epoch (1673-1679), issued 
the Fen extensively. 

Fenice. See Phoenix. 

Feorlainn. The Gaelic name for a 
Farthing. 

Feorthing. See Farthing. 

Ferding. A silver coin issued by the 
Bishops of Dorpat as early as 1528, and 
by Erik XIV of Sweden, for Reval, in 1561 
and later. It also belongs to the currency 
of the Order of Livonia. The name means 
one fourth, and four were originally com- 
puted to the Mark, but the later issues 
became so depreciated that they were only 
worth one half the original amount. See 
Mite. 

Ferling Noble. A name given to the 
quarter Noble, first issued by Edward III. 
See Noble. 

Ruding (i. 222) states that in 1346 Per- 
cival de Porche, master of the mint, **cov- 
enant;ied to make Mailles and Ferlinges of 
the alloy of old sterling. The Mailles to 
be of the weight of the standard of the 
Tower of London, and 23 shillings and 
three pence in number to the pound. 



»» 



Femandinoy or Ferrandino. The popu- 
lar designation for the Neapolitan Ducati 
struck by Ferdinand I of Aragon (1458- 
1494) . 

Ferrarino. A billon coin of Ferrara. 
See Bolognino. 

Fcrt. A gold coin of Savoy struck by 
Duke Lodovico (1439-1465). It is sup- 
posed to have received its name from the 
initial letters of the motto Fortitudo Eius 
Rhodum Tenuity which was used by the 
family since the thirteenth century. Mrs. 
Bury Palisser, in Historic Devices, 1870 
(p. 230), demolishes the story of the de- 
fense of Rhodes by Amedeus IV (1232- 
1253). 

On a ten Scudi d'Oro of Victor Amedeus 
I (1630-1637) the legend reads Foedere et 
Reli{jione Tenemur. Both the Scudo d'Oro 
and the Testone of Carlo II (1504-1553), 
struck at Nizza, Aosta, etc., have on the 
reverse a shield dividing the letters fe-rt. 
Conf. also Forte. 

Ferto. The one fourth of the Mark 
(g.v.). 

Festing Penny. According to Wharton, 
Law Lexicon, 1864, this was ** earnest given 
to servants when hired or retained in ser- 
vice.'* It was called the God Penny. See 
Earnest. 

Fettmannchen. The popular name for 
the billon pieces of eight and six Heller 
which appeared from the latter part of the 
sixteenth to the middle of the seventeenth 
centuries at Cologne, Trier, Juliers, Cleve, 
etc. The name is said to be derived from 
the short, stout figure of some saint or 
ecclesiastic on the obverse. 

Under the Abbesses of Essen (1646- 
1688) their value was fixed at one one 
hundred and twentieth Thaler. 

Feuchtwanger Metal. A composition 
resembling nickel, which receives its name 
from Dr. Lewis Feuchtwanger, who en- 
deavored to induce the United States Con- 
gress in 1837 to adopt it for the manufac- 
ture of the minor coins. 

FevnreyBen, or Vureysen. This is men- 
tioned by Budelius, De Monetis, 1591 (pp. 
250, 253), as a silver coin worth nine and 
one half Pfennige. It is no doubt a cor- 
ruption of the German word Feuer-eisen, 
i.e., a steel for striking fire, and the coin 



[83] 



Fiat Money 



referred to is probably the Briquet (g.v.)- 
See also Azzalino. 

Fiat Money. The name given to a paper 
currency issued by a government but which 
is not redeemable in coin or bullion. 

Fiddle. A slang English stock-exchange 
term and used for transactions involving 
the one sixteenth part of a Pound ster- 
ling. 

Fiddler. An English slang expression 
meaning a six pence. Grose, in A Diction- 
ary of the Vulgar Tongue, 1785, has, 
''Fiddlers' Money, all sixpences.'' The 
term may have originated from the old 
custom of each couple at a dance paying 
the fiddler sixpence. 

Field. The blank space on either side 
of a coin not occupied by the head, in- 
scriptions, etc. 

Fierer. See Vierer. 

Filiberto. The popular name for a gold 
coin, issued by Emanuel Filibert of Savoy 
(1553-1559), of the value of three Scudi 
d'Oro. The silver coin of the same was 
equal to one twelfth of the silver Scudo. 

FilippOy or Felipo. A name given to the 
silver Scudo struck by Philip II of Spain 
and his successors for the Duchy of Milan. 
There are dated specimens as early as 
1598, and halves, quarters, and eighths 
exist. 

The Scudo di Oro of Milan is also occa- 
sionally referred to by this name. 

Filippone. A base silver coin of Filippo 
of Savoy, Prince of Achaia (1297-1334) ; 
it was valued at one twenty-fourth of the 
Qrosso Tornese. 

Filipsdaalder. See Philippus Daalder. 

Filips Gulden. The name given to a 
variety of the gold Florin issued by Philip, 
Archduke of Austria, for Brabant, in the 
latter part of the fifteenth century. There 
is a dated specimen with St. Philip wHh 
a sceptre and book on the obverse, and the 
inscription: sancte phe intercede pro 
NOBIS. 1499. 

The reverse has an ornamented cross, 

and PHS DEI GRA ARCHIDVX AVST DX BVR BRA. 

There is a half of the same type. See 
Philippus. 

Filler. A copper denomination of Hun- 
gary introduced in 1892. It represents the 
one hundredth part of the Korona. 

[ 



Head. The name given to a vari- 
ety of the United States Cents and half 
Cents issued from 1796 to 1807 on which 
the hair of the head of Liberty is tied with 
a ribbon. 

Fflthy Lucre. See Lucre. 

Finances. The revenue of a sovereign 
or state, or the money raised by loans, 
taxes, etc., for the public service. 

Find. A term applied to a discovery of 
coins, and corresponding to the French 
trouvaille, 

Finif. A Yiddish term for the five-dol- 
lar bill of the United States; the word is, 
no doubt, a corruption of the (Jerman 
**fiinf," meaning five. 

Fmkenauge. See Vinkenauge. 

Fiordaliso d'Oro. See Lis d'Or. 

Fior di Conio. See Fleur de Coin. 

Fi<Nrino. See Florin. 

Fip. A corruption of **fipny bit,** i.e., 
a ''five-penny bit.'* It was used in the 
Eastern Middle States for the Spanish 
Medio or half Real. 

Firdung. The one fourth of the Mark 

(q.v.). 

Firleyoe Mont. A Danish term mean- 
ing ''four mints,** and applied to coins 
which were current in the four Hanseatic 
cities: Liibeck, Rostock, Wismar, and 
Stralsund. 

Fisca. A former silver denomination of 
the Canary Islands and equal to one six- 
teenth of the Spanish Piastre. 

Fish-Hook Money. See Larin. 

Fish Money. A name given to a variety 
of copper coins issued at Olbia, in Sar- 
matia, which resemble a fish in shape. Au- 
thorities differ, however, whether these 
"fishes,** as they are called were true coins 
or only commercial tokens used in the fish 
trade, for which Olbia was famous. Conf. 
Babelon (pp. 8 and 83), and von Sallet, 
in Zeitschrift fiir Numismatik, 1883 (x. 
144). 

Fitpence. A corruption of fivepence. It 
is an English dialect term, and is used in 
Somersetshire, Dorsetshire, and Devon- 
shire. 



A popular name for the five- 
pound note of the Bank of England. 

84] 



Flabbe 



Florin 



Whyte Melville, in Digby Grand, 1853 
(i.), says: **Spooner . . . loses a five-pound 
note, or, as he calls it, a fiver'' ; and Doyle, 
in Sherlock Holmes, has, '*I'll lay you a 
fiver . . . that you will never hear from 
him again/' 

Flabbe. A billon coin struck in Gron- 
ingen from the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and copied at Deventer ZwoUe, and 
other towns. It had a value of four Stui- 
vers. See Langrok. 

Flag. An obsolete English slang ex- 
pression for a Groat or fourpence. Thomas 
Harman, in A Caveat or Warening for 
Vagabones, 1567 (85), says: **A flagge, a 
wyn, and a make (a grot, a penny, and 
a halfe penny)." 

Flan. The blank piece of metal which 
is to receive the impression for the coin. 
In old French the word is written flaon, 
and it is derived from flatum. The verb 
flare is employed to designate the casting 
of metal into a mold, and the Roman mint- 
masters were officially termed III viri 
A.A.A.F.F., i.e.. Triumviri auro, argento, 
aeri, flando, feriundo. See Planchet. 

Flan BmnL An expression used by 
French numismatists to indicate a coin or 
medal struck from a polished die and 
corresponding to our proof. 

Fledermaus, meaning a bat, was the 
nickname given to the Groschel of Silesia, 
and the base silver Kreuzer of Prussia 
struck at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, on account of the supposed re- 
semblance of the eagle on these coins to a 
bat. 

Fleiir de Coin. A French term which, 
when applied to describe a coin, signifies 
in mint condition. The Italian equivalent 
is yior di conio, 

Fleiir de Lis. An early French gold 
coin. See Franc a Pied, 

Flicca, or Flica. A popular name used 
in Fiume and other parts of Northern 
Italy for a piece of ten Soldi. 

Flimsy. An English slang expression 
for a bank-note or paper money in gen- 
eral, which name is probably due to the 
frail nature of paper as compared with 
metallic currency. Barham uses the term 
in the Ingoldsby Legends. 



Flinderke. A money of account used in 
Bremen and computed at four Groten. • 

Jungk (p. 100) quotes a system of reck- 
oning based on Peter Roster's work, Neue 
Woklgegrundete Bremer Miinze, 1664, as 
follows : 

1 Reichsthaler = 2 Gulden 

6 KopfstUcke 
16 DQtchen 
18 Flinderken 
72 Groten 
360 Schwaren 
.720 Pfennlge 

Flindrich. A silver coin of East Fries- 
land, Oldenburg, etc., issued during the 
fifteenth century. It was valued at three 
Stuber. 



A very small base silver coin 
of thin workmanship and resembling the 
Bracteates. They appeared in Goslar as 
early as 1620, and later in Hameln, Lippe, 
Northeim, etc. 

Florette. A variety of the Gros struck 
by Charles VI of France (1380-1422) and 
which had a value of twenty Deniers Tour- 
nois, or sixteen Deniers Parisis. It ob- 
tained its name from the three large fleurs 
de lis on the obverse. See Hoffmann (17- 
21, etc.). 

The type was copied in the Anglo-Gallic 
series by Henry V (1415-1422). 

Florin. The gold Florin, according to 
Villari, was first coined in the Republic 
of Florence, in the year 1252. The ob- 
verse bore a full-length figure of St. John 
the Baptist, with the legend s. ioannes. b., 
i.e., Sanctus Johannes Baptista. On the 
reverse was a lily, the arms of the city of 
Florence, and the inscription plorentia, 
usually preceded by a small cross. 

The excellence of the gold made the 
fiorino d'oro, as it was commonly called, 
speedily current throughout Europe, and 
the type was adopted by all the principal 
powers, as well as by other potentates who 
possessed the right to strike money. 

In England the gold Florin was first 
issued by Edward III in 1343, for Aqui- 
taine. The indenture made states that it 
was **to be equal in weight to two petit 
florins of Florence of good weight,'* i.e., 
108 grains, and of the same fineness, name- 
ly, 23 carats and 31/2 grains pure gold to 
half a grain of alloy; and the half and 
quarter Florin in the same proportion. By 
the proclamation of January 27, 1343, these 



[85] 



Florin 



FoUis 



coins were described as *'one coin with two 
leopards, each piece to be current for six 
shillings, another piece of one leopard, 
and another piece of one helm, being re- 
spectively the half and quarter of the 
larger coin,*' and they were ordered to be 
accepted by all persons. It was, however, 
soon discovered that the coins were valued 
too high, and they were consequently gen- 
erally refused ; this led to their being dis- 
continued in the following year. The half 
Florins were commonly called Leopards 
{q.v.). 

In France, King Charles V issued a gold 
coin called the Florin d'Or, which was cop- 
ied after the Florentine type ; it was, how- 
ever, not very long in use, as, according 
to Leblanc, it was considered '* derogatory 
to the dignity of the crown, being bor- 
rowed. ' ' 

The gold Florin was also extensively 
copied in other parts of Italy, as well as 
in Spain, the Low Countries, and especially 
in Hungary and Germany. These imita- 
tions usually retained the obverse inscrip- 
tions of the Florentine type, but to the 
same were added small marks, letters, fig- 
ures, crowns, and similar devices ; while on 
the reverse the name of the mint appears 
in some cases, and the armorial shield of 
the locality or the mintmaster is frequently 
substituted for the lily. 

Prior to the introduction of the Florin 
the coinage of the German States consisted 
chiefly of silver of the denarius and pfen- 
nig types, all of which were more or less 
base. The new coin was, therefore, called 
the Giilden Penning, or gold Pfennig, a 
designation which was gradually abbrevi- 
ated into Gulden (q.v.). 

Florin. The silver Florin, or fiorino 
d'argentOy of Florence was introduced 
about the same time as the gold coin of 
the same name, its value being one tenth 
of the latter. It bore the rhjoning Latin 
verse : 

Det tibi florere 
Christua, Florentia, vere. 

The Florins of Germany and Austria are 
multiples of 100 Kreuzer, and those of the 
Netherlands of 28 Stuivers. All these coins 
are of the same value as the silver Gulden 
(q.v.). 

Silver Florins, or two shilling pieces, 
were issued in England in 1S49 with the 



The English Florin circulated extensive- 
ly in Cyprus, but was replaced by a silver 
coin of 18 Piastres in 1901. 

In 1910 and after, a silver coin inscribed 

ONE FLORIN-TWO SHILLINGS WaS COiucd for 

Australia. 

Florin-Georges. A gold coin of France 
issued by Philip VI of Valois (1328-1350). 
The obverse has a figure of St. George on 
horseback slaying a dragon with a spear. 
The inscription reads: philippvs dei gra 
FRACOR REX. Thcsc Florius were struck at 
Languedoc, pursuant to an ordinance of 

April 27, 1346. 

Flury. A Florin. See Altun. 

Flusch. See Mahmudi. 

Flying Money. One of the names given 
by the Chinese to their early paper money. 

FoghettL The name given to half Grossi 
struck in Parma by Pope Adrian VI (1522- 
1523). They are also known as Pelegrini, 
from the figure of Saint Thomas in a pil- 
grim's habit. 

FoUaro. A copper coin common to a 
large number of the Italian states, of which 
the Follis (q.v.) was the prototype. 

They were issued in Naples before the 
ninth century, those of Stefanio (821-832) 
having a figure of St. Januarius. Capua 
and Salerno struck them about the same 
time. At Gaeta and Mileto they appear in 
the eleventh century, and at Messina, Brin- 
disi, and Cattaro before the termination of 
the twelfth. Those of the last-named town 
bear the figure of St. Trifon, the patron 
saint. Ragusa and Scutari issued them be- 
fore the fourteenth century, but after this 
period they were gradually superseded by 
other coins. 

Follis. The original meaning of this 
word was a purse, or a bag containing 
money Juven. (xiv. 281). After the mon- 
etary reform of Constantine the Great this 
term was employed alongside of the older 
sesterces (which soon disappeared) in ac- 
counts, i.e., so many bags of gold {follis 
auri), of silver {follis argentei), or of cop- 
per {follis ad denarismum, follis denarior- 
urn, or follis aeri^). The use of this term 
was commonest for sums in bronze, and 
soon the name follis was transferred to the 
actual coin once contained in the follis 
or purse. Certain decrees of Constantine 



[86] 



is ad Denarismum 



Fractional Currency 



view to establishing a decimal system in the 
coinage. The piece was greatly objected 
to, on account of the omission of the let- 
ters D. G., or Dei Oratia, in the legend, 
and it received the name of the Godless, 
or graceless, Florin. Three quarters of a 
million were struck, all dated 1849. The 
next issue, in which the omission was rem- 
edied, appeared in 1851, and is a broader 
and thinner coin. The Florin of Edward 
VII, issued in 1902, shows the figure of 
Britannia standing on the prow of a ves- 
sel, her right hand holding a trident and 
her left resting on a shield, 
the Great and his immediate successors al- 
ready use follis as the name of a bronze 
coin — the numrmis centenionalis. 

In the Byzantine Empire, from the time 
of Anastasius, the name follis seems to 
have been applied to the large copper 
pieces of forty nummi first issued by that 
Emperor. 

Its divisions were indicated by Greek 
letters, as follows: 

M = 1 Follis, or 40 Nummi 

A = % Follis, or 30 Nummi 

K = 1/^ Follis, or 20 Nummi 

I =: ^ Follis, or 10 Nummi 

(also called Dekanummion) 
E = ^ Follis, or 5 Nummi 

(also called Pentanummiou) 

Later, the name came to be used for a 
copper coin in general and was adopted 
by the Arabs as Fels, pi. Falus. See Babe- 
Ion, Traits (i. 761-771). 

Follis ad Denarismum. A purse or sum 
of two hundred and fifty Denarii of bronze. 
See Hultsch, Script, (vol. I, p. 308). 

Follis Aeris. See Follis. 

Follis ArgenteL A purse or sum of one 
hundred and twenty-five Arguria. From 
ancient sources we learn that in the Con- 
stantinian period a Follis Argentei was val- 
ued at one hundred and twenty-five Mil- 
larenses, or two hundred and eighteen Sili- 
quae plus eight Nummi of bronze. It was 
equal to one eighth of the Follis Auri, or 
nine gold Solidi. Babelon, Trait e (i. 764, 
765) and Hultsch, Script, (vol. I, p. 308). 

Follis Auri. A purse or sum of seventy- 
two gold Solidi, equal in weight to a gold 
Pound (libra). The term was also used 
for its equivalent in silver (one thousand 
silver Millarenses), or in bronze (six thou- 
sand bronze Denarii). 

Follis Denariorum. See Follis ad De- 



narismum. 



Fond. A variety of the ''cut money'' 
and equal to three Mocos or two Shillings 
and six Pence sterling. It was established 
in the Windward Islands in 1840. See 
Chalmers (p. 91). 

Fondug. See Funduk. 

Forint. The Hungarian word for Flor- 
in. It occurs usually in the abbreviated 
form Fmt on the Austrian silver issues 
specially struck for Hungary. 

ForlL A former money of account used 
in Egypt and computed at one sixth of 
the Medino. 

ForL A rare gold coin struck at Bor- 
deaux by Charles of France, as Duke of 
Aquitaine (1469-1474). It has on the ob- 
verse a lion, two leopards, and two fleurs 
de lis, and on the reverse the quartered 
arms of France and England. See Blan- 
chet (i. 298). It is sometimes called the 
Samson d'Or. 

Forte. This term, like the Italian titolo, 
is used to indicate the fineness rather than 
the value, and in this sense it is applied 
to Portuguese silver coins issued under 
Fernando I ; to those struck in Savoy dur- 
ing the fourteenth century under Amedeo 
VI, to the issues of the Fieschi Family for 
Messerano, etc. See Fert. 

Fortuna Thaler, or Glucksthaier. A 

general term for any Thaler with the fig- 
ure of Fortuna, such as those struck in 
Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel, Mecklenburg, etc. 
In 1623 and 1624 Christian IV of Den- 
mark issued Thaler for Qliickstadt, which 
bore the figure of Fortuna, the armorial 
bearings of the city. These receive the 
same name. 

Fouage. See Smoke Farthings. 

Fouang. See Fuang. 

Fourre. See Plated Coins. 

Fourthling. See Farthing. 

Fractional Currency. This term is usu- 
ally applied to an issue of paper money of 
the United States of America which ap- 
peared from 1862 to 1876 inclusive. The 
values ranged from three to fifty Cents. 
There are five general issues, as follows: 

First issue, August 21, 1862, to May 27, 1863. 
Second Issue, October 10, 1863, to February 23, 1867. 
Third issue, December 5, 1864. to August 16, 1869. 
Fourth issue, July 14, 1869. to February 16, 1875. 
Fifth issue, February 26, 1875, to February 15, 1876. 



[87] 



Franc 



Frelucques 



Franc Originally a French silver coin 
of nearly the size of the Ecu or Crown, 
the latter coin superseding it in 1642. The 
Franc was created under Henri III by a 
decree dated March 31, 1575, which estab* 
lished its value at twenty Sols. The first 
Revolution created a new silver coin on 
which the name Franc was bestowed. By 
an ordinance of March 28, 1803 (7 Ger- 
minal, an. xi), it was decreed that the 
Franc was to be nine hundred one thou- 
sandths of pure silver, and that gold pieces 
of twenty and forty Francs were to be 
struck. At the same time the ratio of 
silver and gold was made at fifteen and 
one half to one, and the decimal system 
was introduced. 

The Franc, divided into one hundred 
Centimes, has been adopted by the French 
Colonies, Belgium {see Frank), Luxem- 
burg, Monaco, Switzerland, etc. 

The term also occurs on the gold issues 
for Sweden in 1868 and on the Austrian 
gold coins for Hungary in 1880. In both 
instances an attempt was made to har- 
monize with the French decimal system but 
was abandoned. 

Beginning in 1904 the monetary system 
of the Danish West Indies was changed 
and fifty Franc or ten Daler pieces and 
twenty Franc or four Daler pieces in gold 
were issued, as well as two and one Francs 
or forty and twenty Cents in silver. 

Franc a ChevaL The name given to an 
early French gold coinage dating from 
John II (1350-1364). The coins received 
this name from the figure of the King on 
horseback, the type of the Gouden Rijder. 
They were copied in the Low Countries, 
and in Brabant, under Joanna (1355- 
1405). 

Franc a Pied. An early French gold 
coin which receives its name from the 
prominent figure of the ruler standing on 
foot under a canopy. It was also called 
the Fleur-de-Lis from the large number of 
these devices which are found on it. It 
was introduced by Charles V (1364-1380), 
and was copied in Ligny, Provence, and 
the Low Countries in general. 

Francescone. The name given to the 
Scudo struck by Francis III of Lorraine 
(1737-1765) for Florence, Pisa, and other 
cities of Etruria. Its value was ten Paoli 



and the designation was retained in the 
coinage until the provisional government of 
1859. 

FranchL The plural of Franc in the 
Italian language. The word occurs on the 
modern series of paper money issued for 
Switzerland. Conf. also Frank. 

Frandscus. See Dixain. 

Franco. A silver coin of the Dominican 
Republic of the value of one hundred Cen- 
tesimos. It was introduced in 1891. 

Francois d'Or. The name given to the 
gold double Ducat issued by Francois III, 
Duke of Lorraine (1726-1737). See De 
Saulcy (xxxiv. 5). 

Frank. A silver coin of Switzerland, 
struck in Luzerne, Schwyz, and other can- 
tons, and the counterpart of the French 
Franc. Its usual divisions were one hun- 
dred Rappen. 

In the recent Belgium coinage those 
pieces that have Flemish legends have the 
spelling Frank instead of Franc. 

In the Napoleonic kingdom of Westpha- 
lia gold coins of five, ten, twenty, and 
forty Franken were issued from 1809 to 
1813. 

This spelling occurs on the recent issues 
of paper money for Switzerland as well 
as the word Franc, the French equivalent. 
The note in question bears the triple in- 
scription, CINQ FRANCS, PUNP FRANKEN, 
CINQUE FRANCHI. 

Franklin Cent. See Fugio Cent. 

Fransida, plural Fransidor or Fransi- 
doma. An expression used by Swedish 
numismatists to signify the reverse of a 
coin or medal. It is a compound word 
meaning * * the side away from the person. ' ' 
See Atsida. 

FranzL The name formerly used for 
the Levant Dollar in Arabia, and prob- 
ably derived from the portrait of the Em- 
peror Francis on the obverse. See Noback 

(p. 679). 

Frazione. A copper coin of Cagliari is- 
sued by the Kings of Spain as rulers of 
Sardinia in the seventeenth century. 

Fredericks d'Or. A gold coin of Den- 
mark struck by Frederick VI pursuant to 
an ordinance of February 3, 1827. 

Frelucques. Minor coins of the Dukes 
of Burgundy frequently referred to as be- 



[88] 



Fretin 



Fun 



ing in use during the fifteenth century. 
Du Cange thinks they were of small value, 
their name meaning a trifle. 

Fretin, or Fretone. A former base sil- 
ver coin of France. It is cited in a mon- 
etary ordinance issued by Charles VI in 
1357 while Dauphin, and another ordin- 
ance of 1371 mentions '^huii pieces d* ar- 
gent autrement Fretin,^' 

Friedrichsdor. A former Prussian gold 
coin. Although originally issued by Fred- 
erick William I, it receives it name from 
Frederick II, who struck it in large quan- 
tities. It was abolished when the Mark 
system went into eflFect. 

Frignaccoy Frisaco, or Frisacense. The 

name given to the Denari struck by the 
Patriarchs of Aquileja early in the thir- 
teenth century and copied by the Bishops 
of Salzburg. Du Cange cites a document 
of 1278 in which their value is given as 
equal to thirteen Piccoli of Verona. 

Fruste (Latin frustum). A term used 
by French numismatic writers to indicate 
a coin or medal that has been badly worn 
from usage. 

Fu. The Chinese name for a species of 
water-beetle. The word has been applied 
to the copper Cash from very early times. 

Fuage. See Smoke Farthings. 

Fuangy or Fouang. A Siamese silver 
coin, the eighth part of the Tical (g.v.). 
It is equal to two Song Pais (song mean- 
ing two or double). The Fuang was ex- 
tensively copied in Cambodia. 

Fuchs. A German slang or popular 
name for a red copper coin, and formerly 
frequently applied to the Pfennig. The 
word means a fox, and the allusion is of 
course to the color. 

Gold Fuchs is used for a Ducat. Thus 
Langbein, Oedichte (ii. 137), has the lines: 

"Statt dor gehofften goldenen FQchse, 
Fand man our Kupfer In der Biichse." 

Fuddea, or Fuddih. Another name for 
the double Pice of Bombay, etc., when used 
as a money of account. See Mohur. 

Fuerte. See Peso. 



A billon coin of Freiburg, 
Jjausanne, and other Swiss cantons, issued 
originally in the sixteenth century with a 
value of five Heller, and later five Kreuzer. 



The name is also applied to the five 
Kreuzer pieces of Bamberg, Salzburg, 
Henneberg, etc., and to the five Ferding 
pieces of Riga. 

Fiuifzehner. A silver coin of Austria, 
Tyrol, etc., which receives its name from 
its value, i,e., fifteen Kreuzer. There is a 
reference to this coin in the Chronica of 
Melchior Balthasar Kupferschmit, 1668, 
where he states (p. 882) that attempts 
were made to introduce counterfeit pieces 
of this denomination from Turkey into 
Austria. 

Fiirstengrotchen. A silver coin of the 
Margraves of Meissen first struck by Bal- 
thaser at the close of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. They resembled the Breitgroschen 
but were somewhat less in value and size. 

They were extensively copied in other 
localities, notably in Hessen, and there is 
a series of them for Magdeburg from 1570 
and later, their value there being twelve 
Pfennige. 

Fugio Cent, sometimes called the Frank- 
lin Cent, on account of the motto, **Mind 
yauir Business," which was one of the say- 
ings of Benjamin Franklin, was the earli- 
est type of Cent issued by the Government 
of the United States. It bears the date 
1787, and there are a number of varieties. 

The obverse shows a sundial with the 
words FUGIO 1787 and the above-men- 
tioned motto in the exergue. The sundial 
and motto are copied from the similar de- 
sign on the so-called Continental pewter 
dollar struck in 1776. The latter has the 
initials eg fecit, hence it is assumed that 
Edward Getz prepared the dies. 

The reverse of the Fugio Cent bears an 
outer circle of thirteen links in a chain, 
indicative of the thirteen original states. 
An inner circle is inscribed united states, 
and this again encloses the motto we are 
ONE in three lines. 

Fuju Jimpo. See Jiu Ni Zene. 

Fiimage. See Smoke Farthings. 

Fun. The denomination of certain of 
the modem struck coins of Korea. These 
were first issued about 1886. There are 
one Fun pieces in brass, five Funs in cop- 
per, and quarter Tangs in nickel with the 
value expressed by 2 Chun 5 Fun. See 
Fen and Candareen. 



[89] 



Funduk 

Fimduk, also called Fonduq. A gold 
coin of the Ottoman Empire, issued early 
in the sixteenth century, and used not only 
in Turkey but also in Egypt, Algiers and 
Tripoli. It corresponds to the Sequin, and 
originally weighed fifty-four grains, but at 
later periods has been under fifty. 

Under Ahmed III (A.H. 1115-1143) ap- 
peared the Toghralu-Funduk on which 
the toghra or royal cipher was introduced. 
See Fonrobert (No. 5039). 



Fjrrk 

Funeral Pieces. See Mortuary Pieces. 

FusiL A silver coin of the Bishopric 
of Liege issued by Louis de Bourbon (1456- 
1482). There are corresponding halves 
and doubles. See de Chestret {p€L$sim). 

Fyric. A copper coin of Sweden which 
originally appeared under Oustavus Wasa 
about 1522, and was continued until the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. Un- 
der Gustavus Adolfus it was struck for 
Arboga, Sater, and Nykoping. 



190] 



G&bella 



GehelmdetcheUing 



G 



Gabella. A silver coin of Bologna, is- 
sued in the sixteenth century under Popes 
Julius III and Marcellus II. It appears 
to have been a variety of the Carlino. 
There is a double and a triple, the latter 
also known as Gabellone. 

Gabulus Denarionim. According to 
Selden, History of Tithes (321), this was 
the legal term for rent paid in money. 

Ga-den Pho-dang Tang-ka. See Tang- 
ka. 



A silver coin of Venice 
struck by the Doge Alvise Pisani (1735- 
1741) for Dalmatia and Albania. It had 
a value of three Lira, and halves and quar- 
ters were also issued. 

Gall. A former small silver coin of 
Cambodia. See Kelly (p. 216). 

Galley Halfpence. A name given to 
half pennies of base metal and somewhat 
thinner though larger than the regal issues. 
The name is said to be derived from the 
fact that they were brought from Genoa 
by the galleymen who traded in London, 
and a spot known as the Galley Key 
(? quay), in Lower Thames Street, near 
Tower Hill, was the locality from which 
they were circulated. 

They were declared fraudulent by Acts 
of Henry IV and Henry V, but continued 
to be brought into England until their 
circulation was finally prohibited by stat- 
ute in 1519. 

Gallus Pfennig. A billon coin of the 
canton of St. Gallen, Switzerland, struck 
by the abbots and by the civic authorities 
during the fourteenth century. It resem- 
bles the Bracteates in fabric and bears the 
figure of a saint. See Blanchet (ii. 264). 

Ganza. A former base metal coin of 
Burma, consisting of copper and tin. It 
is mentioned by a number of writers early 
in the nineteenth century as being equal 
to two or three French Sous. It was abol- 
ished about 1840 and the Kabean (q.v.) 
succeeded it. 



Gass. A denomination of Maskat, the 
four hundredth part of the Piastre. See 
Mahmudi. 

Gastmael-Penning. See Labay . 

Gazzetta. A copper coin of Venice 
which was originally struck for the Colon- 
ies and later adopted by the city. Pieces 
of one and two Gazzette were issued for 
Candia about 1632, and Mailliet mentions 
a piece of ten Gazzette struck during the 
war against the Turks (1646-1650). 

For Zante it was struck with the inscrip- 
tion CORFV. CEPAL. ZANTE ; and f or Zara the 
pieces of two Gazzette have isole et ar- 

MATA, or ARMATA ET MOREA. 

It is claimed that the first newspaper 
ever published, which was issued at Venice, 
obtained its name from this coin, which 
was the price of a copy, and from which 
the English word *' gazette" is derived. 

The Gazzetta was issued for the Ionian 
Islands as recently as 1801, when those ter- 
ritories were under Russian protection. 

GeburUtagsthaler, i.e., Birthday Thaler, 
is the name given to a large silver coin 
struck in 1666 to commemorate the eighty- 
eighth birthday of August, Duke of Bruns- 
wick- Wolfenbiittel. The obverse shows a 
bust of the Duke in a wreath of laurel and 
the inscription pavstum. ivstitae. et. pa- 

CIS. CONSORTIVM. 

Gedachtnitmiinzen. See Jubileums Tha- 
ler. 

Geeltje. A Dutch popular name for a 
gold coin and derived from '*geel," i.e., 
yellow. See Gelbvogel. 

In some parts of Holland the term Geel- 
vink, i.e., ** yellow-finch," is used for a 
Ducat or any gold piece. 

Gefiitterte Miinzen. See Plated Coins. 

Gehelmde Leeuw. See Botdrager. 

Gehelmdeschellmg. A variety of the 
Schelling struck for the Low Countries at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
which receives its name from the device of 



[91] 



Gelbvogel 



Geutenpfeimige 



a helmet on the obverse. It was issued 
chiefly in Deventer and Zwolle. See 
Ileaume. 

Gelbvogel. The popular name in South- 
ern Germany for a gold coin. The word 
means ** yellow bird.'' See Geeltje. 

Geldy the German equivalent for money 
in general. 

Gelegenheitsmiinzen. A term used both 
for coins issued occasionally, and to com- 
memorate some special event. 

Gelsoy possibly a corruption of Guelfo 
(q.v,). A term used in Verona to describe 
coins of five Soldi issued from circa 1349 
to 1428. 

Genevoise. The name given to the Re- 
publican Thaler of Geneva issued in 1794. 
Its value was twelve Florins, but upon the 
adoption of a decimal system it was ex- 
changeable at ten Decimes. 

Genovino. A gold coin of Genoa in- 
troduced in the twelfth century. The type 
usually exhibits a gateway on the obverse, 
and a cross on the reverse, with the in- 
scription coNRADVx REX ROMANO. There 
exist halves, thirds (Terzaroli), and quar- 
ters, the latter receiving the name of Quar- 
tarola. The Genovino di Oro remained as 
the current gold coin in Genoa until the 
termination of the Sforza dynasty. 

The Genovino di Argento dates from the 
sixteenth century and was of the same 
value approximately as the Scudo. 

Gentfl. See Dobra Gentil. 

GenuinL See Januini. 

Geordie. See White Geordie and Yel- 
low Geordie. 

George. An English slang term for 
a coin bearing the image of St. George. 
Grose, in his Dictionary of the Vulgar 
Tongue, 1785, has, ** George, a half-crown 
piece.'' See Decus (supra). 

The English Guinea was popularly 
known as a ** Yellow George.*' Robert 
Burns, in his Epistle to Rankine, 1784 
(xii.), says, *'An 'baith a yellow George 
to claim." 

George. The name given to the five- . 
dollar gold piece issued in Canada in 1912, 
from the fact that it bears the head of 
George V, King of England. 

George Noble. A rare gold coin of 
England which appeared only in the sec- 



ond coinage of Henry VIII, i.e., from 1526 
when they were authorized, to 1533 when 
the divorce of Katharine of Aragon oc- 
curred, the latter date being fixed by the 
letters H and K on the obverse. It was 
current for six shillings and eight pence, 
and the half George Noble (of which only 
one specimen is known) in proportion. 
About four varieties of the Noble exist, all 
having the rose mint mark. The reverse 
legend is a quotation from a hymn by Pru- 
dentius, written in the latter half of the 
fourth aentury. 

Georgiiit Triumpho. A copper coin, of 
the half-penny size struck in England in 
1783, for circulation in the Colonies of 
North America. The reverse bears a figure 
of Liberty with the legend voce popuiii 
(q.v.). 

Georgsthaler. The name applied in gen- 
eral to any coin of Thaler size on which 
there is a figure of St. George slaying the 
dragon. 

There is an extensive series of them for 
Mansfeld during the sixteenth century 
and later, and they were also issued in 
Hungary and in Hanover. See Florin- 
Georges. 

Gerah. An early Jewish weight stand- 
ard and equal to one twentieth of a Shekel. 
See Exodus (xxx. 13), Leviticus (xxvii. 
25), Numbers (iii. 47), Ezekiel (xlv. 12). 

Gerefa. Among the Anglo-Saxons this 
was the chief officer of the mint. See 
Ruding (i. 15, 137). 

Gerlaciis. The name given to the gold 
Gulden struck by Gerlach, Archbishop of 
Mainz (1346-1371). An ordinance of circa 
1400 states that this piece was of light 
weight compared with the Ducat. See 
Paul Joseph (p. 214). 

Gersh. See Ghrush and Guerche. 

Getsnerthaler. A very rare silver coin 
of Zurich, issued in 1773, and after thirty- 
six specimens were struck the dies broke. 
It was designed by the painter and poet 
Salomon Gessner, and the dies were cut 
by Balthaser Vorster. 

Gettone. The Italian equivalent of Je- 
ton (q.v.). 

Geusenpfennige are not coins but small 
medalets bearings the figure of Philip II 
of Spain. After the compromise of Breda 



[92] 



Gewere 



Giustina 



in 1566 certain of the nobles of the Low 
Countries were contemptuously referred to 
as gueux, i.e., beggars. They adopted this 
nickname and issued tokens with the in- 
scription en tout fidelles au roy. The re- 
verses bore clasped hands and a beggar's 
bag with jusques a porter la hesace. 

Gewere. Du Cange cites an ordinance 
of 1294 reading sub annuo censu . . . 
denariorutn Flandrinsium monetae quae 
dicitur gewere; but no such coin can be 
identified. 

Ghost's Face Money, or Ghost's Head 
Money." See Ant's Nose Coins. 

Ghnish. A silver coin of the Ottoman 
Empire, originally issued under Soleiman 
II (A.H. 1099). The name recalls the Gros, 
Groschen, and Groat, and by travellers it 
was termed Piastre, which however must 
not be confused with the modem coin of 
the same name. 

The name of the coin is variously written 
Grush, Gurush, Gersch, etc. The later is- 
sues are of billon. See Asadi Ghrush and 
Guerche. 

Its value was forty Paras, and the issues 
for Egypt in billon were equal to forty 
Medins. 

The modern Egyptian nickel coin of five 
Milliemes is known as a Guersh. 

Gianuino. The name given to a variety 
of the silver Luigino (q.v.) of Genoa is- 
sued in 1668 and later by the Banco di 
San Giorgio, under Cesare Gentile. It has 
on the obverse a crowned shield supported 
by two griffins, and on the reverse a Janus 
head with male and female faces. 

Gigliato. An Italian word meaning 
strewn or decorated with lilies. The name 
was originally applied to a variety of the 
Carlino (g.v.) issued by Charles II of 
Anjou, King of Naples and Sicily (1285- 
1309). The reverse of this silver coin 
bears a short cross surrounded with lilies. 
The type was copied in Piedmont, Durazzo, 
by the Grand Masters of the Order of 
Malta, etc. 

The Fiorini d'Oro of Florence bearing 
the figure of a lily are also called by the 
same name. 

Gigliato d'Oro. See Lis d'Or. 

Gigot. A copper coin of the value of 
half a Liard struck at Antwerp, Mona, 



Reckheim, Bois-le-Duc, and other places in 
Brabant during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. 

Gfldepenningen. The common name for 
the tokens formerly issued by the numer- 
ous guilds in Holland. 

Gin Kwan. Early Japanese silver ring 
money (q.v.). The word **Gin'' in Jap- 
anese means silver. 



S meaning a ** Knee-piece, " 
was the common name used in Venice in 
the fourteenth century for a variety of 
the Soldino which bore a figure of the 
Doge in a kneeling position. See Papado- 
poli (i. ix. 14). 

Giorgino. A billon coin of Mndena is- 
sued by Cesare d'Este (1597-1628) and 
continued until the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. It has a portrait of St. 
Geminian on the reverse. See Luigino. 

GiraiolL A nickname or popular name 
for the silver coin of 160 Sols struck at 
Mantua when that city was besieged by 
the Emperor Ferdinand II in 1629-30. 
The name means a sunflower and both of 
these objects are depicted on the coin. See 
Mailliet (Ixxviii. 2). 

Giulio. A Papal silver coin, which un- 
der the name of Grosso Largo was intro- 
duced in the thirteenth centurv, and re- 
ceived its more common designation from 
Pope Julius II (1503-1513). In a tract 
entitled A Mittimus to the Jubilee at Rome, 
1625, it is said to be worth eight Soldi. 

It was copied at Guastalla under Cesare 
Gonzaga (1570-1575) ; at Avignon under 
Gregory XIII and his successors; at Cam- 
erino, Mantua, etc. 

Giustina. The name given to a Vene- 
tian silver coin originally issued under the 
Doge Alvise I Mocenigo (1570-1577) and 
continued by his successors until the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. The 
name is derived from the figure of St. 
Giustina on the coin, on whose name day, 
October 7, 1571, the battle of Lepanto was 
fought and the Venetians gained an im- 
portant naval victory over the Turks. The 
coin is consequently what may be called 
a Victory Thaler, which is confirmed by 
the view of ships on the open sea, and 
the inscription memor. erg. tvi. ivstina. 

VIRGO. 



[93] 



Giustino 



Go 



There are two varieties: the Qiustina 
Maggiore, of a value of 160 Soldi, with 
divisions of one half, one quarter, one 
eighth, and one thirty-second, and a 
smaller type, the Giustina minore, of 124 
Soldi, with similar divisions. 

The latter coin was imitated by Cesare 
d^Este, Duke of Modena (1597-1628), with 
a value of twenty Bolognini. 

Giiittino. The name given to a variety 
of the silver Luigino {q,v.) of Genoa is- 
sued in 1668 and later by the Banco di 
San Giorgio, under Cesare Gentile. It has 
on the obverse a crowned shield supported 
by two griffins, and on the reverse a figure 
of JusticyB seated. 

Glatt Beads. See Borjookes. 

Glass Coins. The Nummi Vitrei, or 
Monnaies de Verre, originated under the 
Roman Emperors in Egypt, continued 
through the Byzantine period, and were 
then adopted by the Arab invaders. Those 
resembling Arabic coins in size, weight, and 
inscriptions are nothing else but standard 
weights issued mainly for the purpose of 
testing the accuracy of current coins. They 
were issued by the governors under the 
Amawee and Abbasee Khaleefehs, but were 
commonest under the Fatimide rulers and 
lasted until the Turkish conquest. 

Conf, Lane-Poole, Catalogue of Arabic 
Glass Weights in the British Museum, 
1891. 

Glaubensthaler. See Catechismusthaler. 

Glaukes. FXauKeg, or **Owls,'' the pop- 
ular name in ancient times for the famous 
Tetradrachms of Athens which always bore 
an owl, the emblem of Athene, for their 
reverse type. 

Globe Dollar. The name given to a 
silver coin introduced by Charles III of 
Spain (1759-1788) which bears on the ob- 
verse the two hemispheres. It was contin- 
ued to the brief reign of Joseph Napoleon. 

Globular Coins. A term generally ap- 
plied to any coins more or less spherical 
in shape. The best examples are certain 
Byzantine coins of a considerable thick- 
ness and small diameter, and the so-called 
**Bullef money of Siam. 

Glockenthaler. A series of seven Tha- 
ler, all dated 1643, and struck by Duke 
August the Younger of Brunswick Liine- 

[ 



burg to commemorate the evacuation of 
the fortress and city of Wolfenbiittel. 

These coins have their divisions of halves 
and quarters, and with one exception they 
all bear the picture of a large bell. The 
first three varieties have the bell without 
a clapper; the fourth shows only a clap- 
per; the fifth and sixth have the complete 
bell with the clapper, and the last variety 
has a view of the city, above which are 
three hands ringing the bell. 

For a detailed account of the inscrip- 
tions, circumstances of their issue, etc., see 
BWtter fiir Miinzfreunde (No. 5, 1908). 

Gloriam RegnL The name given to sil- 
ver coins of fifteen Sols and five Sols struck 
in Paris in 1670 for use in the French col- 
onies in America. The reverse inscription 
reads gloriam. regni. tvi. dicent., which 
is taken from Psalms (cxlv. 11). See Zay 
(p. 45). 

Glove Money. It was formerly the cus- 
tom in England for clients to send a pair 
of gloves to the counsel who undertook 
their causes, and even to the judges who 
were to try them. These presents usually 
partook of the nature of a bribe, and it 
is recorded that a Mrs. Croaker presented 
Sir Thomas More, the Lord Chancellor, 
with a pair of gloves lined with angels, 
which he returned. 

A bribe given under these circumstances 
continued to be called ** glove money" long 
after the gloves had ceased to be a feature 
in the transaction. 

Gluckhenneii Thaler. The nickname 
given to a silver coin of Basle, issued with- 
out date but struck in the latter part of 
the seventeenth century from designs by 
Friedrich Fechter. It has on the reverse 
the figure of a hen with a brood of young 
chickens. 

Gliicksthaler. See Fortuna Thaler. 

Gnadenpfennig is not a coin but a 
medal usually of oval form with a ring 
or similar attachment for suspension. They 
were chiefly issued for weddings of princes 
and the nobility, and are common to Bam- 
berg, Paderborn, various parts of Pom- 
merania, Courland, etc. 

Go. A Japanese word meaning five. A 
Gin Go Momme, i.e., ** silver five momme," 
was issued as early as 1767. See Fon- 
robert (No. 1034). 

94] 



i 



Gobbi 



Gosseler 



Gobbi, or Gobi. A popular name used 
in Bologna to describe the Papal Baiocci, 
many of which were said to have been 
struck at the Gubbio mint. 

Gobog. A species of copper temple 
monej^ issued in the island of Java. Mil- 
lies (p. 23) calls these pieces medals and 
compares them with the Chinese temple 
money. Netcher (p. 141), however, gives 
a table of equivalents, as follows: 

1 Goboiir = 5 K^ttag 
400 Gobog = 1 silver Dirhem 
4000 Gobog = 1 gold Dirhem ( ? Dinar) 

See Kangtang. 

Gobrecht Dollars. The name given to 
a series of United States pattern coins 
struck in 1836, 1838, and 1839, and of 
which there are twenty varieties. 

They receive their name from Christian 
Gobrecht, who was assistant engraver at 
the mint in Philadelphia, and whose name 
appears on some of the specimens. 

Godless Florin. See Florin. 

God Penny. See Festing Penny. 

Gosgen, or Gosken. A copper coinage 
of the city of Hameln issued from about 
1580 to 1628. See Neumann (8198, etc.). 

Gold. The accepted standard of value. 
It was first coined by the Lydians, in Asia 
Minor, in the sixth century before our era, 
and has been adopted in the monetary sys- 
tem of nearly every country. 

Gold Fuchs. A gold coin. See Fuchs. 

Gold Thaler. A former money of ac- 
count in Bremen, the one four hundred and 
twentieth part of a pound of fine gold. It 
was equal to seventy-two Groten, and in 
1871 silver coins were issued bearing the 
inscription ein thaler gold, based on the 
above standard. 

Goldy. An English dialect term for a 
Sovereign. It is common to a large num- 
ber of counties. 

Gontzen Pfenning. Johann Stumpf , in 
his Schweizer Chronik, 1606 (393a), states 
that ''Herzog Qontzen von Schwaben . . . 
schlug ein Miintz mit einem Lowen, die 
wurde lang hernach genennt Gontzenpfen- 
ning/' 

Good Fors. The name given to a paper 
currency circulated at the Cape of Good 
Hope by private individuals **to the great 
prejudice of trade and public credit." 

[ 



They were prohibited in 1822. See Chal- 
mers (p. 233). 

Good Samaritan Shilling. A silver 
piece dated 1652, which was never intended 
for a coin although it is an imitation of 
the New England and Pine Tree issues. 
In the American Journal of Numismatics 
(vii. 40) Dr. Green states that the original 
was ** undoubtedly the work of some Eng- 
lish apothecary, who, without any special 
object in view, stamped the piece with his 
trade-mark. It is figured in Felt's Ac- 
count of * Massachusetts Currency' (plate, 
p. 38).'' The Good Samaritan Shilling 
attracted attention as early as 1767, when 
Thomas Hollis wrote about it to the Rev. 
Andrew Eliot, D.D., of Boston, and in his 
letter said: ''Shilling, No. 10, Masathvsets 
in Pourtraiture of the good Samaritan. 
Over it Fac Simile No Reverse. ... If 
the shilling. No. 10 . . . can be procured 
for T.H. in fair, unrubbed, uncleaned con- 
dition, he will be glad of them at any 
price." To this Dr. Eliot replied: **The 
portraiture of the good Samaritan no one 
among us ever heard of. I am persuaded 
that it was not a current coin ; but a medal 
struck on some particular occasion." It 
will be noted that the piece Hollis asked 
for, nearly a century before Wyatt, had 
**no reverse," and was a fac simile copy 
of an earlier issue. 

Goose Eye Coins. The name given to 
certain debased coins of China struck in 
the Yung Kuang period A.p. 465. The 
Chinese name is E Yen Ch 'ien. 

Gorgoneion, or Gorgona. A general 
term for Greek coins of Olbia, Populonia, 
etc., which bear a representation of the 
Gorgon's head. 

Gormoy meaning ** round coin," is a 
name given to the Indian Rupee in Tibet; 
they are valued at three Tang-Kas. 

Goslar. See Arenkopf . 

Gossariiis. Du Cange cites an ordinance 
of 1192 in which duos gossarios auri are 
mentioned, but we can only conjecture 
what gold coins are referred to in this 
passage. 

Gosseler. A small base silver coin is- 
sued in various parts of the Low Countries 
during the sixteenth century. It was cur- 
rent for the fortieth part of a Daalder. 

5] 



Gothic Cro¥m 



Grano 



There are numerous varieties. Some of 
those struck at ZwoUe have an eflSgy of 
Saint Michael; others struck at Deventer 
(1534) bear the figure of Saint Lievin, etc. 

Gothic Crown. * A pattern by Wyon, 
struck only in the years 1846, 1847 and 
1853, and occurring with both plain and 
lettered edges. It was never popular on 
account of the mediaeval character of the 
lettering. 

Gottesfreimd Thaler. See Pfaffenfeind 
Thaler. 

Gouden Kroon. A gold coin of Bra- 
bant, struck by Jean IV (1417-1427), and 
copied in the Low Countries. The obverse 
shows the quartered armorial shield of 
Brabant and Burgundy, above which is a 
large crown, from which circumstance the 
coin receives its name. 

Gouden Lam, also called Giilden Lam, 
and frequently abbreviated Lam, was the 
name given to a gold coin of the type of 
the Agnel (q.v.) struck by the Dukes of 
Holland, Brabant, Gueldres, etc. The 
larger coin or Mouton received the name 
of Groot Lam. 

The Gouden Lam is mentioned in the 
monetary records of Vilvoorden, as early 
as 1330. See Van der Chijs (p. 71). 

Gouden Leeuw. See Lion d'Or, and 
Leeuw. 

Gouden NobeL See Bozenobel. 

Gouden Peter. See Peter. 

Gouden ReaaL See BeaaL 

Gouden Rijder. See Rijd^r. 

Gouden Schild. See Schild. 

Gouden Torent. See Torentje. 

Gouden Vlies. See Vlies. 

Gourde. A French colonial term, and 
equivalent to the Spanish gordo, i.e., thick. 
Zay (pp. 203-205) describes jetons rang- 
ing from one quarter Gourde to sixteen 
Gourdes struck in 1825 for Guadeloupe. 

The silver coin of this name is now the 
standard of value in Haiti, and is divided 
into one hundred Centimes. See Piastre 
Gourda. The piece of twenty-five Cen- 
times is known as the Gourdin. 

Go Yo Sen. (Lit. Honorable use, mean- 
ing here **for service of the government".) 
A Japanese Kwanei Sen (q.v.) made to 
pay the workmen engaged in repairing the 
great temples at NiUio. 



Goz. See Mahmudi. 

Graceless Florin. See Florin. 

Graid. In the Rivhta Italiana di Nu- 
mismatica (x. 476) mention is made of a 
tax in Bologna in which Graici boni are 
quoted as equal to eight Danari. 

' Gram. The popular name for the Grano 
or one third Farthing of Malta. See Chal- 
mers (p. 324). 

Gralosken. The name given to Hun- 
garian silver coins of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, which bore on one side the armorial 
shield and on the reverse the seated Ma- 
donna with the infant Savior on her arm. 
According to Adam Berg, New Miinzhuch, 
1597, one hundred Gralosken were equal 
to a Thaler. 

Gramo. The inscription un oramo oc- 
curs on a private gold coin struck in 1889 
by Julius Popper at Paramo in the archi- 
pelago of Tierra del Fuego. It is prob- 
ably intended for the weight of the coin 
and not for the denomination, as the piece 
is usually called a Peso. A larger gold 
coin of the same type is inscribed 5 
ORAMOs and is known as five Pesos. 

GranaSy or Granatas. Evidently the 
name of certain gold coins struck in Cra- 
cow during the fourteenth century. Du 
Cange quotes an inventory of 1366 in 
which they are mentioned. 

Granby Coppers. See Higley Coppers. 

Grand Blanque. See Blanc. 

Grand Bronze. The popular name for 
the Roman Sestertius of Imperial times. 

Grand Dauphin. See Dauphin. 

Grand Ecu. See Laubthaler. 

Grande Plaque. See Gros Blanque au 
Lis. 

Grano. A small copper coin which ap- 
pears to have been originally issued by 
Ferdinand I of Aragon, as King of Naples 
and Sicily (1458 to 1494). Its value was 
the one hundredth part of the Ducato 
(q.v.) and multiples of two, three, five, 
and ten Grani were struck at later periods. 
The silver Grano, also called Obolo, was 
struck by Philip II of Spain, while ruler 
of Naples and Sicily (1554-1598), and mul- 
tiples as high as twenty-six Grani appeared 
in 1686. 



[96] 



Grave 



Grivna 



In Malta the Grano was struck in cop- 
per as early as the middle of the sixteenth 
century, but its value was much lower 
than the Sicilian type. In 1825 when the 
various British silver and copper coins 
were proclaimed as current in Malta, the 
Penny was made the equivalent of twelve 
Grani, and it was recommended that in 
addition to halfpence and farthings, a coin 
of the value of one third of a farthing, or 
a Grano, should be issued, **as many arti- 
cles of primary necessity are often sold 
here to the value of one grano." The 
recommendation was carried out in 1827, 
when ** British grain*' were first intro- 
duced. 

Grave. See Aes. 

Grave. A billon Portuguese coin issued 
in the reign of Fernando (1367-1383) and 
struck at Lisbon and Porto. The obverse 
has the letter F in a crowned compart- 
ment, and the reverse a shield between 
four castles. 

Gray. A slang term for a halfpenny 
with both sides alike, and used by sharp- 
ers. 

Mayhew, in his book London Labour 
and London Poor, 1851 (i. 199), has the 
following passage: ^'I don't like tossing 
the coster lads; they're the wide-awakes 
that way. The thieves use * grays. ' They're 
ha'pennies , either both sides heads or 
tails." 

Gray GroaL A Scotch nickname for a 
Groat or fourpenny piece. There is a 
Scotch phrase or proverb, **Not worth a 
gray groat," which is used to imply worth- 
lessness. 

Grazia, or Crazia. A base silver coin 
common to several Italian states and which 
probably originated in Florence under 
Cosmo I (1536-1574). The Medici Family 
also issued it for Siena and Pisa, and it 
occurs in the coinage of Lucca and Piom- 
bino to the end of the seventeenth century. 
The name may have been derived from 
the inscription dei oratia usually found 
upon it, an early copper issue for Lodi, 
however, has the words i grazia in two 
lines. 

Greenbacks. The name given to certain 
legal-tender, non-interest-bearing notes of 
the United States, because the reverses 
were printed in green ink. 



Sflver. According to Wharton, 
Law Lexicon, 1864, this was **a feudal cus- 
tom in the manor of Writtel in Essex, 
where every tenant whose front door opens 
to Greenbury shall pay a halfpenny, year- 
ly, to the lord, by the name of green sil- 
ver or rent." 

Gregorina. A gold coin of Pope Greg- 
ory XVI (1821-1846) struck in Rome, and 
of the value of five Scudi. Those dated 
1834 are of the greatest rarity as only 
eleven were made. 

Gregorio. A silver coin of Pope Greg- 
ory XIII struck at the mint of Bologna, 
pursuant to an order of December 14, 1574. 
Its value was one Paolo, and it bears the 
figure of St. Petronius. A double and half 
were also issued. 

Grenadino. A silver coin of eight 
Reales, a variety of the Peso, issued at 
Santa Fe de Bogota from 1847 to about 
1850. See Fonrobert (8102). 

Gretchel. See Groschel. 

Grif. See Grivna. 

GriflFon. A base silver coin struck in 
Brabant early in the fifteenth century, and 
corresponding to the Stuiver of the Low 
Countries. See van der Chijs (passim). 
It receives its name from the figure on the 
obverse of a griffin holding in its claw a 
short sword or briquet. The inscription 
usually reads: denaris simplex nomina- 

TVS GRIPONVS. 

There are corresponding doubles and 
halves. 

Grimellin. A former money of account 
of Tripoli. The Piastre was computed at 
thirteen Grimellini. 

Gringalet. The popular name for a 
coin of three Denari struck in Geneva in 
the sixteenth century by Johann Gringalet. 

Griscio. See Abuquelp. 

Grivna. (Plural Grivenki.) A Russian 
base silver coin of the value of ten Ko- 
pecks, or the tenth part of a Ruble. They 
were struck at Novgorod, Pskof, Kiev, 
Novotorjok and other mints, the later is- 
sues being in copper. They were originally 
of an oblong or bar form, and about 1701 
the circular shape was adopted. The ma- 
jority of these coins have ten dots or glob- 
ules on the reverse, indicative of their 
value. 



[97] 



Groat 



Gros 



The Grif, referred to by Adam Olearius 
in Travels of the Ambassadors, etc., 1636 
(p. 97), is the same coin. 

For an extensive account of the etymol- 
ogy of the name see Chaudoir (p. 17 et 
ff). The corresponding double, i.e., the 
piece of twenty Kopecks, is called Dvou- 
grivenik. 

Groat This word, and its equivalents 
in German, Groschen or Grosch, in Dutch 
and Low German, Groot and Grote, and in 
Polish, Grosz, is derived from the Latin 
adjective grossus, i.e., thick; these coins 
being of a thicker and heavier fabric than 
the fragile Bracteates that preceded them. 
The English silver coin of this denomina- 
tion and of the value of four Pence is first 
referred to in Grafton's Chronicle^ who 
states that about the year 1227 a parlia- 
ment was held in London, which ordained 
that a Groat should be coined, having on 
one side the King's effigy, and on the other 
a cross reaching to the edge, **to avoyd 
clippyng." No^ specimens, however, are 
known* prior to the reign of Edward III, 
who, by virtue of the indenture of 1351, 
coined ** grosses" to the value of four ster- 
lings, and **half gros," to equal two ster- 
lings. These coins were copied from the 
Gros Toumois, or four Denier piece of 
Tours made by Louis IX of France. 

The Groat is continuous in English 
coinage until the reign of Charles II when 
the introduction of milled coins led to its 
abolishment except for the Maundy issues. 
A double Groat was struck by Edward 
IV for Ireland. The Scottish Groats, in- 
troduced by David II, originally bore a 
profile instead of a full face of the ruler. 
In the reign of James V a one-third Groat 
was issued. 

In 1888 a Groat was issued for British 
Guiana and it is now current throughout 
the British West Indies. See Gros, Gros- 
chen, Britannia Groat. 

Grocery. An obsolete English slang 
term for money of small denominations 
such as would be likely to be paid at the 
grocery for purchases. 

Bailey, in his English Dictionary, 1721, 
has : * * Grocery, . . . small Money as Farth- 
ings and. Half -Pence. ' ' 

J. H. Vaux, in the Flash Dictionary, 
1812, has : * * Grocery, half -pence, or copper 
coin, in a collective sense." 



Groechely or Greschd, a diminutive of 
Groschen, is the designation for the small 
silver coins issued for Silesia during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. These 
consisted of one quarter Groschen of the 
Holy Roman Empire, and later the Ger- 
man rulers continued the practice and 
struck coins at one quarter and one half 
of the Kaisergroschen of the respective 
values of one Groschel and two Groschel. 

A copper coin with the inscription ein 
ORESCHL was issued in 1763-65 by Maria 
Theresa for Transylvania. See Pataz. 

GroUa. A billon coin of Turin, issued 
by Count Edoardo (1323-1329) and men- 
tioned in an ordinance of December 5, 
1335. It was valued at one sixteenth of 
the Grosso. See Promis (ii. 12). 

Groot. (Plural Grooten.) The Dutch 
equivalent of the Groschen. At the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century a Daalder 
was usually computed at sixty Grooten. 

Grootken. A small Groot. A billon 
coin of Utrecht and Brabant of the six- 
teenth century and later. By an ordinance 
published at the Hague in 1617, its value 
was established at sixteen Mites. 

Groot Lam. See Gouden Lam. 

Grot. In Bohemia under King Wen- 
ceslaus II (1278-1305) large Denarii were 
struck to take the place of the Bracteates 
and similar small coins in use all over 
Europe, which were insufficient to meet 
the demands of increasing trade. These 
new coins received the name of Nummi 
Orossiy i.e., ** thick coins," a term later ab- 
breviated into Grosz, plural Groszi (g.v.). 
They were rapidly copied by other nation- 
alities, and the German Groschen, the Eng- 
lish Groat, the Russian and Polish Grusch, 
and the Grote of the Low Countries, are 
practically synonymous terms. 

Their value in Deniers varied, averaging 
from four to ten, and sometimes even more. 
The Gros Toumois (g.v.) was the most 
popular of these, and the Gros Blanque 
and half Blanque of the Anglo-Gallic coin- 
age were copied after them. The name 
was frequently abbreviated into Blanque or 
Blanc (g.v.), probably on account of their 
light color. 

The double Gros occasionally received 
the name Drylander and Vierlander (g.v.). 



[98] 



Grot a TAigle 



Grossetto 



Gros a I'Aigle. A name given to such 
varieties of the Gros Blanque as have a 
large eagle on the obverse. Specimens ex- 
ist for Dinant, a mint of the Counts of 
Namur. 

Grot a la Madone. See Mariengros- 
chen. 

Grot a la Marie* A variety of the 
Blanque issued by Mary of Burgundy 
(1476-1482), so called from the letter M 
on the obverse. 

Grot a Sainte Anne. See Annengros- 
chen. 

Grot an Cavalier. See Cavalier. 

Grot au Cliatel. The name given to 
varieties of silver coins issued by Jean II 
of Brabant (1294-1312) and his successor 
Jean III (1312-1355). They have on the 
obverse a well executed castle. 

Grot an Lion. A variety of the pre- 
ceding, struck by Jean III, with the figure 
of a lion. 

Grot au Pore-Epic* See Ecu au Pore- 
Epic. 

Grot Blanque. See Blanc. 

Grot Blanque a la Couronne. A vari- 
ety of the Blanque distinguished by the 
prominent crown on the field. See Blanc 
a la Couronne. 

Grot Blanque a la Croitette. This vari- 
ety of the Gros receives its name from a 
small ornamented cross which is used in- 
stead of a cross pattee. 

Grot Blanque a la Salamandre. A 

name given to a variety of the Gros which 
bears two small salamanders on the field. 

Grot Blanque a PEtoile. A variety of 
the Gros, so called from a star in the centre 
of the field. 

Grot Blanque au Lit, also called the 
Grande Plaque, is the name given to a 
variety of the Blanque, issued by Charles 
VII of France. It has three lilies on one 
side, and on the reverse the letters frac 
in the angles of the cross. This coin was 
struck at Toumay. See Hoffmann (12). 

Grot Blanque au Solefl. A variety of 
the Blanque so called from a small figure 
of the sun on the field. 

Grotchen. Originally this was the Ger- 
man form of the Gros Tournois (g.v.) 
which it resembled ; even the name Turnos- 



groschen was retained and later abbrevi- 
ated into Turnose and finally into Grosch- 
en. 

These coins appeared first in the Rhine 
Provinces and Saxony, but they were rap- 
idly introduced throughout all Germany. 
The divisions in the northern part con- 
sisted of Pfennige and in south Germany 
of Kreuzer of which usually twelve, but in 
some instances, eight or sixteen were con- 
sidered an equivalent. Their composition, 
while originally of very good silver, be- 
came debased and their corresponding 
value reached as low as from two to four 
Pfennige. 

In the German money of account the 
term Schockgroschen frequently occurs. 
Schock is an old German word, meaning 
sixty, and it is commonly used in conjunc- 
tion with small portable articles, such as 
fruit, eggs, etc. It was applied to these 
coins on account of the quantity that were 
an equivalent of the Mark, as a weight; 
and the term was dropped when the Gul- 
dengroschen or Thaler was introduced. 

Grot de Netle. A billon coin of France 
first struck by Henri II (1547-1559), with 
an approximate value of fifteen Deniers. 
It derives its name from Nesle in the De- 
partment of Somme, where a regal mint ex- 
isted since the twelfth century. The name 
of the coin was frequently abbreviated to 
Nesle, to distinguish it from other types of 
the same value. 

Grot dtt Roi. A name given to the Gros 
Blanque of Charles VII of France which 
bears three lilies surmounted by a crown. 

Grot Heaume. See Heaume. 

Grot Paritit. A variety of the Gros 
Tournois which was made one fourth 
heavier. It was extensively struck by 
Philip VI (1328-1350) and bears fleurs 
de lis in the angles of the cross. 

Grottello. A silver coin current in Ber- 
gamo in 1361 and of the value of half a 
Soldo. See Rivista Italiana di Numismat- 
ica (i. 313). 

Grottetto. The diminutive of Grosso, a 
base silver coin struck in Venice in the 
latter part of the fourteenth century, and 
which replaced the Matapan (q.v.), a 
larger and thicker coin. Its value was four 
Soldi. The later Grossetti of Dalmatla, 



[ 99 ] 



GroMi Lati 



Grote 



• • - 



Illyria, etc., were worth only about two 
thirds of the Venetian. 

Gross! LatL See Breite Qrosehen. 

GroMi PraecisL See Breite Groschen. 

GroMO. An Italian silver coin, the 
name of which is an equivalent of the 
Gros, Groschen, and Groat; in fact the 
term Gros Tournois becomes the Italian 
Grosso Tornese. 

It appeared in the fourteenth century 
and some varieties were current until the 
eighteenth. The value varied, the Grossi 
of Milan being worth from five to eight 
Soldi at different periods. There are mul- 
tiples as high as eight Grossi, and the divi- 
sions were the Mezzanino or one half, the 
Quattrino or one quarter, and the Sesino 
or one sixth. See Matap^n. 

GroMO A£Fonsiiii. A Portuguese silver 
coin struck in the reign of Alfonso V 
(1438-1481), and of the value of eleven 
Dinheiros. For convenience the name is 
frequently abbreviated into Affonsira. 

GroMO Aquflino. See Aquilino. 

GroMO Clementmo. See Clementi. 

Grosso Guelfo. See Guelfo. 

Grosso Largo. See Giulio. 

Grossone. An Italian silver coin issued 
by the Republic of Pisa both with Imperial 
and autonomous legends. It is also found 
in Mantua under Louis III (1444-1478), in 
the two Sicilies under Ferdinand and 
Isabella, and occurs in the Venetian coin- 
age of the fifteenth century. The latter 
variety had a value of eight Soldi, and 
the Florentine type was equal to seven 
Soldi. 

Grosso RomaiunOy also called simply 
Roman i no. A Roman Senatorial silver 
coin struck by the Senator Brancaleone 
d'Andalo (1252-1255) and continued until 
about the year 1417. It has on the ob- 
verse an emblematic seated female figure 
representing Rome, with a globe in one 
hand and a palm leaf in the other. 

Grosso Tirolino. See Tirolino. 

Grosso Veneto. See Matapan. 

Grossus Albus. See Albus. 

Gros Tournois. A billon French coin 
of the value of four Deniers, originally 
issued by Louis IX about the middle of 



the fourteenth century, and extensively 
copied by other nations. It receives its 
name from the city of Tours, at which place 
it was first struck. 

The general type has on one side a 
chapel or city gate and the inscription 
TVRONis civis surrounded by a wreath of 
lilies, and on the reverse a cross pattee 
enclosed by legends in two circles, the 
inner circle bearing the name of the ruler 
and the outer one the words bndictv. sit. 
NOME. DNi. NRi. iHV. xpi., an abbreviation 
of henedictum sit nomen domini nostri 
Jesu Christi. 

In the latter part of the fourteenth cen- 
tury the type was imitated in the Rhine 
Provinces where it received the name of 
Turnosgroschen, later abbreviated into 
Turnose. 

The coin enjoyed such a popularity that 
the term Tumois distinguished money 
based on the standard of Tours down to 
the time of Louis XIV. 

For an interesting treatise showing that 
the Gros Tournois is not an imitation of 
the Dinar issued at Saint Jean d'Acre in 
the year 1251, see Mons. Adrien Blan- 
chet s communication to the Comptes ren- 
dus de VAcadvmie des Inscriptions et 
Belles-LettreSf Paris, 1901. See Groat. 

The Tournay Groat was the last of the 
Anglo-Gallic series issued by Henry VIII 
in 1513. 

The Denier, also struck at Tours, and 
of the same design was generally known 
as the Petit Tournois. 

Grosz. (Plural Groszy or Grosze.) The 
Polish name for the Gros (g.v.). The 
earliest issues under King Wenceslaus II 
(1278-1305) were of silver and read grossi : 
PRAGENSES ; their popular name being Pra- 
ger Groschen. 

Later the Groszy were made of copper 
and thirty were equal to a Gulden. By an 
imperial ukase of 1841 the coinage ceased 
and the Russian Kopecks took their place. 

Grote. (Plural Groten.) The Low Ger- 
man equivalent of the Groschen, and the 
seventy-second part of the Thaler. It oc- 
curs in base silver and copper in the coin- 
age of Bremen, Oldenburg, Jever, etc. 
There are multiples of from three to forty- 
eight Groten. The issue of Groten in Bre- 
men can be traced to the period of Arch- 






[100] 



Grouch 



Guillot 



bishop Baldwin (1435-1442). In the year 
1800, 360 Groten were equal to one Pistole. 

Grouch. See Ghrush. 



The Spanish equivalent of the 
Gros. There is a series of these for Na- 
varre and Aragon, beginning with the 
reign of Juan II (1441-1479). 

Grusch. See Ghrush. 

Gttbber. This is conjectured by Yule 
to come from the Persian Dinar-i-gabr, i.e., 
** money of the infidel." The name was 
formerly applied in India to the gold 
coins of Europe. 

C. Lockyer, in Trade of India, 1711 (vii; 
201), says, **they have Venetians, Gubbers, 
Muggerbees, and Pagodas,*' and in the 
same work (viii. 242), **When a parcel of 
Venetian Ducats are mixt with others, the 
whole goes by the Name of Chequeens at 
Surat, but when tliey are separated, one 
sort is called Venetians, and all the others 
Gubbers indifferently." 

Giildener. See Guldengroschen. 

Lam* See Gouden Lam. 



Gnelfoy or Grosso Guelfo. A silver 
coin of Florence of the value of four Soldi 
or double the Popolino (g.v.). It was 
struck about the middle of the fourteenth 
century and continued in use until the 
period of the Medici Family. It is char- 
acterized by the representation of the ar- 
morial bearings of a large number of the 
Florentine nobility, e.g,, the Houses of the 
Acciaioli, Capponi, Guicciardini, Lanfre- 
dini, Pandolfi, Strozzi, Venturi, etc. 

Guenar, also called Blanc Guenar. A 
variety of the Blanc, struck by Charles VI 
of France (1380-1422). Its value was ten 
Deniers, and the obverse showed the ar- 
morial shield of France, while the reverse 
had a cross pattee with lilies and crowns 
alternately in the angles. The Guenar 
Delphinal of the same type was issued for 
Dauphiny, and there is a corresponding 
demi-Guenar in both series. It was copied 
in the Anglo-Gallic series by Henry V 
(1415-1422). See Hoffmann (22-29, etc.). 

Guerche, or Gersh. A silver coin of 
Abyssinia, the one twentieth part of the 
Talari {q.v.). Under the reign of Menelik, 
however, a decree was passed abolishing 
the decimal system, and making the 
Guerche the one sixteenth of the Talari. 



The name is synonjonous to Ghrush (g.v.), 
or Piastre. Copper Guerches and their 
subdivisions were issued by Menelik pre- 
vious to the silver pieces. 

GuOder. The equivalent of the Gulden 
in the Low Countries. Two and one half 
Guilders were equal to one Rijksdaaler, 
and the Guilder is divided into 100 cents. 
It weighs 154.32 grains. Of the Dutch 
gold coins the largest is the piece of ten 
Guilders, sometimes called the Florin, 
which weighs 103.7 grains. These values 
also apply to the Dutch possessions in the 
East and West Indies. The colony of 
British Guiana, formerly a part of Esse- 
quibo and Demerara, used silver three 
Guilders and smaller denominations struck 
by George III in 1816, and by William 
IV in 1832. 

The Guilder or Florin of the United 
Provinces was a silver coin originally 
struck by Friesland about 1600 and con- 
tinued' in use until the close of the seven- 
teenth century. This is the piece men- 
tioned by Shakespeare in The Comedy of 
Errors (i. 1), and by other contemporary 
writers. 

It had a value of twenty-eight Stuivers, 
and on the obverse is the bust of a warrior 
who holds a sword in his right hand. This 
figure divides the denomination : 28 | ST. 

From its value the coin was ordinarily 
called Acht en twintig ; the half was known 
as Veertienstuiver, and the quarter was 
called Zevenstuiver. 

Guillaume d'Or. See Wilhelm d'Or. 

Gufllemm. The name given to a variety 
of Denier issued by Guillaume I (1094- 
1129) and Guillaume II (1150-1220), 
Counts of Forcalquier in Provence. 

The term was also used in Brabant, 
Gueldres, etc., to indicate coins struck by 
any one of the numerous rulers named Wil- 
lem, Wilhelm, or Guillaume. Du Cange 
cites an ordinance of 1449 reading, ^^Dexix 
pieces d'or c'est assavoir ung Ouillelmins 
de vint solz parisis/' 

GuflloL An ordinance of the Parlia- 
ment of Paris dated in July, 1378, men- 
tions this coin as being one sixth of the 
Gros Tournois. Another monetary regula- 
tion for Le Mans, in the Department of 
Maine, dated 1466, reads ''quod dicti ahi- 
t antes Cenomanenses . . . guillotos aut semi 



[101] 






Guinea 



Giinda 






guillotos, receptione indignos quorum sex 
unum turonum valebant tradebant,'' 

Guinea. A gold coin of England origin- 
ally of the value of twenty shillings, and 
made current by a proclamation of March 
27, 1663. It received its name from the 
gold of which it was made, and which was 
brought from Guinea by the * ' Company of 
Royal Adventurers of England trading 
into Africa.'' As an encouragement to 
bring over gold to be coined, they were 
permitted by their charter to have their 
stamp on the coins. This device was 
originally an elephant, and after 1675 an 
elephant with a castle on its back; the 
stamp was discontinued in the reign of 
Queen Anne. 

Rottier made the dies, and the original 
issue consisted of five and two Guinea 
pieces, both of which were discontinued in 
1753, and Guineas and half Guineas dis- 
continued in 1813. The Guinea of the 
latter date is sometimes known as the Mil- 
itary Guinea, as it was struck for the use 
of the troops then embarking for France. 

Quarter Guineas were issued only with 
the dates 1718 and 1762, and one third 
Guineas, or seven shilling pieces appeared 
from 1797 to 1813 inclusive. 

In the reign of William III, the Guinea 
was at first current for £1 8s., but was 
reduced to £1 6s., then to £1 2s., and 
finally in 1698 to £1 Is. 6d., at which rate 
they were received by the oflBcers of the 
revenue. On December 22, 1717, the 
Guinea was reduced to 21s., which value 
it retained until abolished. See Spade 
Guinea. 

Guinnois. An Anglo-Gallic gold coin, 
first issued by Edward III, and which is 
supposed to have received its name from 
the territory in which it was struck. 

These coins have on the obverse the 
King walking through a Gothic portico and 
at his feet two recumbent lions. The re- 
verse has the motto Gloria in Excelsis, etc. 

A silver and billon coinage of similar 
type has received the same name. 

Gulden. The gold Gulden was a name 
given in Germany to the Florin {q.v.). 
These coins gradually deteriorated in fine- 
ness, whereas those of Hungarj'^ and Aus- 
tria retained their original value and 
purity and were distinguished by the name 



of Ducats. The Ducat gradually sup- 
planted the gold Gulden and by the end 
of the seventeenth century the coinage of 
the latter was practically obsolete. 

Austria and Hungary issued gold coins 
of eight Gulden (twenty Francs) and four 
Gulden (ten Francs) in recent years. 

Gulden, This silver coin was originally 
of the same weight and value as the Thaler 
(q.v,). However, in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century it was reduced in size 
and made of the value of two thirds of a 
Thaler or half of a Speciesthaler, which 
standard it retained with slight modifica- 
tions until 1871, when the Mark was in- 
troduced in Germany. 

The terms Gulden and Florin were fre- 
quently used synonymously. See Florin 
and Guilder. 

Gulden, also called Florin. A silver 
coin of Austria of the value of sixty Kreu- 
zer until January 1, 1859, and after that 
it was made one hundred Kreuzer for both 
Austria and Hungary. 

For Lombardy- Venice and the Austrian 
offices abroad it was divided into one hun- 
dred Soldi, and for Bosnia and Montene- 
gro into one hundred Novica. 

All of the above coins were superseded 
in 1892 when the Krone (g.v.) went into 
effect, which cut the previous monetary 
system into one half. 

Guldengrotchen. The earliest type is 
described under Thaler (q.v,). The name 
was applied to the new coin on account of 
its value being equal to that of the gold 
Gulden, and because up to the time of its 
appearance no silver coins were in circu- 
lation of a larger size than the Groschen. 
In Latin documents of the sixteenth cen- 
tury they are generally referred to as 
Unciales, from their weight, which was one 
ounce. 

The name Guldengroschen was soon ab- 
breviated into Giildener; the coins were 
popular for a time but were eventually 
superseded by the Thaler. See Florin. 

Gulden Penning. See Florin. 

Gunda. A money of account in the 
Maldive Islands, and equal to four Cow- 
ries (g.v.). The name is probably derived 
from the ganda or rati berry. 



[102] 



Gun Money 



GyU 



Gim Money. A debased coinage issued 
by James II in Ireland, from June, 1689, 
to June, 1690. The series consisted of 
crowns, half-crowns, shillings, and six- 
pences. The last two denominations are 
dated with the month as well as the year. 

These coins derive their name from the 
circumstance that they were principally 
struck from metal, the product of old can- 
non. The reverses all bear two sceptres 
in saltire, through a crown, between the 
letters I and B. 

See an extended description of these 
coins contributed by Philip Nelson to the 
British Numismatic Journal (i. 187). 

Gute Groechen. The name given to cer- 
tain silver coins current in Hanover, 
Brunswick, Prussia, etc., during the 
eighteenth century. The Gute Groschen 
was computed at one twenty-fourth of a 
Thaler and must not be confused with the 



Mariengroschen {q.v.), which was valued 
at one thirty-sixth of a Thaler. 

Gutfrettagsgroschel. A base silver coin 
of Silesia, a variety of the Dreier {q.v.). 
It was struck by the Princes of Liegnitz, 
and distributed as alms to the poor on 
Good Friday. Musaus refers to it in one 
of his legends of Riibezahl. 

Gygeades, or ru-fdedat. A name sup- 
posed by some modern writers to have 
been given to money perhaps issued by 
Gyges King of Lydia. The passage in 
Herodotus (i. 14) from which this infer- 
ence is made is now interpreted differently. 
See Babelon, Trait e (i. 468). 

Gyllen. The Swedish equivalent of 
Gulden. The Silfvergyllen was originally 
struck in 1528 and the Ungersk Gyllen, or 
Ducat, in 1568. In the following year ap- 
peared the Krongyllen, a gold coin so 
called from the crowned shield. 



[103] 



Habbeh 



Halb 



H 



Habbeh. A grain, i.e., a Barleycorn 
is equal to foiy Aruzzehs, one third Kirat, 
one eighth Danik; or two Barleycorns are 
equal to one third Tassuj or one sixtieth 
Dinar. See Danik. 

Habitant Tokens. In 1837, through an 
ordinance passed by the special Council, 
the four banks doing business in Lower 
Canada were authorized to issue regular 
bank tokens. As these bore the figure of 
a French-Canadian farmer on the obverse, 
they are known as the "Habitant'' tokens. 
They came to be recognized and accepted 
as a regular provincial coinage. See Pap- 
ineau. 

Hacienda Tokens were formerly re- 
deemable at a known value, on presenta- 
tion to the proprietor who had issued 
them. They are of various shapes and 
usually bear devices suggestive of a trade- 
mark, from which their place of issue can 
be determined. 

Hacksilber means cut or chopped sil- 
ver and is a term used by German numis- 
matic writers to indicate the cut and frag- 
mentary coins which constitute a part of 
a **find." The buried treasure dating 
from the tenth to the twelfth centuries 
frequently consists of silver in bars or 
cakes with a mixture of both cut and per- 
fect coins. 

Halblingy or Helbling. This word means 
a half, and as the Pfennig was the German 
equivalent for the Denarius, so the Halb- 
ling was originally used to designate the 
half of this coin, i.e., the Obolus. It occurs 
among the Bracteates and was the prede- 
cessor in Southern Germany and Austria 
of the Heller, and in more northern Ger- 
many of the Scherf . 

HaUer, or Haller. The Swiss equiva- 
lent of the Heller {q.v.). It was issued 
in the Cantons of St. Gallen, Zug, etc., 
and 480 were computed to the Gulden. 

Handelheller. The name given to small 
thin silver coins which were originally 
struck about the beginning of the four- 



teenth century at Hall in Wiirttemberg. 
They are without any inscription and have 
on one side a cross and on the other a 
hand, from which the name is derived. 
They are mentioned in an ordinance of 
the Emperor Wenceslaus of the year 1385, 
in which it stated that the cities of Augs- 
burg, Nuremberg, Ulm, and Hall, are the 
only localities in which these coins are to 
be struck. 

Haha Sen, or ''Mother Sen." The Jap- 
anese name for the first impressions made 
from the Hori Tane Sen (g.v.) or original 
hand cut Sen, and from which the Tan4 
Sen (q.v.) are made. These are naturally 
very rare and much prized as most of them 
are cast in pewter. See Mu Ch'ien, the 
Chinese equivalent. 

Hahnrei Thaler. The word means a 
cuckold and it is usually applied to a class 
of medallic Thaler which have obscene in- 
scriptions. 

It is also used to designate a Thaler 
struck by Philip Reinhard I, Earl of 
Solms, in 1627 from silver found in the 
fortress of Wolfenbiittel, and dedicated to 
Christian IV of Denmark. 

Haidariy or HeiderL A name given to 
the double Rupee of Mysore by Tipu Sul- 
tan, in 1786, when he adopted his new 
system of reckoning, based on the Muludi, 
i.e., dating from the birth of the Prophet. 
The coin is so called from Haidar, a sur- 
name of the first Imam. 

Haies d'Or. The common designation 
for a gold coin of William IV, Count of 
Hainaut, in Flanders (1404-1417), which 
was copied from the Ange d'Or, of Philip 
VI of France. 

Halard. A coin cited by Andrew 
Boorde, in his Introduction to Knowledge, 
1547 (xiv. 161), who says: **They haue 
Norkyns, Halardes, Phenyngs, Crocherds, 
Stiuers. ' ' 

Halb. The German equivalent for one 
half and generally used in connection with 
Thaler, Groschen, etc. 



[104] 



Halbag 



Hard Head 



Halbag. See Judenpfennige. 

Halber. An abbreviated form of the 
half of some unit of value, and extensively 
used in Southern Germany for half a 
Kreuzer, half a Pfennig, etc. 

Halbtkoter. See Skoter. 

Half je. The popular name for the cur- 
rent copper half Cent of the Netherlands. 

Halfling. The half of a Silverling or 
old silver Penny. Sir Walter Scott in 
Ivanhoe has the sentence, ** *Not a shekel, 
not a silver penny, not a halfling' . . . 
said the Jew.'* 

Half Penny. Probably no other Eng- 
lish coin has so many dialect forms. In 
Yorkshire it is called Awpenny; in West- 
em Yorkshire Awpney and Haupenny; in 
Devonshire Hapmy; in Cornwall Hap- 
peny ; in Lancashire Hawpny ; and in Cum- 
berland Ho 'penny. 



Half Shiner. A coin mentioned in the 
monetary ordinances of Gibraltar and in 
1762 fixed at a value of eleven Dollars and 
two Reales. From this value it must have 
been the Johannes, which was half the 
Dobra. See Chalmers (p. 298). 

Hammered Coins date from a very early 
period and an interesting account of their 
manufacture is to be found in the Kosmo- 
graphie of Sebastian Miinster, which was 
printed early in the sixteenth century. 
The hammered coinage was superseded by 
the use of the mill and screw. The Eng- 
lish hammered silver money was called in 
during the reign of William III, and the 
hammered gold coins were declared to be 
no longer current in 1732-1733. See Milled 
Money. 

HanUy also known as Boars' Feet, is the 
common name for a variety of copper 
coins, struck by the Gallic city of Nemau- 
sus. They are of the shape of a ham, and 
their exact use has not been determined. 
Conf. the exhaustive treatise on this sub- 
ject, by Goudard, Notice sur les Medailles 
elites Pieds de Sanglier, Toulouse, 1880- 
1893. 

Han. A Japanese word meaning ''one 
half" and used as a prefix on coins, e.g.^ 
Han Shu on the coins of the Lu Chu Is- 
lands. 



Hana Furi Kin, or ''Raining Flowers 
Gold Coin.'' Certain thin small oval Jap- 
anese gold pieces were called by this name, 
and were said to have been issued by Hi- 
deyoshi for the invasion of Korea in 1592. 
To this day the word Hana is used for a 
reward. 

Handsel. Earnest money on a contract ; 
a corruption of "hand sale.'' See Earnest. 

"Anciently, among all the Northern na- 
tions, shaking of hands was held necessary 
to bind the bargain; a custom which we 
still retain in many verbal contracts. A 
sale thus made was called hand sale, i;en- 
ditio per mutuam manuum complexionem ; 
till in process of time the same word was 
used to signify the price, or earnest, which 
was given immediately after the shaking 
of hands, or instead thereof. ' ' Blackstone, 
Commentaries (ii. 30). 

Hanover Sovereign. A name given to 
a brass medalet, dated 1837, with a gallop- 
ing rider on the reverse, and the inscrip- 
tion TO HANOVER abovc. The mounted 
figure is intended for the Duke of Cumber- 
land, who was very unpopular in England, 
and the motto signifies that his return to 
Hanover would be desirable. 

Hansatsu. Early Japanese paper cur- 
rency. See Kinsatsu. 

Hantpennige. See Pfennig. 

Hao. The Chinese name for the silver 
ten-cent piece introduced at Hong Kong 
under British rule, and later used on the 
Kwang Tung silver coins. See Chiao. 

Hape. A Scotch nickname for a half- 
penny and common to Lanarkshire. 

Nicholson, in his Idylls, 1870 (106), has: 
"Dae ye want the Citeez [Citizen] t 
Evenin' or Weekly t It's only a hape." 

Hapmy. See Half Penny. 

Happeny. See Half Penny. 

Hard Head. A name given to a Scotch 
billon coin first issued in the third coinage 
of Mary (1555-1558). The term is a cor- 
ruption of the French Hardit. 

Some authorities refer to this piece un- 
der the name of a Lion, from the lion 
rampant, crowned, which it bears. 

These coins, originally of the value of 
one and one half Pence, were struck to 
afford relief to the poor, who suffered much 
loss on account of the lack of small change. 



[ 105 ] 



Hardi 

Under James VI the value was raised to 
two Pence, and indicated by two pellets. 

The Hard Head was discontinued in the 
reign of Charles I. 

Hardi, or HardiL An Anglo-Gallic 
silver and billon coin issued by Edward 
III, King of England, and copied by the 
French Kings as Dukes of Aquitaine. It 
bears on the obverse a half-length figure 
holding a sword. 

The Hardi d 'Or is a similar coin of gold. 
Edward the Black Prince had them struck 
at Bordeaux, and Charles de France, the 
brother of King Louis XI, issued them for 
Aquitaine from 1469 to 1474. 

The name is probably derived from a 
small copper coin issued by Philip le 
Hardi, King of France, and later repre- 
sented by the Liard. Some authorities 
claim that as its original value was one 
fourth of the Sol, the name is a corrup- 
tion of the English word Farthing, corre- 
sponding to the one fourth of the Penny. 

Hard. Times Tokens. A popular name 
for a. series of copper tokens struck from 
1834 to 1841, and bearing inscriptions re- 
ferring to the movement for and against 
the Bank of the United States. 

Harf. An Abyssinian money of ac- 
count. See Wakea and Kharf. 

Harington. The popular name for the 
copper Farthing issued in the reign of 
James I. The term is derived from the 
patentee, John, Lord Harington, of Exton. 
lie died in 1614, but the tokens continued 
in circulation long afterward. See Farth- 
ing. 

Harp. The colloquial name for the 
Groat and half Groat struck in 1536 and 
later, by Henry VIII for Ireland, on ac- 
count of the figure of the harp on the re- 
verse. 

In contemporary documents there is 
mention of 'red harpes,'' being worth three 
Smulkyns (<7.w.). See also Numismatic 
Chronicle (4th Series, xv. 192-229). 

Harpe d'Or. See Davidstuiver. 

Harps. The name given to a series of 
copper tokens issued in Canada in 1820, 
and later. They bear on the obverse a 
bust of George IV, and on the reverse a 
large harp, and the date. They were so 
popular as currency that large numbers of 
brass counterfeits were made. 



Hat Piece 

Harry GroaL A popular name for the 
Groat of Henry VIII of England (1509- 
1547). Shackerly Marmion in his play 
The Antiquary, 1633 (ii.), has the lines: 
**A piece of antiquity; sir, 'tis English 
coin; and if you will needs know, 'tis an 
old Harry groat." 

Harry Sovereign. The designation some- 
times applied to the Sovereign of Henry 
yil of England who first struck this coin 
in 1489. J. Stephens, in his Satyrical Es- 
say es, 1615 (371), writes: ^*She hath old 
harry soveraignes ... to give awav on her 
deathbed." 

Harzgold DukaL A gold coin of Bruns- 
wick and Liineburg struck by the electors 
in the eighteenth century and which re- 
ceives its name from the fact that the metal 
was obtained from mines in the Harz 
Mountains. See Ausbeutemiinzen. 

H ai h aha h . Semicircular pieces of iron, 
somewhat resembling the knives used by 
leather-cutters, are current as money in 
Kordofan and other African localities. 

HashtkanL See Nasfi. 

Hassa. See Toweelah. 

Hat Money. According to Wharton, 
Law Lexicon, 1864, this was ' ' a small duty 
paid to the captain and mariners of a ship, 
also called primage.'* 

The custom appears to have been in force 
in the seventeenth century, for C. MoUoy, 
in a work De Jure Maritimo, 1676 (ii. 9, 
§6), says: *' Petty Averidge is another 
small Duty which Merchants pay to the 
Master. . . . The French Ships commonly 
term the Gratuity Hat-money." 

Hat Money. See Tampang. 

Hatome Sen, or * * Pigeon Eye ' ' Sen. A 
very small thin coin used at one time in 
the Lu Chu Islands. A hundred were 
strung together and a string was worth 
about ten Japanese Mon (q.v.). 

Hat Piece. A Scottish gold coin issued 
in 1591 to 1593, upon which the King, 
James VI, is represented wearing a high 
crowned hat. 

On the reverse is a lion sejant, holding 
a sceptre in his paw, above which, in a 
cloud, are the Hebrew letters for Jehovah. 
The legend is te. solvm. vereor., i.e 
**Thee only do I fear.'' The weight is 
seventy grains. 



[106] 



Haupenny 



Heller 



It is claimed that this coin was issued 
**for the purpose of harmonizing the Scot- 
tish currency with the English, and to 
lessen the inconvenience caused by their 
disagreement. ' ' 

It must have been counterfeited at a 
very early period, as Pitcairn, in his Crim- 
inal Trials of Scotland, 1599 (ii. 99), men- 
tions ** False hat-peiceis, pistulettis, and 
crownis. ' ' 

Haupenny. See Half Penny. 

Hausgroschen. A base silver coin struck 
by Frederick the Great. In course of time 
it deteriorated in purit}'^ to such an extent 
that instead of the original value, one 
twentj^-fourth of a Thaler, it was finally 
worth only one forty-second of a Thaler. 
It was succeeded by the Silbergroschen in 
1821. 

Hawpny. See Half Penny. 

HayakL Japanese paper currency of 
the value of one half or one quarter Koban. 
See Kinsatsu. 

Hazardinar. A gold coin of Persia 
which the English called Mildinar, and the 
Russians Rouble. It was introduced in the 
second year of the reign of Nadir, i.e., 
1738, and had a value of one thousand 
Dinars. 

Head SOver. Wharton, in his Law Lex- 
icon, 1864, states that this was the name 
given to **dues paid to lords of leets; also 
a fine of £40 which the sheriff of Northum- 
berland heretofore exacted of the inhab- 
itants twice in seven years.'' It was abol- 
ished by a statute of 23 Henry VII c. 7. 

Heads or Talk. A phrase used to de- 
cide any proposition by tossing a coin in 
the air; the **head" representing the ob- 
verse, and the **tair' corresponding to the 
reverse. 

The custom dates back to ancient times, 
the Romans using the term ** heads or 
ships. * ' Macrobius, a Latin grammarian of 
the fifth century, in his Saturnalia (i. 7), 
has: Cum pueri denarios in sublime jac- 
tanteSy ''capita aut navia/' lusu teste ve- 
tustatis exclamant. 

In Ireland the expression ** heads or 
harps" was formerly common, the allusion 
being to the harp on the reverse of the 
half Pennies of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. 



The phrase is common in many modern 
languages. The French say a pile on face; 
the Germans, Kopf oder Flach; the Scan- 
dinavians, Krona eller Klafve; the Span- 
ish, Cara o Sella; the Italians, Croce o 
Testa, etc. 

Health Money. See Chimney Money. 

Heaume, i.e,, a helmet. A name ap- 
plied to any coin on which the helmet is 
a prominent feature. A silver Gros 
Heaume was issued by Charles VI of 
France (1380-1422), and Jean de Horn 
(1485-1505) copied the type for Liege. 
Louis de Male (1346-1384), Count of Flan- 
ders, struck the Heaume d'Or, the obverse 
of which shows two lions supporting a hel- 
meted shield under a Gothic dais. See 
Botdrager. The Helmpfennige of the city 
of Hanover issued in the seventeenth cen- 
tury have similar designs. 

Hebraer. See Ebraer. 

Heckmiinzen, Heckpfennige, are terms 
used by German numismatists to indicate 
coins that are below the regular standard 
as to size and fineness. 

Hecte. A Greek coin, the one sixth of 
the Stater (q.v,). It was struck both in 
gold and electrum. The electrum Hectes 
of Phocaea and Mytilene are the common- 
est and enjoyed a wide vogue in ancient 
times, being known as exxai ^(oxat^eg. 

Heideri. The double Rupee of Mysore. 
See Haidari. 

HeOandsmiinzen* The popular name 
for any coins bearing the figure of the 
Savior. See Salvator. 

Heitje. A slang term for the current 
silver coin of twenty-five Cents issued by 
the Netherlands. 

Helbling. See Halbling. 

Heliens. The name given to Deniers of 
Perigord which bear the name -of Count 
Elie II (1006-1017). See Blanchet (i. 22). 

Heller. Originally a small silver coin 
which takes its name from Hall, in Wiirt- 
temberg, where it was originally issued in 
the early part of the thirteenth century. 
Conf. Handelheller. 

In the fifteenth century it degenerated 
to a base silver, and later to a billon coin, 
and was not only common throughout 
southern Germany, but was used extensive- 
ly in Silesia, Pommerania, etc. At a some- 



[107] 



Hellier 



Hexadrachm 



what later period, the Heller became a cop- 
per coin altogether. Its value varied ac- 
cording to the locality. Eight Heller were 
generally equal to a Kreuzer or two Heller 
to a Pfennig. 

It is still retained in Austria and in Ger- 
man East Africa, being the one hundredth 
part of the Krone and the Rupie respec- 
tively. 

Hellier. An obsolete form of writing 
Heller. See Poy. 

Hebnarc. A corruption of Halb Mark. 
Du Cange cites it as a denomination used 
as early as 1080. 

Helmpfennig. See Heaume. 

Helting is defined by Wharton, in his 
Law Lexicon, 1864, as **a Saxon brass 
coin, of the value of a half penny,'' but 
it is doubtful what particular coin can be 
intended. 

Hemiastarion. The Oreek name fol* the 
half As. Polybius, H-isioria (ii. 15). 

Hemichalk. The half Chalcus {q,v.). 

Hemichiytos is mentioned by Pollux. 
It is the half Stater of gold and was most 
commonly struck at Cj- rene. 

Hemidanake, the half of the Danake 
(g.v.). The Y)[jLi5ofvay.iQ or Y)(jLi5avaxiov is 
mentioned by Hesychius and was a Persian 
coin. 

Hemidaric, or half Daric, principally a 
money of account and so used in the well- 
known passage in the Anabasis of Xeno- 
phon (i. 3, 21), where he speaks of the 
Y2iJLi$apeexa. 

Hemidrachm. The half of the Drachm 
iq.v,)y and spoken of as the Triobol. It 
was extensivel}' coined in ancient times. 

Hemihecte. The half of the Hecte 
(q.v.) and equal to the Obol of gold, or 
one twelfth of the Stater. In gold it was 
coined principally at Cyrene; in electrum 
it appeared at many mints in Asia Minor. 

Hemilitrion. The half of the Litra 
(q.v,) of silver and frequently coined at 
Leontini, Entella, and Syracuse. Later the 
Hemilitrion in bronze (commonly known 
by its Latin name of Semis) appeared at 
many mints in southern Italy and Sicily. 

Hemiobol. The half of the Obol (q.v.) 
and the one twelfth of the Drachm. The 
commonest examples are those of Athens. 



Hemishim is quoted by Du Cange as an 
old form of the half As. 

Hemistater. The half of the Stater 
(g.v.) or the Hemi-chrysos (q.v,). The 
TQlxKJTCfTTQpov is mentioned by Pollux and 
Hesychius. 

Hemitarteniorion is the one eighth of 
the Obol or the one forty-eighth of the 
Drachm. Specimens in silver were struck 
at Athens, other places coined their equiv- 
alents in bronze. 

Hemitetarte. The one eighth of the 
gold Stater (g.v.). A very rare denomina- 
tion. 

Henri d'Or. A French gold coin struck 
by Henri II in 1549, it being the first 
coin of France with a date. The reverse 
has the inscription dvm totvm compleat 
ORBEM. Conf, Enrique. 

Heptadradun. The multiple of seven 
Drachms (q.v.). Actual specimens are not 
known. 

HeptoboL The multiple of seven Obols 
(q.v.). This term was often used in Egypt 
in monetary accounts. 

Heregeld. This word occurs as early as 
the year 1018 in a charter of King Canute. 
Cowel, in The Interpreter, 1607, states that 
it **is a Tribute or Tax levyed for the 
Maintenance of an Army.'' Conf. German 
Heer Geld. 

Heretcarius. A small coin mentioned in 
a codex of Folquino. 

Herrengrotchen. The name usually 
given to silver coins of the sixteenth cen- 
tury bearing a figure of the Savior. The 
word means **Groschen of the Master." 



Herring Silver. An old English term 
implying a payment in money for the 
custom of supplying herrings for the pro- 
vision of a religious institution. 

Herzogsgroschen. The name applied in 
general to any type of the Gros or double 
Gros on which the principal feature is the 
ducal figure. Examples exist for Duren, 
struck by William I de Juliers (1357- 
1361), and reading wilhelm dux-ivlia- 
CESis and moneta durensi. 

Hexadrachm. A Greek silver coin of 
the value of six Drachms (q.v.). It was 
rarely struck, though specimens from the 
Carthaginian mint are known. 



[108] 



Hexas 



Hock Tuesday Money 



Hexas. The one sixth of the Litra 
(q.v,). Coins of this denomination were 
struck in southern Italy and Sicily both in 
silver and bronze. In bronze it corre- 
sponds to the Roman Sextans. 

Hexastater. The denomination of six 
Staters, better known as the Dodekadrachm 
(g.i;.). 

HexoboL A multiple of the Obol (q.v.) 
struck in bronze in Egj^pt under the Ptole- 
mies. 

Heinnannchen. A nickname given to 
certain Prussian Mariengroschen struck in 
Aurich in 1761. They were a temporary 
money of necessity and were put forth by 
a mint-warden named Heymann. 

Hibemias. A name given to the brass 
half Pence struck at Limerick during the 
siege of 1691. Thase pieces were generally 
re-struck on Gun-money Shillings and have 
on the reverse a seated figure of Hibernia 
holding a harp. 

Hieronjnniis d'Or. A gold coin of 
Westphalia of the value of five Thaler; 
it obtains its name from Jerome Napoleon. 

Higley Coppers. The name given to a 
variety of threepence struck by John Hig- 
ley of Granby, Connecticut, from which 
circumstance these pieces are also referred 
to as Granby Coppers. Higley was born 
in 1673, and the coins are dated 1737 and 
1739. There are a number of varieties, one 
of which was discovered as recently as 1913 
with a wheel on the reverse. For de- 
tails as to this private coinage, see Crosby, 
and Woodford, Currency and Banking in 
Connecticut. 

Hip. A slang name for the current sil- 
ver coin of fifty cents issued for the 
Netherlands. 

Hirschgulden. A name given to the 
Gulden or two thirds Thaler of Wiirttem- 
berg which has a stag supporting the ar- 
morial bearings. The large silver coins of 
Stolberg which bear a stag standing against 
a pillar are known as Hirsch thaler. 

Hirtenpfennig. A nickname given to a 
uniface copper coin of Buchhorn. The ar- 
morial bearings of this city are a beech 
tree and a horn, and from the latter figure, 
resembling a shepherd's horn, the name 
was probably coined. 



Histiaika. A name given in ancient 
times ('IffTiatxd or *IaTiai"x6v dpYupiov) to the 
well-known Tetrobols of Histiaea in Eu- 
boea. See Homolle, Bull. corr. hell. (vol. vi. 
1882, p. 133). 

Hitarc Pfennige. The name given to a 
type of small silver coins struck in the 
Archbishopric of Cologne during the 
twelfth century. They were principally 
issued under Arnold II von Wied (1151- 
1156), and Reinald von Dassel (1159- 
1167). All of the coins have a church with 
three spires on the reverse. 

Ho. A Japanese word meaning treas- 
ure. The term is used in conjunction with 
Tsu, i.e., currency, on coins, forming two 
of the usual four characters on the obverse. 
See Pao and Tsu and conf. Munro (pp. 
251, 264). 

Hobby Horse, also known as Stecken- 
reiter. The name given to both a gold 
and silver square coin which the Imperial 
Ambassador in Nuremburg ordered to be 
struck in the year 1650, on the conclusion 
of the Peace of Westphalia. He was ten- 
dered an ovation by the youths of the city, 
who appeared in front of his residence 
riding on hobby-horses This incident is 
depicted on one side of the coin and the 
reverse bears the inscription vtvat perdi- 

NANDVS III. ROM. IMP. 

Hochmuths Thaler, also called Waser 
Thaler. A silver coin of Zurich struck in 
1660. 

Hock Money. An obsolete English 
term for the money collected by various 
persons at Hocktide. In the Churchwar- 
dens' Accounts of St. Dunstan's Church 
in Canterbury, under the date 1484-1485, 
occurs the following entry: **Ress. by vs 
the seyde Wardeynes of Hockemoneye at 
Ester ix. s. xd.'* 

In other old records the word is vari- 
ously written Hok Money, Hoke Money, 
and Oke Money. 

Hock Tuesday Money. Cowel, in The 
Interpreter, 1607, states that this 
dut}^ given to the landlord, that his 
and bondmen might solemnize the 
which the English conquered the 
being the second Tuesday after 
week.'' 



was **a 

tenants 

day on 

Danes, 

Easter 



[109] 



Hoe4ieuchelliiig 



Ho'penny 



Hoedjeuchelliiig. A variety of the 
Schelling which receives its name from the 
figure of a hood on a staff, the latter being 
held in the claws of a lion rampant. It 
was issued only for the Province of Zee- 
land, and the coinage originated in 1672 
and extends to about 1720. 

Ho Ei Sen. A large round Japanese 
bronze coin made in 1707 at the value of 
ten ordinary Sen and withdrawn two years 
later despite the fact that the reverse in- 
scription reads **For the Everlasting Use 
of the World. ' ' 

Hog. The slang name for a Shilling. 
R. Head, in his Canting Academy, 1673, 
has ** Shilling, Bord, or Hog''; Cruikshank 
in Three Courses and Dessert (412), re- 
marks, ** What's half a crown and a shil- 
ling! A bull and a hog." 

Hog Money. The popular name for a 
series of coins issued for the Bermuda 
Islands early in the seventeenth century. 

It is stated that in 1515 a Spanish vessel 
commanded by Juan Bermudez, and con- 
taining a cargo of hogs, was wrecked on 
one of these islands, while on its way to 
Cuba. In 1609 Qeorge Somers was ap- 
pointed Governor of the Colony of Vir- 
ginia, and on his voyage from England he 
was cast away on the Bermudas, where he 
found a large number of wild hogs. He 
victualled a vessel with them, proceeding 
later to Virginia. In the same year, 1609, 
a charter was granted to the Bermuda 
Company by James I, and it is assumed 
that from about 1616 to 1624 the first 
coins consisting of copper shillings, six- 
pences, three-pences, and two-pences were 
struck. 

These pieces have on one side the figure 
of a hog, with the inscription sommer 
ISLANDS, and on the reverse a galleon. See 
Numismatic Chronicle, 1883 (p. 117), and 
Crosby (pp. 17, 18). 

HohlblaCFert See Blaffert. 

Hohlpfennige. A name given to certain 
uniface coins resembling the Bracteates but 
containing a smaller percentage of silver. 
They were originally issued in the northern 
portions of Germany, Pommerania, Bran- 
denburg, Mecklenburg, etc., and were cop- 
ied in the Rhine Provinces in the fifteenth 



century and received the name of Liibische 
Pfennige. The latter are usually found 
with a raised edge, by which they can 
easily be distinguished from the Hohlpfen- 
nige. 

Hohlringheller. A minute base silver 
uniface coin of Aix-la-Chapelle, Aremberg, 
etc., current in the latter part of the six- 
teenth century. It bears a resemblance to 
the Hohlpfennige (q.v.) but is of much 
smaller module. 

Hok Money, or Hoke Money. See 

Hock Money. 

Holey Dollar, also called King Dollar. 
In the year 1813 Governor Macquarie of 
New South Wales procured some £10,000 
worth of Spanish Dollars from the centres 
of which he had circular discs cut. Around 
the edges of the perforation, which is 
milled, the words new south wales, 1813, 
were stamped, and on the reverse five sutl- 
LiNGS, 1813. This coin received the name 
of the Holey Dollar. The circular central 
piece was known as a Dump; it was 
countermarked with a crown and the value, 
FIFTEEN PENCE. The Holcy Dollar was 
current until 1829. See Numismatic Chron- 
icle (Series iii. 3, pp. 119-120). 

Homage Coins are such as indicate by 
their inscriptions that homage or respect 
is tendered to some ruler. They occur ex- 
tensively in the German series and are 
known as Huldigungs Miinzen. 

HomereiiSy or 'Oixinpetov. This name, as 
we learn from Strabo (xiv. 1, 37), was 
given to certain bronze coins struck at 
Smyrna which bear the type of Homer 
seated. Illustrations of these coins will 
be found in the British Museum catalogue, 
Ionic (Plate xxv. Nos. 15-17). 

Hongre. An obsolete form of the On- 
garo or Ungaro. Richard Hayes, in The 
Negociators' Magazine, 1740, mentions **a 
Hongre at 15^/2 Livres,'* current at Ber- 
gamo ; * * an Hongre, or Hungarian Sequin, 
of about 24() or 250 Aspers,'' used in Con- 
stantinople; and **a Gold Hongre at 8V^ 
Livres,*' current at Bologna. 

Hook Money. See Larin. 



Ho'penny. See Half Penny. 



[110] 



Hoppers' Money 



Hybrid 



Hoppers' Money. A variety of tokens 
or tallies, made of lead, and paid to pick- 
ers of hops in lieu of money. They repre- 
sented the amount of bushels picked and 
were redeemed when the work was fin- 
ished. See Spink (xx. 13872). 

Ho Pu. The Chinese name for certain 
copper coins issued by Wang Mang, 7-14 
A.D., and meaning exchangeable cloth 
money. 

Hori Tane Sen. The Japanese name for 
the original hand cut model for a coin, 
from which carefully made impressions are 
made for other Sen. They are generally 
cut in copper, silver or ivory. See Haha 
Sen and Tane Sen. 

Homgroschen. The name given to a 
series of silver coins issued by the Elector 
Ernst of Saxony, jointly with his brother 
Albrecht and his uncle Wilhelm (1464- 
1486). There are numerous varieties of 
mint-marks for Leipzig, Colditz, Freiberg, 
Zwickau, etc. Dated specimens exist as 
early as 1465. See Frey (No. 109). There 
are also Hornpfennige of the same design 
for various parts of Thuringia including 
the city of Erfurt. All of these coins ob- 
tain their names from the shield on the 
reverse which is surmounted by a helmet 
with ox horns. 

Horse and Jockey. A nickname for the 
Sovereign of George III of England, which 
has on the reverse St. George on horse- 
back in combat with the Dragon. 

Hosenband Thaler. A silver coin struck 
in Dresden in 1678 to commemorate the 
conferring of the Order of the Garter on 
the Elector Johann George II of Saxony. 

Hsien. A Chinese word used on the 
Cantonese and Ilong Kong coinage of the 
one Cent denomination. The word is a 
phoneticism for the sound Cent. 

Hsing Yeh. See Lai Tsu. 

Hua. The Chinese for ** exchange. ' ' 
The character is found on some of the an- 
cient coins and the word is used in the 
sense of exchange for money. 

Huan. A Chinese weight of six ounces 
in which fines were paid. The word also 
means a ring, and also a round coin in 
which the field and the central hole is 
equal. See Pi and Yuan. 



Huang Kai Tsu. See Kua Teng Ch 'ien. 

Hubertusthaler. A silver coin of the 
Palatinate issued during the eighteenth 
century, which bears a figure of St. Hubert, 
the patron saint of huntsmen. He is gen- 
erally represented as kneeling before a 
stag. 

Duke Gerhard VI of Jiilich founded the 
Order of St. Hubertus, and it was reor- 
ganized by the Elector Palatine Johann 
Wilhelm in 1709. A smaller coin, called 
the Hubertusgroschen, was struck at Miihl- 
heim in 1482. See Frey (No. 233). 

Hudson's Bay Tokens. A name given 
to four varieties of brass tokens which 
were issued about the year 1857 and used 
by the Hudson's Bay Company in its trad- 
ings with the Indians. The largest of 
these tokens is of the value of one beaver 
skin, and the others are fractions of one 
half, one quarter, and one eighth. See 
Breton (926-929). 

Huitain. A name given to the one 
eighth Thaler of Geneva issued in 1624 and 
later. 

Huitieme d'Ecu. See Quart d'Ecu. 

Huldigungs Miinzen. See Homage 
Coins. 

Hun. The Hindustani name for the 
Pagoda iq.v.). 

Hunting Dollar. See Jagdthaler. 

Huo. A Chinese term for money. It 
is composed of the characters Hua ** ex- 
change'* and Pei ** Cowries'' (g.v.). 

Hussthaler. A general name for all 
coins of Thaler size which bear a portrait 
of Johann Huss. They are of a medallic 
nature and are supposed to have been 
struck in 1515, a century after the Re- 
former met his death, but were actually 
made at a later period. 

Hvid. A silver coin current in Den- 
mark, Oldenburg, Bast Friesland, etc., 
early in the sixteenth century. Its value 
was four silver Pfennige. The name may 
be a contraction of Korsvide {q,v.). 

Hybrid Coins. A name given to such 
coins as have an obverse belonging to one 
type and a reverse belonging to another. 
See Mule. 



[Ill] 



labus 



Inchquin Money 



I 



labus. Another name for the Deunx 
iq.v.), 

Ibramee. A money of account of Cutch 
and Kathiawar, and computed at eighteen 
Koris iq.v.). 

Ichi Bu. See Bu. 

Icossadrachmon. The common name for 
the gold coin of twenty Drachmai struck 
in Greece in 1843 by Otto I, and continued 
by his successor George I. 

Idra, meaning a hydra, was the name 
given to the Testone of Hercules I, Duke 
of Ferrara (1471-1505), which bears the 
figure of this fabled monster on the re- 
verse. 

lesimok. In 1798 there was a project 
in Russia to make Ecus, i.e,, lesimki, of 
54% Stuivers, to be used for foreign trade. 
Only a few essays, however, were struck, 
and the lesimok, as this silver piece is 
called, is very rare. See Chaudoir (i. 173). 

Ikiliky or Ekilik. A silver coin of the 
Ottoman Empire of the value of two Pias- 
tres or eighty Paras. Its weight varies 
from 390 to 480 grains. The name is 
derived from iki, i.e., two. 

The issues for Tunis, which appeared 
under Mahmud I (A.H. 1143-1168), are of 
billon, and valued at only two Paras. See 
Fonrobert (5316). 

llahL A gold coin of Akbar, Emperor 
of Hindustan, of the value of twelve Ru- 
pees. See Sihansah. 

ImamL A name given to the silver 
Rupee of Mysore by Tipu Sultan, in 1786, 
when he adopted his new system of reck- 
oning, based on the Muludi, i.e., dating 
from the birth of the Prophet. The name 
was given in honor of the twelve Imams. 

Imbasing of Money. Hale, in Pleas of 
the Crown (i. 102), states that this con- 
sists of ** mixing the species with an alloy 
below the standard of sterling." 

Sir Thomas More in his Utopia f 1551, 
uses the phrase * * Enhauncynge and imbas- 
yng of coyne. ' ' See Debased and Embase. 



Imbiamcate. An Italian expression usu- 
ally applied to such of the Roman bronze 
coins of the later Empire as were coated 
with tin to give them the appearance of 
silver. 

Immune Columbia. A copper experi- 
mental issue belonging to the colonial series 
of the United States. They are dated 1785 
and 1786, and some varieties have the re- 
verse of the Nova Constellatio (q.v.). 

ImperiaL A Russian gold coin, first 
struck under Elizabeth in 1745, of the 
value of ten Rubles. Since 1817 only half 
Imperials are coined but they retain the 
name of Imperial. These are worth five 
Rubles in gold or five Rubles and 15 Ko- 
pecks in silver. 

Imperial Ducat. A former gold coin of 
Russia of the value of three and one tenth 
Rubles. These Russian Ducats appear in 
the coinage early in the seventeenth cen- 
turv and their issue ends in the reign of 
Paul (1796-1801). 

Imperiale. Frederick II, Viscount of 
Milan, struck a silver coin of this name 
in 1225 on the occasion of the marriage of 
his son Henry. The Danaro of Azzone 
Visconti (1329-1339) is also so called; it 
has the inscription mediolanvm in three 
lines. Barnabo Visconti (1354-1385) struck 
the Imperiale Nuovo with imperialis. 

The value of these coins gradually de- 
clined owing to the impurity of the metal 
and in 1410 the pieces were only worth 
one half of the early issues. 

Impression. The entire design on both 
the obverse and reverse of a coin. The 
word is also used to denote a reproduction 
of a coin in paper, wax, plaster, etc. 

Inchquin Money. A series of necessity 
money issued in 1642 by Lord Inchquin, 
Vice-president of Munster. 

They consist of the Pistole and double- 
Pistole in gold, and Crowns, half-Crowns, 
Shillings, nine Pence, six Pence, Groats, 
and three Pence in silver. See British 
Numismatic Journal (ii. 333-341). 



[112] 



Incuse Coins 



Incase Coins. A name given to such 
coins as present their obverse or reverse 
types in intaglio. On early Greek coins the 
design often appears raised on one side, 
while on the other side it is sunk, or its place 
taken by a more or less crude punch.. The 
early incuse coins of Magna Graecia usually 
present the obverse type in intaglio on the 
reverse. The same is the case with certain 
mis-strikes of a later period where a similar 
effect has been produced, because the coin, 
in the hurry of striking, has remained in 
the die and has then left its own impress on 
the succeeding blank or flan. 

Indian Head Cent. The popular name 
for the small cent introduced in the United 
States coinage in 1858 and struck until 
1909. The earlier issues were in nickel, 
and in 1863 bronze was substituted. 

Indio. A silver Portuguese coin of the 
value of thirty-three Reis, issued in the 
latter part of the fifteenth century. See 
Fernandes (p. 116). 

InfortiatL A term meaning ''to strength- 
en," and applied in a general way to 
coins of a thick and heavy fabric to dis- 
tinguish them from those of a lighter and 
thinner type. 

It is used specially for the Denaro of 
Lucca, current in the twelfth century, to 
avoid the confusing of this coin with the 
Denaro Nuovo of the same period. The 
latter was of thinner fabric and was also 
known as the Lucchese Nuovo. 

Ingot. An amorphous mass of gold, sil- 
ver, or other metal cast in a mold and 
stamped with some device to pass for cur- 
rency. Silver ingots are known of the 
Greek period and both gold and silver of 
the Roman Empire. Copper ingots occur 
in the money of Java, silver ones in Japan, 
etc. 

The name has been recognized since the 
sixteenth century, for Stanyhurst, in his 
translation of Virgil's JEneid, 1583 (i.), 
says, **he poincted, where the vnknowne 
ingots of gould and siluer abounded." 

Ingot Money. See Yuan Pao, Shoe and 
Sycee. 

Inpierans Golt is gold with a consider- 
able amount of alloy. It is referred to 
in archives of Frankfort a.M. of 1430. 
See Paul Joseph (p. 172). 



Inscription. The letters or words writ- 
ten across the field of a coin, or upon any 
figure in the device. See Legend. 

Inspection Note. A peculiar currency 
of paper, founded upon tobacco valua- 
tions. It was introduced in the Province 
of Maryland in 1763, and still existed to 
a limited extent at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. The system was akin 
to and based upon that which had existed 
for some years previously in Virginia, 
where it bore the name, yet more expres- 
sive, of Tobacco Notes. The staple was 
placed by the producer or owner in the 
public warehouses for his county, was duly 
inspected and branded by the proper oflB- 
cer, who gave for it a receipt, specifying 
the quality and quantity of the deposit; 
this receipt, or, as it was called. Inspection 
Note, was a legal tender for all purposes 
in the county wherein it was issued, and 
the holders possessed the right of obtaining 
at any time from the storehouses the 
amount of tobacco which the face of the 
note called for. This currency superseded 
that of the staple, which was then declared 
no longer to be a legal tender. 

Interimsthaler. The name given to a 
satirical silver coin struck at Magdeburg 
in 1550 and 1551, during the temporary 
declarations of peace between the contest- 
ing Protestant and Roman Catholic fac- 
tions. It has on one side the baptism of the 
Savior, and on the reverse the figures of 
Christ and a triple-headed monster. One 
head is that of an angel, the second bears 
the Papal tiara, and the third a fool 's cap. 

Ionian League. See League Coinage. 

Iriden. See Regenbogenschiissel. 

Irlandes d' Argent Ruding (i. 278) 
states that at the Parliament at Drogheda 
in 1460 it was enacted that **a proper coin 
separate from the coin of England, was 
with more convenience agreed to be had in 
Ireland," and among the proposed coins 
was one **of half quarter of an ounce troy 
weight, on which shall be imprinted on 
one side a lion, and on the other side a 
crown, called an Irlandes d 'Argent, to 
pass for the value of one penny sterling.'' 



Irmilik. See Medjidie. 



[113] 



Iron Coins 



Itzi Bu 



Iron Coins. There is a tradition that 
Lycurgus banished gold and silver from 
Sparta, and compelled the Laeedsemonians 
to use small iron bars as money, and pro- 
claimed it to be the only legal tender. 
These bars or spits received the name of 
o^eXiaxot. 

At Tegea, Argos, and perhaps Heraea, 
iron was used in the fourth century B.C., 
and their types are similar to those of the 
silver coins of the same l6calities. 

Iron money was employed in China 
during the Liang dynasty, A.D. 502-556, 
but was discarded in the latter year when 
the Teh 'en dynasty came into power. An 
iron four Mon piece was issued in Japan 
in 1863, and iron coins were also struck 
by the feudal lords (Daimios) of Japan 
for exclusive use in their own dominions. 

According to Schroeder (p. 47) iron 
coins were issued for Annam as early as 
A.D. 401. 



The most recent coinages in iron are the 
German five and ten Pfennig pieces issued 
in 1915 on account of the scarcity of cop- 
per. See Kriegsfiinfer. 

babelina. The name given to the gold 
coins of Isabella II of Spain. 

Isabella. The popular name for the 
gold coin of 100 Reales struck by Queen 
Isabella II of Spain pursuant to an act 
of June 26, 1864. 

Isabella Quarter. The popular name for 
a quarter Dollar of the United States, is- 
sued only in 1893. It bears on the obverse 
a bust of Isabella, Queen of Spain, who 
gave assistance to Columbus. 

Isargold Dukat. A gold coin of Bavaria 
issued in 1830 and which receives its name 
from the fact that the metal was obtained 
from washings in the river Isar. See Aus- 
beutemiinzen. 

Itzi Bu. See Bu. 



[114] 



Jack 



Jane 



J 



Jack. Evidently the name of an early 
Irish coin, as at a Parliament held at 
Drogheda, 1460, for the reformation of the 
Irish coinage, it was decreed among other 
measures that **the coin called the Jack 
be hereafter of no value and void/' See 
Ruding (i. 278). 

Jack* A slang name for the English 
Farthing. The use of this term can be 
traced to the beginning of the eighteenth 
century; later the name was applied to 
card counters, resembling in size and ap- 
pearance Sovereigns and half Sovereigns. 

Jacobtthaler. See Jakobsthaler. 

Jacobus. The popular but not ofiScial 
name for the Unite of James I (g.v.). It 
was retained as late as the nineteenth cen- 
tury, as Macaulay uses it in his History of 
England, 1855 (iii. 585). 

Jacquesa. See . Jaquesa. 

Jafari, or Jafri. A name given to the 
eighth Rupee or silver Fanam of Mysore 
by Tipu Sultan, in 1786, when he adopted 
his new system of reckoning, based on the 
Muludi, i.e,f dating from the birth of the 
Prophet. The coin is so called after Jafar 
Sadik, the sixth Imam. 

Jafimske. A Russian silver coin men- 
tioned by Adam Olearius, in his Travels 
of the Ambassadors f 1636 (p. 97). He 
states that the Russians apply this name 
to the Rixdollar, and assumes it to be a 
corruption of Joachimsthaler. 

Jagdthaler. A silver coin of Bohemia 
struck by the Emperor Ferdinand II in 
1626, from designs by Hans Rieger, of 
Breslau. It has on the reverse a city view 
and the Emperor on horseback riding to 
the chase, accompanied by a huntsman and 
two dogs. 

Jager. A base silver coin issued in many 
parts of the Low Countries, but especially 
Groningen, in the latter part of the fif- 
teenth century. It is sometimes known as 
the Halve Braspenning. See van der 
Chijs {passim), and for the early dated 
specimens, Frey. 

[11 



Jakobsthaler. The name given to cer- 
tain silver coins struck in 1633 and 1634 
by Duke Frederick Ulrich of Brunswick 
Wolfenbiittel from metal obtained from 
the St. Jakob mine at Lautenthal. They 
bear a figure of Jacob, the patron saint, in 
pilgrim's costume, and a view of the town 
of Lautenthal. The pieces were struck not 
only as simple Thaler, but also as doubles 
and sextuples. 

Jaku. Ruding (i. 187) states that in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for 1812 (p. 331) 
there is a communication from Dr. Pegge, 
who imagined that he had discovered the 
gold Penny of Henry III in a Jewish doc- 
ument under the name of Jaku. This he 
considers as equivalent to pure or sterling. 
The Jews, he says, **used Denarim and 
Jaku, just in the same manner as the Chris- 
tians applied their words Denarius and 
Sterlingus. ' ' 

Jalalah. Another name for the square 
Rupee struck by Akbar, Emperor of Hin- 
dustan and his successors. See Sihansah. 

Jamis Kori. See Kori. 

JamodL See Pice. 

JampaL See Djampel. 

Janauschek Thaler. The name given to 
the silver Thaler and double with the head 
of Frankofurtia, designed by A. von Nord- 
heim, and struck for the city of Frankfort 
a.M. in 1857 and later. 

Joseph and Fellner in their work on the 
coins of this city (No. 1265) state that 
Fanny Janauschek, the actress, is said to 
have served as the model, and thev add 
that at one time this Thaler and double 
Thaler were sold in the United States at 
high prices under the name of Rothschild 
Love Dollars, and the public were in- 
formed that the figure represented a mis- 
tress of Rothschild. 

Jane. This word is probably a corrup- 
tion of Genoese, and it was applied to a 
coin of very inferior metal brought to Eng- 
land by traders from Genoa. 

Spenser, Faerie Queene (iii. 7. 58), says: 
** Because I would not give her many a 
Jane." 



Januini 



Joe 



Januini, or GenuinL The name ^iven 
to Denarii struck in Genoa. Du Cange 
cites ordinances showing that the term 
was used in 1240 and 1278. 

Jaqiiesa, or Jacquesa. A copper coin of 
Spain which probably received its name 
from Jacca or Xaca, the old capital of 
Aragon. It is referred to in ordinances 
of the fourteenth century, but Engel and 
Serrure (ii. 824) state that it was origin- 
ally struck by Sanzio Ramirez I (1063- 
1094). 

The Lira Jaquesa or Lira Aragonese 
was a money of account used in Spain at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century 
and was computed at ten Reales. 

Jarimlik. See Yigirmlik. 

Jaunet. A French nickname for any 
gold coin in allusion to its color. 

Jeneuoser, or Jenuertch, are gold coins 
referred to in ordinances of Frankfort 
a.M. during the years 1409 and 1430. The 
coin is probably the Genovino. See Paul 
Joseph (pp. 130, 172). 

Jermdik. See Yigirmlik. 

Jesus Thaler. See Schmalkaldischer 
Bundesthaler. 

Jetonk A counter which can be traced 
in France to the thirteenth century. Some 
of the earliest types bear the inscription 
**de la chambre des comptes,'' and later 
issues have portraits, fleurs de lis, the 
makers' names, etc. 

The name is derived from the verb 
** Jeter'' to throw, to cast. The pieces orig- 
inally served the same purpose as the 
Rechenpfennige (g.v.). They were first 
struck in copper, brass, and other base 
metals, but at a later period when they 
were intended as gifts, they were fre- 
quently made of silver and gold. 

Tournay was one of the chief manufac- 
turing places of Jetons during the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries. 

Jettaly or Settle. A money of account 
formerly used in Kanara and other parts 
of Madras, and computed at 48 to the 
Pagoda. See Noback (p. 193). 

Jetton. See Jeton. 

Jihadiyeh Beshlik. A silver necessity 
coin of the Ottoman Empire issued under 
Mahmud' II. Lane-Poole states (Numis- 
matic Chronicle, 3d Series, ii. 182) that 



the ** Beshlik here means five Ghrush, and 
not five Para, and the coin was issued at 
the low weight of 410 instead of 1000 
grains." 

Jilaleh. A silver coin of a square form 
and equal to the Rupee in value. Its first 
appearance is in the reign of Akbar (A.H. 
963-1014), one of the Moghul emperors of 
Hindustan. 

Jinfl^e Boy. An English slang term for 
a gold or silver coin, and specifically for a 
Guinea. 

Thomas Day, in his play, The Beggar of 
Bednall Green, 1600 (v.), has: **Come, old 
fellow, bring thy white Bears to the Stake, 
and thy yellow gingle boys to the Bull- 
ring." 

Jingo Kaiho. See Jiu Ni Zene. 

Jitney. Originally a token or counter of 
about the size of the current nickel five 
Cent piece of the United States, and later 
the name was applied to the coin itself. 
The term is now generally used in con- 
nection with the normal fare for trans- 
portation within town limits. 

Jiu Ni Zene. The twelve ancient Sen of 
Japan. They are as follows: 

1. Wado Kaibo Issued in 708 A.D. 

2. Mannen Tsuho " " 760 " 
8. Jingo Kalho " " 765 " 

4. Ryuhei Blho " " 796 " 

5. Puju Jlmpo " " 818 " 

6. Showa Shoho " " 835 " 

7. Chonen Talho " " 848 " 

8. Nyuekl Jlmpo " " 859 " 

9. Jogwan Elho ** " 870 " 

10. Kampel Talho •* ** 890 " 

11. Engl Tsuho " " 907 " 

12. Kengen Talho " " 958 *• 

Joachimsthaler. See Thaler. 

Joannes. A gold coin of Portugal, first 
issued in 1722 under John V from which 
ruler it obtains it name. Conf. Dobra; 
and for an account of its underrating see 
Chalmers (pp. 82, 396). 

Joanninus. This term was originally 
applied to the money issued at Rhodes by 
the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and 
later to the Grossi struck by Pope John 
XXII (1410-1415). 

Jodocus Thaler. A silver coin of Jever 
struck by the Duchess Maria (1517-1575). 
It takes its name from Jodocus, the patron 
saint, who is figured in armor and holding 
a flag in his right hand. See Madai (1738). 

Joe. The common designation for the 
gold Joannes of Portugal (g.v.). 



[116] 



Joe 



Jux 



Joe. A paper currency issued about 
1809 for Essequibo and Demerara. The 
Joe was equivalent to twenty-two British 
Guilders. 

Joey. A nickname given to the English 
silver four Pence. See Britannia Groat. 

Jogwan Eiho* See Jiu Ni Zene. 

Jonu See Zahrah. 

JubOee Money. An issue in both gold 
and silver struck in England in 1887 to 
commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of 
Queen Victoria's reign. 

These coins bear an effigy of the Queen 
modelled from life by Sir Edgar Boehm. 
The gold pieces consist of the five Pound 
piece, double Sovereign, Sovereign, and 
half Sovereign. The largest of the silver 
coins was the Crown. 

Jubileunu Thaler. A commemorative 
coin, struck, as the name indicates, for a 
jubilee, anniversary, etc. They are also 
known as Denkmiinzen or Gedachtnis- 
miinzen. 

There are a number issued on the cen- 
tennials of the Augsburg Confession, 1530, 
1630, 1730, and 1830; and in 1755 Fred- 
erick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha, struck a 
Thaler on the peace of the religions. See 
Madai (4013). In Holland similar pieces 
have been issued known as Gedenkpennige. 

Jndenkopfgrotchen, or Jndenkopf e. A 

nickname given to certain Groschen struck 
by Frederick II and William III of Meis- 
sen in the latter part of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The bearded head with the peculiar 
pointed hat on the reverse of these coins, 
which constitutes one of the ornaments in 
the Meissen armorial bearings, was taken 
by the populace as resembling a Jew's por- 
trait. Other nicknames for the same pieces 
are Bartgroschen and Judenhiite. 



Jndenmedaillen, This term is applied 
to a class of gold and silver medals which 
were the product of Jewish goldsmiths of 
•Prague in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. They are cast and then re- 
engraved to give them the appearance of 
having been made about two hundred 
years earlier. The obverses bear portraits 
of Charles VI of France, the Emperor 
Maximilian I, etc. 

Judenpfennige. The name given to a 
series of counterfeit copper coins which 
originated in Frankfort a.M. in 1703, and 
were continued until 1822. 

Joseph and Fellner in their history of 
the coinage of this city give a list of these 
unauthorized pieces (Nos. 1990-2004). The 
issues from 1703 to 1807 are stamped 1 
Theler; in 1809 appeared the 1 Atribuo, 
and in 1818 the one quarter Halbag. These 
are all rated at the value of one Pfennig. 

See also Spink (xi. 128) for an ex- 
haustive treatise on the subject. 

Jugate. Placed side by side; i.e., ac- 
colated or accoUed. See Bajoire. 

Juik, Juk, or Juz. A former Turkish 
money of account computed at 100,000 As- 
pers, and in some localities at twelve Beu- 
tel (g.v.). 

Julier. The Swiss popular name for the 
Giulio (q.v.). 

Juliusloser. See Loserthaler. 

Jim PeL See Chun Pei. 

Juslo. A gold coin of Portugal issued 
by Joannes II (1481-1495) which had a 
value of about six hundred Reis. The de- 
vice on one side is the armorial shield, and 
on the other the King seated on a throne 
or standing before it, with the motto ivbtvs 
VT PALMA FLOREBiT, from which inscription 
the coin obtained its name. There is a cor- 
responding half, known as Espadim {q.v.), 

Juz. See Juik. 



[117] 



Kabean 



Kanna Drick 



K 



Kabean. The name given to a form of 
money used in Tenasserim, a former prov- 
ince of Siam and later of Burma. The 
coins consist of a mixture of lead and tin. 
R. C. Temple, in the Indian Antiquary, 
1902 (p. 51), states that 40 Kabean are 
equal to one Madras Rupee, and 88 are 
equal to a Spanish Dollar. See Ganza. 

Kabir, also variously known as Caveer, 
Kabukt, and Buckscha. An Arabian 
money of account computed at one eighti- 
eth of the Piastre. It was formerly ex- 
tensively employed at Mocha. See Noback 
(pp. 678-679). 

Kaczen Gulden. See Katzen Gulden. 

Katperlein. See Kasperle. 

Kagami Sen» or '^Mirror" Sen. The 

Japanese name for a form of counter re- 
sembling the old round Sen, but heavier 
and flat on one side. The designs on these 
are largely floral. Another name was Ana 
Ichi Sen. 

Kahan. See Cawne. 

Kahapana. See Pana. 

Kaird Turner. An obsolete Scotch term 
for a small base coin made by tinkers. 
Caird or Kaird means a tinker, and the 
name is common to Aberdeenshire. 

Spalding, History of Scotland, 1792 (i. 
197), says: **The Kaird turners [were] 
. . . discharged, ajs false cuinzes." 

Kairien. A name given to certain base 
gold coins of Egypt. The Kairie Bashireh 
was valued at ten Piastres and the Kairie 
Hashreen at twenty Piastres. They were 
introduced A.H. 1255 or A.D. 1839. 

Kaisar. A proclamation of Elizabeth, of 
October 9, 1560, states **that the crowns 
named Burgundians, Kaisars, or French 
Crowns, then current at six shillings and 
four pence, should go for six shillings and 
no more.'' S^e Ruding (i. 338). The ref- 
erence is probably to the Brabantine Zon- 
nekroon, struck in 1544 (q,v.), 

[1 



Kaiiergrotchen. A common name for 
the silver pieces of three Kreuzer, struck 
in Austria, Silesia, etc. They bore on the 
obverse the bust of the Emperor and were 
computed at thirty to the Reichsthaler, or 
twenty to the Gulden. 

Kaiserthaler. See Dreikaiserthaler. 

KakinL Another name for the Vodri 

(q.v.). 

Kala. A silver coin of India and equal 
to one sixteenth of a Rupee. See Sihansah. 

Kalenderthaler. A silver Scudo issued 
by Pope Gregory XIII to commemorate 
the improvement in the calendar. It bears 
the inscription anno restitvto mdlxxxh. 

Kaltit. An early Indian coin mentioned 
by the Greeks. Cunningham (p. 2) says, 
* * the Kaltis I take to be a gold Hun of 
the weight of a Kalutti seed, about fifty 
grains. ' ' 

Kanunerherrenthaler. This word signi- 
fies a Chamberlain, and the name is given 
to the Prussian Thaler of Frederick Wil- 
liam III, struck in 1816, on which the in- 
scription reads k. v. preuss. instead of 
KOENiG VON PREUSSEN. A Chamberlain 
named von Preuss was at the royal court 
in that year. 

Kampei Taiho. See Jiu Ni Zene. 

Kamsa. An early Ceylon copper coin 
which is frequently referred to by Sinha- 
lese writers. See Davids (sec. 12). 

Kangtang. The name given to a variety 
of the Chinese temple money, struck about 
the sixteenth century. 

Millies (p. 38) states that this money 
was copied in Java and received the name 
of Keteng, and Netcher gives it a valua- 
tion of one fifth of the Gobog {q.v,), 

Kam. See Tankah. 

Kanna Drick. A token struck both oval 
and octagonal and issued for the miners 
of Trollhattan (i.e., the **Cap of the 
Witch'') in West Gothland. The Kanna 
is a Swedish liquid measure and the token 
was presumably exchangeable for a quan- 
tity of some beverage. 



18] 



Kantem 



Katzen Gulden 



Kantem* A copper coin of Bulgaria. 
See Stotinka. 

Kapang. See Eepeng. 

Karkadona, Greek, Kapxde^ova. Accord- 
ing to Suidas, this was another name for 
the Danake or Charon's Obol (g.t;.)- 

Karl d'Or. See Carl d'Or. 

• KarHno. See Carlino. 

Kar-ma-nga* A Tibetan coin of the 
value of two Annas. See Tang-ka. 

Karolin. A gold coin somewhat larger 
than the Ducat, introduced in 1732 by 
Karl Philip, Elector of the Palatinate, and 
copied in Bavaria, Wiirttemberg, Baden, 
Hessen, etc. See Carolin. 

Karolus Gulden. See Carolus. 

Karsha, or Karshapana. The name of 
both a silver and a copper denomination 
in the coinage of ancient India. See Pana. 

Kas. A copper coin issued by Denmark 
from the reign of Christian V (1670-1699) 
to 1845, for Tranquebar. It was similar 
to the Cache (g.v.), issued by France for 
its colonial possessions. 

There are multiples of two, four, and 
ten Kas pieces, and many minor varieties, 
for a full account of which see Bergsoe, 
Trankehar-Monter, 1895 (passim). 

Kas, or Kash. A small copper coin of 
Southern India, corresponding to the Cache 
and the Kasu (q.v,). The Dutch and 
Danes struck it in multiples as high as fifty 
Kashas for their possessions. See Faluce. 

Katbegi, also named Pul, and Qaz. A 
copper coin of Persia of the Sufi or Safi 
dynasty, and valued at one fourth of a 
Bisti. 

The name Kasbegi is not inscribed on 
these coins, but instead of this occurs the 
Arabic word Falus, the plural of Fels, 
which is supposed to be a corruption of 
the Latin Follis, just as the Persian de- 
nomination of Pul, applied to the same spe- 
cies of coin, seems to be derived from 
Obolus. 

Under Nasir al din ( A.H. 1264-1314) the 
Kasbegi was made the one tenth of the 
Shahl, and equal to the Turkish Para. See 
Fonrobert (4305 et seq,). 

Kasperle. An Austrian nickname for 
the one fourth Brabanter Thaler or Kro- 



nen Thaler, because it represented the price 
of admission to the Kasperle Theater, a 
kind of ** Punch and Judy" show, popular 
in Vienna. The Swiss use Chasperli as an 
equivalent. 

Hebel, in his Alemannische Gedichte (iii. 
142, 149, etc.), mentions **Ein Kasper- 
lein." 

Kassenmannchen. A nickname used in 
Westphalia and the Rhine Provinces for 
the Prussian piece of two and one half 
Silbergroschen. 

The small bust would account for the 
derivation of * * Mannchen, ' ' and the first 
part of the name is probably due to the 
fact that the majority of the coins were 
used to liquidate small payments in the 
state treasury. See Driittainer. 

Kassenthaler, See Cassa Thaler. 

Katu. A Kanarese word called by Eu- 
ropeans **cash." This denomination is ap- 
plied to the small copper issues of Travan- 
core, sixteen of them being equal to a 
Chuckram. On the modern coinage the 
word is written in English **Cash." 

In the Mysore coinage under Krishna 
Raja Udaiyar (1799-1868) the word Kasu 
followed by a numeral is frequently met 
with; similarly, in the coinage of Madras, 
the Fels is divided into twenty Kas, the 
latter word being another form of Kasu. 
See Pagoda, and conf. Elliot (p. 59). 

Kateryn. An obsolete form of writing 
Quattrino (g.v.)- 

Katharinengroschen. The name given 
to certain silver coins issued by Katharina, 
the widow of Frederick, Margrave of Meis- 
sen (deceased 1428), as guardian and 
trustee for her sons Frederick II and Wil- 
liam III. They have in the inscription the 
three initials, K.F.W. 

Katib. See Kutb. 

Kattertinken. A name which occurs in 
Adam Berg's New Milnzbnch, 1597, to des- 
ignate small base silver Bohemian coins of 
the sixteenth century. He states that six 
were equal to a Kreuzer but does not give 
the etymology of the term. 

Katzen Gulden. A gold coin referred 
to in archives of Frankfort a.M. of 1430, 
but which has not been identified. It is 
sometimes written Kaczen Gulden. See 
Paul Joseph (pp. 91, 172). 



[119] 



KatzengaMen 



Kharf 



Katzengiddeii* A nickname given to the 
early, silver coins of Ueberlingen in the 
Duchy of Suabia. The armorial bearings 
consist of a silver lion on a red field, and 
this design when figured on the coinage 
resembled a cat. A mint was established 
here during the thirteenth century. 

KaanL A name given to the one six- 
teenth Rupee or silver half Fanam of 
Mysore, by Tipu Sultan, in 1786, when he 
adopted his new system of reckoning, based 
on the Muludi, i.e,, dating from the birth 
of the Prophet. The coin is so called after 
Musa Kazim, the seventh Imam. 

Kebar. Abyssinian beads used for 
money. See Kharf. 

Kedjer. A Javanese money of account 
of the value of one sixteenth Real. See 
Pitje. 

KeUpfennig, or Kelpenning, are terms 
frequently found in the numismatic ar- 
chives of Brandenburg during the Middle 
Ages. It has not been determined what 
varieties of coins are referred to by this 
name, but it is assumed that they are Brac- 
teates or Hohlpfennige (q.v,). Conf. also 
Okelpenning and see Zeitschrift fiir Nu- 
mismatik, 1908 (196). 

Keiat. The name given to the silver 
Rupee with the figure of a peacock, struck 
for Burma in 1852. There are divisions 
of halves, quarters, eighths, and sixteenths. 

Keixerskroon. See Zonnekroon. 

Kdcfathaler. A silver coin of Zurich, 
struck in 1526. The name means ** Chalice 
Thaler,'' and it is bestowed on this piece 
because the metal used in its composition 
was furnished by the churches. 

Kelpenning. /8fe6 Kehlpfennig. 

KenderL The Dutch equivalent of Can- 
dareen (q.v,). The Kenderi Perak is a sil- 
ver coin of the Malay Peninsula. See 
Pitje. 

Kengen Taiho. See Jiu Ni Zene. 

KenteL Another name for the Oobog 
(q.v,), a variety of the temple money of 
Java. 

Kentucky Cent. This coin is so called 
because the letter K is on the uppermost 
of the pryamid of stars. The token was 
probably struck in England after June 1, 
1792, the date of this State's admission to 
the Union. 



KqMDg, Keping, Kimiang, or Knpang. 

The name of a copper coin used through- 
out the Malay States, and reckoned at the 
four hundredth part of a Spanish Dollar. 
The word is of Malay origin and means a 
bit or piece. See Netscher and v.d. Chijs 
{passim) and Pitje {infra), 

Kemtion. Another name for the Siliqua, 
which see. 

Kerma, Greek, Kepita, dimin. KepitdeTtov, 
was used to designate any monetary frac- 
tion, a very small coin. 

KeffMu A name (Kepaa, Kepaatov, 
Kopjtov) found in Hesychius to designate 
an Asiatic coin. 



A Turkish money of account. 
See Beutel. 

Kesitah. A Hebrew word meaning a 
lamb; it is translated as ''a piece of 
money," due probably* to the fact that the 
weight was made in that form. See Job 
(xlii. 11), Genesis (xxxiii. 19), and Joshua 
(xxiv. 32). 

Kenne. The name formerly given to the 
Spanish Dollar or Piastre at Nubia, Kordo- 
fan, etc. The money of account is based 
on the ounce of gold which was valued at 
sixteen Spanish Dollars, called Puma or 
Wokye. Half that amount was Nosf- 
Wokye, and the quarter, or four Dollars, 
was known as a Miscal (q.v.). The names 
were retained in accounts, although the 
actual value of an ounce of gold frequently 
exceeded sixteen Piastres. See Noback (p. 
761). 

Keteng, See Kangtang and Gobog. 

Ketip. The Malay and Javanese name 
for the current silver ten Cent piece of the 
Netherlands. 

Kha-Kang. A Tibetan coin of the value 
of one Anna. See Tang-ka. . 

Khap-chhe. A Tibetan coin of the 
value of half an Anna. See Tang-ka. 

Kharf. A string of beads, used as money 
in some parts of Abyssinia. This currency 
is described in detail by A. Thomson D' 
Abbadie, in the Numismatic Chronicle 
(vol. ii. 1839-1840). He states that the 
string consists of 120 beads, called Kharaz ; 
three of the beads form a Keb&r, and forty 
Kebar a Kharf. The Kharaz are carried 
in bags, or tied up in the corner of a cloth. 
They are marked by a little dark brown 



[120] 



Khamibeh 



Kinsafsu 



ring and vary in thickness from four to 
seven millimetres. 

Khamibeh. The grain of the kharrub 
tree equals one twenty-fourth Mithkal, or 
one eighteenth Dirhem (or one sixteenth) 
equals 3 grains of corn [namely, as the 
Dinar is to the Dirhem, i.e., 10 : 7 : : 24 : 
16 Vb]- As a coin, a subdivision of the 
Bezant of Cyprus; and a small gold coin 
struck on Lentil (Holy) Thursday equal 
to one twentieth Dinar. 

Kharuby or Caroub. Originally a billon 
coin of Tunis of the value of half an Asper. 
Under Abd-el-Medschid, i.e., after 1839, it 
was struck in copper, but retained the same 
value. 

Khizri^ or Kizri. A name given to the 
one thirty-second Rupee, or silver half 
Anna of Mysore, by Tipu Sultan, in 1786, 
when he adopted his new system of reck- 
oning, based on the Muludi, i.e,, dating 
from the birth of the Prophet. The coin 
is so called after Khwaja Khizr, a prophet. 

KhodabandL See Mahmiidi. 

Khori. A billon coin of Armenia. It 
is evidently a variety of the Tram (g.v.), 
but struck in baser silver. See Langlois 
(p. 13). ^ 

Kiao PL See Bridge Money. 

Kiao-tze. The early Chinese name for 
paper money issued by private concerns. 
It means ** Changelings." At a later date 
these notes were called Chih-tsi or ** Evi- 
dences." 

Kia-tseh-ma. A Chinese word for the 
so called weight money of peculiar shape 
used in China from the seventh to the 
fourth centuries B.C. Its literal transla- 
tion is **slip weight money." 

Kibear, or Kebar. An Abyssinian 
money of account, consisting of beads, and 
representing one tenth of the Para. See 
Wakea and Kharf . 

Kiennes. See Chienes. 

Kikkabot. Another popular name in 
ancient times for Charon's Obol (q.v,). 
Eight K(xxa^oc were supposed to equal the 
^(oOia (Q'V.), and were therefore the 
smallest of the so-called Charon's Obols. 

Kikkar. The Semitic name for the Tal- 
ent {q.v.). 

Kflkenny Crown. See Rebel Money. 

Kimmeridge Coal Money. See Coal. 



[121] 



Kin. A Chinese weight, the pound, 
which is applied to a cube of gold, each 
side of which was about "an inch square. 
It is recorded to have been used during 
the Tchou dynasty, about B.C. 1100. 

The Emperor Wang-Mang (A.D. 9-23) 
re-established it, with a value of ten thou- 
sand Chien. See Chin. 

King George. An English dialect term 
for a half Penny of the eighteenth century. 
It is common to Cumberlandshire. 

Ralph, Miscellaneous Poems, 1747 (96), 
has the following lines: 

"A fortune-teller leately com about. 
And my twea guld King Oweorges I powt out." 

King Shfli Pi. See Bridge Money. 

King's Picture, The. An obsolete Eng- 
lish dialect term for money in general. It 
is mentioned by W. Carr in The Dialect 
of Craven, in the West Riding of the 
County of Yorkshire, 1828. 

King's Sflver. According to Wharton, 
Law Lexicon, 1864, this was **the money 
which was paid to the King, in the Court 
of Common Pleas, for a license granted to 
a man to levy a fine of lands, tenements, 
or hereditaments, to another person; and 
this must have been compounded, according 
to the value of the land, in the alienation 
oflSce, before the fine would have passed.'' 

Kin Kwan. Early Japanese gold ring 
money (q.v.). 

Kinsatsu. A name given to Japanese 
paper currency, or * * money cards, ' ' issued 
May 15, 1868. For centuries before, every 
great daimio had issued paper money cur- 
rent only in his han. When the Mikado 
was restored to power and the government 
reorganized, it followed the example of the 
daimios and issued scrip in various de- 
nominations. The cards were oblong in 
shape, but varied in size; two thirds of 
the length bore an ornamental frame con- 
taining ttie value, and the remaining third 
resembled a coupon, being the two rampant 
dragons with tails crossed and enclosing an 
inscription denoting the issuing oflSce. 

The previous paper currency consisted of 
Hansatsu, of which there are a number of 
varieties since 1694 and which were re- 
deemed for the Kinsatsu, at the rate of 
one Yen for one Rio ; those having a value 
of one half or one quarter Koban were 
called Hayaki; and those valued at forty- 
eight copper Mon were named Zeni. 



Kippermiinzeii 



Knife Money 



Kippermiinxen. A name given to clipped 
coins which circulated extensively in many 
parts of Germany at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century; and the same term 
was applied to the debased currency issued 
from 1621 to 1623. 

Thus Kipperzwolfer exist for Corvey, 
Mansfeld, etc.; Kipper-21-er for Lippe; 
Kipper-24-er for Brandenburg, Reuss, etc. 

Kirat. The one twentieth of the legal 
Dinar and the one fourteenth of the legal 
Dirhem, but in practice its relation varies 
greatly, i.e., it equals one twenty-fourth, 
and one twentieth Dinar, and one six- 
teenth^ one twelfth, one quarter, and under 
the Fatimis, one half Dirhem ; but this was 
a gold coin Kirat which is properly equal 
to one half Dirhem. In 599, under El '- 
Adil, eleven emiry Kirats were equal to 
one Dinar. The Kirat is equal to five 
Habbehs, fifteen Kirats to the Buweryhy 
Dirhem, and twenty to the Imamy. - 

The Kirat was the smallest of all the 
former copper coins of Morocco, being 
equal in value to one fourth of the Fels. 

Kirchenpfennige. See Church Tokens. 

Kiri Kodama. A word meaning cut 
crystal jewels or gems, and applied to a 
variety of beads, supposed to have been 
used as a primitive money in Japan. See 
Munro (p. 5). 

Kittophoroft (pi. KiaTO^opoi). See Cis- 
tophorus. 

Kite. A term used in commerce to des- 
ignate any negotiable paper issued to raise 
money or to obtain credit. Maria Edge- 
worth, in her novel. Love and Law, 1817 
(i. 1), has the phrase, ** Here's bills . . . 
but even the Kites, which I can fly as well 
as any man, won't raise the wind for me.'' 

Kitharephoroi (6r. KtOaptj^opoi). See 
Citharephori. 

Kit-tao* A variety of the Knife money 
(q.v,) of the Emperor Wang Mang, and 
valued at 500 Chien. 

Kitze. A Turkish money of account. 
See Beutel. 

Kiu-Ma* A Chinese word for weight 
money used in China from the seventh to 
the fourth centuries B.C. The word is 
translated saddle money. 

KizrL See Khizri. 



Klappmutaenthaler. A name given to a 
variety of the Guldengroschen which was 
issued by the Elector Frederick III of 
Saxony in conjunction with the Dukes John 
and Albrecht pursuant to the mint regula- 
tions of May 9, 1500. A later issue bears 
the name of Duke George in place of Al- 
brecht. 

The name is derived from the peculiar 
head-dress worn by the Dukes, after the 
fashion of that period. 

Kleutergeld. See Klotergeld. 

Klinkhaert. See Clinckaert. 

Klippe* A general name for coins struck 
on a square, rectangular, or lozenge-shaped 
planchet. They occur in various metals 
and in many instances are money of neces- 
sity. 

The etymology is probably from the 
Swedish Klippa, to clip, or to cut with a 
shears. Some of the early bracteates pre- 
sent the appearance of having been cut with 
a pair of scissors, and Christian II of Den- 
mark resorted to the practice early in the 
sixteenth century to such an extent that 
he received the nickname Kong Klipping. 

Klotergeld. J. ten Doornkaat Koolman, 
in his Worterhuch der Ostfriesischen 
Sprache, 1882, defines this as small jing- 
ling money. The words **Kloter" and 
**Kleuter" mean to jingle or to ring, and 
the Dutch have a similar name, viz., Kleu- 
tergeld. 

Klomp. A popular Dutch name for an 
ingot of gold. The word means a lump, 
and is analogous to the German Klumpen. 

Klopschelling. See Statenschelling. 

Knaak. A slang term for the current 
silver coin of two and one half Gulden of 
the Netherlands. 

Knackkucheny and Knapkoeken. See 

Cnapcoek. 

Knife Money, or Tao, owes its origin 
to the practice of using metal knives for 
purposes of exchange. Its introduction in 
China cannot readily be determined, but it 
was during the period of H 'wan, about B.C. 
650, that the first metal token representing 
a knife or sword is supposed to have been 
made. This money could be exchanged for 
an actual weapon. For a detailed descrip- 
tion of these coins the works of Lacouperie 
and Ramsden should be consulted ; the fol- 



[122] 



Knopfzwanziger 



Koggerdaalder 



lowing are, however, the principal varie- 
ties: 

1. The flat Knife coins of Kan Tan, the 
capitiil of the ancient state of Tchao, before 
B.C. 400, and situated in what is now the 
province of Tchihli. These are very thin 
and brittle, with an elongated oval at the 
end of the handle. 

2. The An- Yang issue of large three and 
four character Knife coins issued for the 
state of Tsi, between the seventh and third 
centuries B.C. 

3. The Ming series issued by the city of 
Ming in the state of Tchao during the 
civil wars in the third century B.C. The 
handle of these terminates in a ring. 

4. The Tsi Moh issue of the third cen- 
tury B.C. These can be grouped into the 
large and small sizes. The former con- 
stitute about thirty varieties with different 
mint or serial marks. Of the smaller size 
there are 16 varieties, the obverse inscrip- 
tion is reduced from six to five characters, 
and the reverse has only one symbol in- 
stead of the usual three. 

5. The Wang Mang series, taking their 
name from the usurper Wang Mang, who 
reigned A.D. 9-23 and issued these coins 
A.D. 9-14. These pieces are much thicker 
than all the preceding types and only about 
half as long. Furthermore, the ring at the 
end of the handle was replaced by the 
shape of a thick piece of money with a 
square hole in the centre. Wang Mang 
struck two varieties, viz,, pieces valued at 
500 Chien, called Kit-tao, and pieces with 
gilt inscriptions, valued at 1000 Chien, and 
called Tsok-tao. 

Mr. E. Torday, in a communication to 
the London Geographical Journal (1911), 
states that **one of the most interesting 
points among the cannibal Bakutu of the 
Belgian Kongo, Africa, is their use of a 
conventional throwing-knife as currency. 
The Basongo Meno also use this form of 
currency, obtaining it from the Bakutu, 
who are the manufacturers.'' Conf. also 
Ramsden (pp. 10-13). 

Knopfzwanziger. See Zwanziger. 

Knurling. See Nurling. 

Koban. A Japanese oval gold coin of a 
similar design to the Oban (q.v.), and of 
a value of one Ryo, or one tenth of the 
larger coin. It was introduced in the latter 



part of the sixteenth century, and Munro 
(p. 190) states that '^it has been surmised 
that they were intended for the encourage- 
ment of trade with the Portuguese. This 
is quite likely, but I cannot find any defin- 
ite confirmation of it.'' 

In 1837 there was issued the Tempo 
Koban valued at 5 Ryos, but in a few 
years it was discontinued. 

The Shin Koban, meaning **New Ko- 
ban,'' was a coin of smaller size, though 
of the same value, issued in 1860. 

The word is variously written as the 
following citations indicate: In Cock's 
Diary, Sept. 17, 1616, he says, **I re- 
ceved two bars Coban gould with ten 
ichibos, of 4 to a Coban;" and A. Hamil- 
ton, in his New Account of the East In- 
dies, 1727 (ii. 86), states that **My Friend 
. . . complimented the Doctor with five 
Japon Cupangs, or fifty Dutch Dollars." 

Kodama. See Kiri Kodama. 

Kodrantesy meaning the fourth part, is 
the Greek equivalent of the Roman Quad- 
rans, and is translated as Farthing in St. 
Matthew (v. 26) and St. Mark (xii. 42). 

Kolnische Mark. See Mark. 

Kopfchen. See Kopfstiick. 

Kortling. A diminutive Oroschen com- 
mon to many parts of Northern Germany 
during the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies. There is a dated one of 1429 for 
Gottingen. See Frey (No. 26). 

Adam Berg, in his New Miinzhuch, 1597, 
mentions them as struck in Eimbeck, Got- 
tingen, Hameln, Northeim, and Hanover; 
and he adds that they are small silver 
coins of the value of three Pfennige or 
eighty-four to the Gulden. 

The name of the coin is probably derived 
from Groschen, low-German **Grote," 
diminutive **Grotling;" and by the trans- 
position of the letter r we obtain **Gort- 
ling" and finally ** Kortling," i.e,, a frac- 
tional ** Groschen." 

Koggerdaalder. A silver coin issued in 
the Province of Friesland from the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century to 
about the year 1690. 

The fixed value was thirty Stuivers, but 
on special occasions some issues were made 
in gold of which the ordinary type was 
equivalent to about ten Ducats, and the 
multiples in proportion. 



[ ^23 ] 



Kolhasen Gulden 



Kori 



A gold treble Koggerdaalder of 1601 was 
executed by the mintmaster William van 
Vierssen and probably struck for the Diet 
held in that year. 

A double Koggerdaalder, also in gold, 
was struck in the same year probably for 
presentation to the Stadtholder. 

Kolhasen Gulden. A gold coin referred 
to in archivas of Frankfort a.M. of 1430, 
but which has not been identified. See 
Paul Joseph (pp. 91, 172). 

KoUybon. See Collybos. 

Kometenthaler. The name given to a 
medallic Thaler issued by the city of 
Strasburg in 1681 when this town sur- 
rendered to the French on September 20 
of that year. It has on the obverse a 
figure of a comet which appeared in the 
preceding year, and which was associated 
by the superstitious with the calamity 
which had befallen the city. 

Kommassi, or Commassee. A former 
base silver coin of Arabia, principally used 
in the coffee trade of Mocha, and com- 
puted at one sixtieth of the Spanish Dol- 
lar. It was later struck in copper and its 
value depreciated ; three hundred and fifty 
to five hundred being an equivalent of the 
Spanish and Levant Dollars. See Noback 
(p. 679). 

Kona. A silver coin of ancient India, 
the half of the Karsha. See Pana. 

Kong-par Tang-Ka. See Tang-ka. 

Konstantin d'Or. See Constantin d'Or. 

Konventionsmimzen. See Convention 
Money. 

Kopecky or Copeck. A copper coin of 
Russia, the one hundredth part of the 
Ruble. There are multiples of two, three 
and five Kopecks, and a division, the half 
Kopeck. 

The Kopeck existed as a silver coin of 
low standard as early as the sixteenth cen- 
turj"^, but the copper issues began in the 
year 1704. The name is derived from 
Kopiejka, a spear or lance, in allusion to 
the armed horseman carrying that weapon, 
a design similar and perhaps copied from 
the coins of Lithuania. 

Kopje, Kopken. See KopfstUck. 

Kopparplatmynt. See Plate Money. 

Koppar Slantar. See Slantar. 



KopfstiiGk. A popular name for any 
coin which exhibits the head or bust of 
some ruler, and in this respect the same 
as Teston (g.v.). The designation is, how- 
ever, usually applied to the Austrian pieces 
of twenty Kreuzer or five Batzen, to the 
Danish twenty Skilling pieces, and to the 
Bavarian silver coins of twenty-four Kreu- 
zer. 

In Queldres, Loos, and the Low Coun- 
tries in general, the words Kopje, Kopken, 
and Kopfchen are used to describe small 
Deniers which have a head as a prominent 
feature. See Fliuderke and Copetum. 

Kopy. A Bohemian money of account. 
The Kopy Grossuw, i.6., Qroschen, formed 
the basis, and was subdivided into two and 
four sevenths Kopy Missenky. See No- 
back (p. 975). 

Kore. A name (Kopt], pi. K6pa() errone- 
ously supposed by Alexandrian writers 
(who have, pardonably enough, been fol- 
lowed by modern authors) to have been 
given to Athenian Tetradrachms on ac- 
count of their type, i.e., the head of the 
maiden Goddess Athene. See, for correct 
account, Willers, Nvm. Zeitschr. (xxxi. 

p. 318). . :rf5 

Kori. The standard of the currency of 
Cutch and Kathiawar; it is a small silver 
coin of the average value of four Annas 
or one fourth of the Rupee. 

Codrington, in the Numismatic Chron- 
icle, 1895 (p. 59) has described these coins 
and gives the following table: 

silver Panchla equal to five Korls. 
Copper Dhabu equal to one eighth Korl. 
Copper l>hini;alo equal to one sixteenth Kori. 
Copper Dokdo equal to one twenty-fourth Kori. 
Copper Tanblyo equal to one forty-eighth Korl. 

and the Adhada, probably a money of ac- 
count, equal to one ninety-sixth Kori. 

He further cites their equivalents in the 
Indian series, stating that 

8 Korls equal 1 silver Rial. 

3 Korls equal 1 Hyderabad Rupee. 

4 Korls equal 1 Tutta Rupee. 

3% Korls and 1 Dokdo equal 1 Surat Rupee. 
18 Korls equal 1 Ibramee. 

The varieties of Koris for Kathiawar 
are sometimes known as Jamis Kori, from 
Sri Jamji, the Rao's name; while those for 
Porbandar are termed Rana Shahi Koris, 
from Sri Rana, the name upon them. 

Codrington {supra) traces the name 
Kori from the Sanscrit Kunwari. 



[ 124 ] 



Korkuraioi Stateres 



Kreuzer 



Korkuraioi Stateres (Kopxupalot araT- 
^peg). The name by which the silver 
Staters of Corcyra were known to the An- 
cients. 

Kom. A term used by German numis- 
matic writers to indicate the fineness of an 
alloy in coinage. It is referred to in this 
sense in a mint ordinance of 1409, con- 
tracted between Baden, Speyer, and the 
Palatinate. The expression probably arose 
from the practice of computing two hun- 
dred and eighty-eight barleycorns to the 
Mark, when the latter was a weight and 
money of account. See Schrot. 

Korona. A silver denomination of Hun- 
gary divided into one hundred Filler. It 
was established in 1892. A gold coin of 
100 Korona was issued in 1907. The Aus- 
trian word is Corona, or Krone {q.v.). 

Kortvide. A Danish silver coin of the 
fourteenth century, struck at Malmo, Aal- 
borg, etc. Its value was half of the Ortug, 
and at a later period the name appears to 
have been contracted to Hvid (g.v.). 

Korten. A name given to an inferior 
class of billon and copper coins current in 
Brabant and Flanders in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Their value varied from two to 
three Mytes. The Ordonnantie of 1520 
(§10) refers to **Korten en andere swarte 
penningen." These coins had on the ob- 
verse the letter K crowned, for Karolus, 
or Charles V. See v.d. Chijs (pp. 261, 
263, 264). 

The French equivalent is Courte Noire. 

Kosel Gulden. See Cosel Gulden. 

Kou. A tin coin of the former Kingdom 
of Atjeh in Sumatra. Its value varied 
from 400 to 1000 to the Piastre. See Mil- 
lies (p. 106). 

Koupa, or Kupa. A gold coin of Celebes 
issued principally at Makassar and Qowa. 
It was struck A.H. 1251 in the former ter- 
ritory, and as early as A.H. 1029-1078 in 
the latter, bearing Arabic inscriptions on 
both sides. Conf. Millies (pp. 176-177) 
and Fonrobert (Nos. 896, 897, 900). 

Koupan. A former money of account at 
Atjeh. See Mas. 

Krabbelaan A billon coin of Brabant, 
struck pursuant to the Ordonnantie of 
1536, and of the value of four Stuivers or 
Patards. It is also known as Crabbelaer 



and Vlieger, the latter name probably 
derived from the supposition that the eagle 
on the obverse was in the act of flying. 

Krahenplappart. Among the numerous 
varieties of the Plappart are some of Zu- 
rich with a poorly executed figure of an 
eagle. This was mistaken by the common 
people for a crow and the nickname as 
above was introduced. See Blaflfert. 

Krajczar. The Hungarian name for the 
Kreuzer (g.v.). 

Kran. A silver coin of Persia of the 
value of twenty Shahis, and also subdi- 
vided into one thousand Dinars. The Kran 
is the tenth part of the gold Toman, and 
there are at present multiples in silver of 
two and five Kran pieces. The half Kran 
is known as the Penabad. See Toman. 

The Kran was introduced by Fath Ali 
Shah in 1826, and its original weight was 
108 grains. 

Krapatalos. A humorous name em- 
ployed by Greek comedians to designate 
money used in crossing the Styx. See 
Naulum. 

KreditmiiiuEeii. A term used in Ger- 
many for any coins whose legal or marked 
value is higher than the actual metallic 
value of their composition. 

Kreisobristen Thaler. A silver coin 
struck by Christian Ernst, Margrave of 
Brandenburg-Bayreuth in 1664. It has on 
the obverse a figure of the Margrave on 
horseback and on the reverse nineteen 
shields indicative of the various circuits 
under his jurisdiction. 

Krejcar. The Bohemian name for the 
Kreuzer (g.v.). 

Kreuzer, also written Kreutzer. Origi- 
nally a small silver coin which appeared 
in the Tyrol in the thirteenth century, and 
which obtains its name from a cross which 
was stamped upon it, a device perhaps 
copied from the Byzantine coinage. In 
Latin documents of this period it is re- 
ferred to as Cruciatus, Crucifer, and Cru- 
ciger. The oldest types, called fitschkreu- 
zer or Meraner Kreuzer, bore a double 
cross, one diagonally over the other. 

The Kreuzer of the later type was of 
copper and circulated extensively through- 
out all of Southern Germany, Austria, and 
Hungary. It was usually computed at the 



[125] 



Kreuzgroachen 



Kronigte 



value of four Pfennig or eight Heller. 
There were, however, two standards, one of 
which represented forty-eight Kreuzer to 
the Gulden and seventy-two to the Thaler, 
and in the other, called the light Kreuzer, 
sixty went to the Gulden and ninety to 
the Thaler. By a decree introduced Janu- 
ary 1, 1859, the Gulden of Austria was 
altered from sixty to one hundred Kreuzer. 

Among the various multiples are seven- 
teen Kreuzer for Transylvania; obsidional 
eighty Kreuzer for Strasburg in 1592 
(Mailliet, cii. 1) ; and a piece of seven 
Kreuzer, 1802, struck for Austria in the 
war against France (Mailliet, viii. 2). 

The Bohemian name for this coin is 
Krejcar, and the Hungarian form is Kraj- 
cz4r. See Zwainziger. 

Kreuzgroschen, A name given to the 
silver Groschen issued during the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries by the Ger- 
man Orders of Knighthood, on account of 
the varieties of the Maltese cross which is 
found in some cases on both the obverse 
and reverse. 

The designation was also generally ap- 
plied to any coin of this denomination on 
which a cross was conspicuous. The Gros- 
chen of Goslar issued in the fifteenth cen- 
tury is so called from this feature, and one 
of Meissen receives the same name from a 
cross over the armorial shield. 

Kreuztlialer. See Albertusthaler. 

Kriegsfiinfer. The popular name for the 
five Pfennig piece struck by the German 
Grovernment in 1915. They are made of 
iron instead of nickel, and to protect the 
iron against rusting the coins have been 
subjected to a special zinc treatment, called 
**sherardisiert,'' named after Sherard, the 
inventor of the process. 

Krishnala, also called Djampd. A sil- 
ver coin of Java, the usual type having an 
incuse lotus flower on the reverse. A gold 
coin of the value of twenty-four Krish- 
nalas received the name of Tjaturvin^ati- 
manam. It is more or less globular in 
form, with an incuse reverse and Devana- 
gari characters. Conf, Millies (p. 10), and 
Fonrobert (301-310). 

Kronungs Miinzen. See Coronation 
Coins. 

Kroiseioiy or Kroiseios Stater. The coins 
said to have been struck by Croesus, King 



of Lydia, are so called. See Herodotus (i. 

54). 

Kromttaart, also written Cromstaert 
and Krumsteert, i.e., ** crooked tail." A 
nickname given to a silver coin of Brabant 
of the original value of two Groten, issued 
early in the fifteenth century. The ob- 
verse shows a lion rampant with a curved 
tail. 

The type was copied in the Low Coun- 
tries and also in the city of Emden when 
the latter was under the domination of 
Hamburg, from 1433 to 1439. 

Kroiuu See Krone. 

Krone. A silver denomination of the 
Scandinavian Union and divided into one 
hundred Ore. It was established for the 
three kingdoms by the monetary conven- 
tion of 1875. Sweden retains the name 
Krona and Norway and Denmark use 
Krone. 

In Iceland the Krone is divided into one 
hundred Aur. 

Krone, plural Kronen. A silver de- 
nomination of Austria, introduced in 1892 
and subdivided into one hundred Heller. 
It superseded the Gulden or Florin, which 
system it cut in half. There are multiples 
as high as one hundred Kronen. 

The gold ten Mark piece of Germany 
was originally called Krone. 

Kronenthaler, sometimes called Kron- 
thaler. A silver issue struck in the latter 
half of the eighteenth century for the 
Austrian Netherlands. On the reverse of 
these coins is a decorated St. Andrew's 
cross in three compartments of which there 
is a crown, while the fourth has the order 
of the Golden Fleece. 

The name is also given to other coins on 
which a crown .is conspicuous, e.g., the 
issues of Ladislaus IV of Poland from 1635 
to 1645; the German Thaler of Waldeck, 
Bavaria, etc., of the early nineteenth cen- 
tury, and others. See Crocione. 

KrongyUen. See Gyllen. 

Kronigte, also called Cronichte Gros- 
chen. A variety of the Kreuzgroschen 
(q.v.) of the Margrave Frederick II of 
Meissen (1428-1464), which bears a crown 
above the shield on the reverse instead of 
a cross. 



[126] 



Kroon 



Kwanei Sen 



Kroon. The Dutch equivalent for Krone 
and Crown. The Bataviasche Kroon struck 
in 1645 had a value of forty-eight Stuivers, 
and corresponding halves and quarters 
were also issued. See Gouden Kroon and 
Zonnekroon. 

Kroung Tamlimg. The half of the 
Siamese Tamlung {q.v.) and equal to two 
Ticals. 

KrudeTy plural Krucierze. The Polish 

equivalent of the Kreuzer (g.v.)- They 

were introduced under Sigismund III in 
1616. 

Knnsdaaldery or Kruisrijkidaalder. A 

silver crown issued by Philip II of Spain, 
pursuant to an ordinance of June 4, 1567, 
for Brabant and the provinces of the Low 
Countries. It receives its name from the 
obverse design, the cross of Burgundy, 
which separates the figures of the date. It 
is also known as the Ecu k la Croix de 
Bourgogne. See van der Chijs (pcissim), 

Krumsteert See Kromstaart. 

Krysinot. See Krysus. 

Krysusy or KpuaoGg, the Greek name for 
the Solidus. When heavily alloyed so that 
it became electrum it was called Kpuaivog. 

Kuan, or Kwan. The Chinese name for 
a string of cash. The word now generally 
used is Ch'uan. Another name is Tiao 
(q^v.). 

Kua teng Ch'ien. ''Lamp hanging 
money," the Chinese name for new year's 
medals or coins, which were generally 
heavier than the regular issues, and had 
oftentimes special inscriptions on them. 
These were distributed among the palace 
attendants. A popular slang name for 
these pieces was Huang kai-tsu, ** yellow 
covers.'* 

Kttdatama. The name given to certain 
stone cylindrical shaped objects, possibly 
used as primitive money in Japan. See 
Kiri Kodama and Magatama for other 
forms. 

Kuratsier Thaler. A silver coin of Prus- 
sia, struck in 1842 to commemorate the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the installation 
of Nicholas I, Emperor of Russia, as com- 
mander of the sixth regiment of cuiras- 
siers of Brandenburg. 



Kufic Coins. A term applied to such 
Arabic coins as bear Kufic inscriptions. 
The Kufic writing of the Middle Ages ob- 
tains its name from the city of Kufa in 
the Province of Irak Arabi, and is easily 
distinguished from the modern Arabic by 
its thick and angular characters. 

KugildL A term found in both Scandi- 
navian and early German statutes and im- 
plying a fixed sum in payment for healthy 
cows of three to ten years of age. See 
Amira, Nordgermanisches Obligationen- 
recht, 1882, 1895 (i. 443, ii. 522), and 
Ridgeway, Origm of Metallic Currency, 
1892 {cap. 1-3). 

Kuhplapperte. See Blaifert. 

Kuna. See Skins of Animals. 

Kupa. See Koupa. 

Kupang. See Kepeng. 

Ku Pu. The Chinese name for the wedge 
shaped metallic currency. See Pu. Other 
names are Ch'an Pi and Ch'an Pu. Pus 
are known in English as Spade Money. 

Kutb. A name given to the copper two 
and one half Cash piece of Mysore, by 
Tipu Sultan, in 1792, after the adoption 
of his new system of reckoning. This sys- 
tem was begun in 1786, and was based on 
the Muludi, t.c, dating from the birth of 
the Prophet. The name of the coin in 
Arabic means the Polestar. 

Marsden (ii. 725) translates it as Katib. 

Kwacho. One of the many Japanese 
synonyms for a coin. It means ** Disguised 
Butterfly. '' See Ashi. 

Kwammon Gin Sen. See Mu-Mon Gin 
Sen. 

Kwan. This term ordinarily implies a 
Japanese weight equal to one thousand 
momme, or about eight and a quarter 
pounds. Munro (p. 58) states that in A.D. 
810 a quantity of coin (probably Sen), 
amounting to 1040 Kwan were cast from 
the copper remaining in the mint, and he 
adds that the expression Kwan probably 
refers to one thousand pieces, which would 
indicate that it was a money of account. 
See Ryo and Quan. 

Kwan. See Kuan. 

Kwanei Sen. Probably the most popular 
coin minted in Japan. It was first made 
at Mito in the 3rd year of Kwan-ei (Per- 
manent Liberality), 1624, and was not dis- 



[127] 



Kyzikenoi 



K^^S^^t spmetimcs in 






•rll V I>««rf' wt,rd meaning one 

"" vJw«- rto The name Kwartje is 
*^**Sr to d«ipnate the current silver 

>• •; 'f tvmty-6ve Cents. 

"^'"J^l^_ The name given to the base 
-1 T^ne fourth Groschen of Poland. It 

s"'***^ ^g have been introduced about the 

•P*^ of Casimir the Great (1333-1370) 



and continued in the coinao^e until the 
middle of the fifteenth century. 

Kyranaion* A gold Stater bearing the 
types of Alexander the Great was issued 
at Cyrene by Ptolemy I, and called 
xupovaiov icToXeixaeou. 

Kyrmk. An enormous copper coin, 
about forty-four millimetres in diameter, 
issued for Baghcheserai, in the Crimea, by 
Shahin Gerai (A.H. 1191-1197) before its 
annexation to Russia. See Valentine (pp. 
96-98). 

Kjrzikeiioi (Ku^ixv^vot 9TaT^peg). See 
Cyzicenes. 



[128] 



Labay 



Larin 



L 



Labay, or Labbaye* A silver coin of 
Brabant issued by Wenceslaus and Jo 
hanna (1355-1405) of the value of one 
fourth of a Qroot. A Dobbele Labbaye, 
also called Nummus Epularis and Gast- 
mael-Penning was struck in 1429. See 
v.d. Chi js*{passim). 

Lac. A money of account used in India 
and representing one hundred thousand 
Rupees. See Crore. 

Lafajrette Dollar. A silver coin of the 
United States issued in 1900 as a memento 
of the Paris Exposition and a mark of 
good will and appreciation to France for 
the services rendered during the Revolu- 
tionary War by General Lafayette. 

These coins were sold by popular sub- 
scription, and the proceeds were used to- 
ward paying for the erection of a statue 
of Lafayette in Paris. The issue con- 
sisted of fifty thousand pieces. 

Lai Tzu, or Hsing Yeh. In China cer- 
tain light coins issued by Fei Ti, A.D. 465 
were thus called. The words mean the 
leaves of the Linnanthemum nymphoides, 
which are very light and float on the sur- 
face of the water. 

Lakshmi Pagoda. A name given to a 
variety of the Pagoda {q.v.) which bears 
on the obverse a female figure, one of the 
Hindu deities. 

L'al JalalL A gold coin of Akbar,^ Em- 
peror of Hindustan of the value of ten 
Rupees. See Sihansah. 

See Gouden Lam. 



Laimnpfeiinig. A variety of bracteate 
struck by the Abbey of St. Gallen, Switzer- 
land, during the fourteenth century. It 
receives its name from the figure of the 
Paschal Lamb on the obverse. 

Landmiinzey or Landesmiinae. The 

name given to German copper or base sil- 
ver money which circulated only in the 
province or state where it was struck, to 
distinguish it from coins which were cur- 
rent throughout an entire kingdom or em- 
pire. The initials L. M. are frequently 
found on these pieces. 



Landsberger Pfennige. The name given 
to certain small silver coins struck by 
Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen (1428- 
1464). They resemble bracteates and were 
divisions of the Groschen. They obtain 
their name from the figure of the shield 
of Landsberg, and the inscription land. 
Another name for the same pieces is 
Briickenpfennige, as they are supposed to 
have been used for paying toll over the 
bridge near Dresden. 

Langrok, i.e., '^long cloak." A nick- 
name given to the double Flabbe, or piece 
of eight Stuivers issued in Groningen from 
about 1589 to the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. The allusion is to the 
figure of St. Martin, who is habited in a 
long cloak. 

Lappen, meaning '^rags," is a common 
nickname for paper money in Germany, 
and, according to the colors on the reverses 
of the various denominations, they are dis- 
tinguished as blaue Lappen, braune Lap- 
pen, etc. 

Larding Money. Blount, in his Law 
Dictionary, 1670, states that *'in the Man- 
our of Bradford, in County Wilts, the 
Tenants pay to the Marquis of Winchester, 
their Landlord, a small yearly Rent by 
this Name.'* 

Wharton, in the Law Lexicortj 1864, 
adds that it **is said to be for liberty to 
feed their hogs with the masts of the lord 's 
woods, the fat of a hog being called lard." 

Largo. See Giulio. 

LarL A copper coin of the Maldive 
Islands issued A.H. 1331, i,e,, 1913, and 
struck at Male. It bears the Arabic in- 
scription SULTAN MUHAMMAD SHAMS AL- 

DiN iSKANDAR. There is a piece of four 
Laris of the same date. 

Larin, or LarL A species of wire money 
of Persia, which obtains its name from the 
province of Laristan, and which was for- 
merly chiefly current on the coasts of the 
Gulf of Persia. Sir John Chardin, who 
travelled extensively through Persia from 
1664 to 1677, states that these coins were 



[129] 



Ut 



Lead 



made until Lari was conquered by Abbas 
the Great of Persia (1582-1627) and he 
estimates their value at two and one half 
Shahis. 

These coins usually occur in silver, but 
specimens in gold exist, and are very rare. 
They were extensively imitated, both in 
Ceylon and at Bijaptir. The former are 
first described by Robert Knox, who was 
kept a prisoner for twenty years, from 
1659 to 1679, in the Kandian provinces of 
central Ceylon. He says: ** There is an- 
other sort [of money] which all people by 
the King's permission may and do make, 
the shape is like a fish-hook, they stamp 
what mark or impression on it they please ; 
the silver is purely fine beyond pieces of 
eight; for, if any suspect the goodness of 
the plate, it is the custom to burn the 
mon^y in the fire, red hot, and so put it 
in water, and if it be not then purely 
white, it is not current money." 

Professor Wilson, in his remarks on 
fish-hook money, contributed to the Numis- 
matic Chronicle (vol. xvi), describes some 
pieces of silver wire, not hooked, which 
were coined in imitation of the Laris, at 
Bijapur by the Sultan Ali Adil Sh&h, who 
reigned from 1670 to 1691. They bear on 
both sides legends in Arabic characters; 
on one side the Sultan's name and on the 
other **Zarb Lari Dangh Sikka," i.e., 
''Struck at Lari, a stamped Dangh." They 
are of the same weight as the Ceylon hooks, 
viz., about one hundred and seventy grains 
troy. 

The Ceylon types are known in Sinha- 
lese under the name of Ridi, i.e., silver. 

For a detailed account of the Larins, the 
reader is referred to the treatise by Rhys 
Davids (sec. 68-73), Codrington (p. 118), 
and Allen, Numismatic Chronicle (series 
iv. xii. 313). 

Lat. The name given to a copper ingot 
or bar, used as money in the Lao States 
in Northern Siam. Their value varied 
from sixteen to sixty-four to a Tical. 

Lateres. Both Varro and Pliny refer 
to Roman coins of the shape of a tile or a 
brick by this name. 

Latrones. The Latin name for Tesserae 
(q.v.). 

Laubthaler. The name given to a 
French silver coin struck in the eighteenth 



century and so called on account of the 
branches of laurel which surround the 
shield of fleurs de lis. In France this coin 
is called the Grand Ecu or Ecu de six 
Livres. Under Louis XVI there were vari- 
eties counterstamped for Berne in Switzer- 
land. The type was copied in Prussia. 

Lanenpfennige. See Lowenpfennige. 

LaureL A variety of the Unite (q.v.) 
of James I, of England, so called on ac- 
count of the laureated head on the obverse. 

Laurentiiitgulden. The name given to 
certain gold coins issued by the city of 
Nuremberg from the fifteenth to the 
seventeenth century. They bear the figure 
of St. Lawrence and a gridiron on which 
he is supposed to have been martyred. 

l>anitannaif| or Lhrre Faible« A former 
money of account used at Neuohatel, Swit- 
zerland, which was computed at twelve 
Gros, or one hundred and forty-four De- 
niers Faibles. 

Lawenpfeonige. See Lowenpfennige. 

liaTMnii See Bahar. 

Le. See Li. 

Lead was used for trial pieces, tokens, 
and counterfeit money from very early 
times. Among the known specimens prior 
to the Christian era are some belonging 
to the Kings of Numidia. In the second 
and third centuries A.D. leaden coins were 
issued in Egypt, especially at Memphis, 
and in the first and second centuries in 
Roman Gaul. 

This metal was also employed for strik- 
ing obsidional coins, of which there is a 
series, consisting of one Sol to forty Sols, 
issued at Woerden when that city was be- 
sieged by the Spaniards in 1575-1576. See 
Mailliet (cxxv. 1-9). 

There is an extensive series of Duits in 
lead struck by the Dutch in the eighteenth 
century for their possessions in Ceylon and 
Java. 

In the Danish issues for Tranquebar the 
leaden pieces originated under Christian 
IV in 1640. See Indian Antiquary (xxiv. 
•22). 

Leaden tokens passing as half Pennies 
were issued to a considerable amount in 
England during the reign of Elizabeth; 
under James I all leaden tokens of private 
traders were abolished. See Nummi Plum- 
bei. 



[ 130 ] 



Leafl^e Coinage 



Leather M<mey 



Erasmus, in his Adagia, mentions Plum- 
heos Angliae in use in the latter part of 
the reign of Henry VII ; and Budelius, De 
Monetis, 1591 (p: 5), states that these 
leaden tokens were still in circulation in 
his time. 

League Coinage. The general term used 
to designate such coins of the ancients as 
were put forth by a federation of states 
or cities in order to ensure a certain 
amount of uniformity so far as types, 
weight, and fineness were concerned. 

The principal one of the Leagues was 
the Achfean {q.v.). 

The iEtolian League issued gold, silver, 
and bronze B.C. 279-168, and the coins 
usually have on the reverse a figure of 
jfEtolia, copied from a statue dedicated at 
Delphi in commemoration of victories over 
the Gauls and Macedonians. 

The Arcadian League was established l>y 
Epaminondas against Sparta after the bat- 
tle of Leuctra, B.C. 371, and under its 
auspices the city of Megalopolis was 
founded. At this place the coins of the 
League were struck. 

The coinage of Bceotia was largely a 
federal currency from the earliest times, 
and the Boeotian shield is a characteristic 
feature on the issues. This may possibly 
refer to the shield of Athena Itonia in the 
temple of Coroneia, which was the meeting- 
place of the League. This type disappears 
after B.C. 288 and the League was dis- 
solved by the Romans B.C. 146. 

The cities of Chalcidice established a 
League B.C. 392 with Olynthus as head- 
quarters. The coinage is uniform with 
types relating to Apollo. It was dissolved 
circa B.C. 358, when Philip II of Mace- 
donia captured Chalcidice. 

The federal coinage of Euboea was issued 
at Eretria. It lasted from B.C. 411 to B.C. 
336 and nothing was struck during the 
Macedonian occupation. After the defeat 
of the Macedonians at Cynoscephalae B.C. 
197 the federal coinage was revived until 
this League was also dissolved by the Ro- 
mans, B.C. 146. 

The Ionian League was a very ancient 
alliance and originally consisted of the 
cities of ClazomenaB, Colophon, Ephesus, 
Brythrse, Lebedus, Miletus, Myus, Phocaea, 
Priene, Chios, Teos, and Samos. Smyrna 
was added about B.C. 700. Under Anto- 



ninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius the above 
thirteen cities issued bronze coins in cele- 
bration of a festival they jointly held. 

An alliance between the rulers of the 
various Lycian cities gave rise to the Ly- 
cian League, B.C. 168, and lasted until 
A.D. 43, when the Emperor Claudius or- 
ganized Lycia with Pamphylia as a Roman 
province. 

Leal. A name sometimes given to the 
Portuguese Bazarucco (q.v.). It is usu- 
ally found with a large sphere within a 
circle as the reverse design. There is a 
corresponding half known as Cepayqua. 

Gerson da Cunha, in ContrihutioTis to 
the History of Indo-Portuguese Numis- 
matics, 1880 (pp. 11, 22), states that the 
Cepayqua was struck by Albuquerque at 
Goa as early as 1510. 

Leang. See Liang. 

Leather Money. Leather was used as 
currency by the Lacedaemonians, and 
Plato states that leather money was em- 
ployed by the Carthaginians in his day, and 
that it was probably the earliest currency 
of that people. These citations, however, 
probably refer to the skins of various ani- 
mals, and the stamped leather which it is 
claimed was used by the Romans before 
the introduction of a copper coinage by 
Numa Pompilius was perhaps an entire 
skin or pelt rather than a distinctive coin. 

There is no doubt, however, that in more 
modern times nations have adopted a 
leather coinage which frequently served 
the function of necessity money, and which 
was made redeemable for a metallic cur- 
rency. In the year 1241 the Emperor 
Frederick II issued leather coins when he 
was besieging Faenza for seven months, 
and these were later exchanged for gold 
Augustali which had the value of one and 
a quarter gold Gulden. The coins issued 
by the Emperor contained his portrait im- 
pressed in silver on the leather. 

More than a century earlier, i.e., in 1124, 
Dominicus Michieli, Doge of Venice, issued 
obsidional coins of leather cut from horse 
hides for the beleaguered city of Tyrus. 
This coin received the name of Michieletta 
from its originator. In 1360, John II, 
King of France, authorized the making of 
small leather coins with small golden 



[131] 



Lebetes 



Leicht Geld 



threads sewn or stamped upon them; this 
he was compelled to do as his treasury was 
depleted on account of a ransom of three 
million livres paid to the English nation. 
Stamped leather coins were issued by Ley- 
den in 1574, when the city was besieged 
by the Spaniards under Valdez ; they bore 
as a device three shields and a stag, with 
the letters S. M. and H. S. 

The Russians at an early period used 
skins of animals for currency and later 
they employed irregular discs and strips 
of leather rudely stamped. The word 
** rouble'' is derived from the verb to cut, 
and some varieties of Russian copper 
money are called Puli, from poul, leather; 
these words are probably derived from the 
primitive leather currency in use in that 
country. See an exhaustive paper on this 
subject contributed by William Charlton 
to the British Numismatic Journal (iii. 
311). 

In 1910 a roll of circular leather tokens 
was discovered in the archives of the mar- 
ket at Aschbach on the Danube in upper 
Austria. These tokens bore the crest of 
Philip Eder of the guild of masons and 
stone-cutters at Eferding (near Aschbach) 
and the date 1804. Leather strips were 
also found from which these tokens were 
cut. Mr. Franz Hirmann, the founder of 
the museum at Aschbach, has discovered 
among the records that at the time of the 
French occupation the masons and stone- 
workers were employed by the French in 
the construction of intrenchments, and 
were paid by the master of the guild with 
these leather coins which represented the 
value of one Groschen. See also Ruding 
(i. 131, 346). 

Lebetes. A fragmentary inscription re- 
cently found in Crete assesses the payment 
of certain fines at so-and-so many Ae^t]Teg, 
or ** Cauldrons. ' ' It was therefore by this 
name that certain silver Staters of the 
fourth century B.C., all countermarked 
with a device representing a Cauldron 
(AePtjg), were known in Crete. Svoronos, 
Bull. Corr, HelllSSS. (vol. xii.). 

Lebongo. A name given to a currency 
made of straw, which was in use in the 
Portuguese colony of Angola. Each piece 
was of the value of five Reis. It was super- 
seded in 1693 by a copper coinage. 

[ 



LeeuWy i.e., Lion. A gold coin of Bra- 
bant, Flanders, and the United Provinces. 
It was struck by Anthony of Brabant pur- 
suant to an ordinance of 1408. The 6ou- 
den Leeuw, as it is sometimes called, was 
also issued by Philip the Good (1430- 
1467) in Flanders and later at Mechlin. 

The coin receives its name from the lion 
on the obverse, who is in an upright posi- 
tion, and is sometimes depicted holding a 
flag or banner in his claws. See Lion 
d'Or. 

Leeuwendaalder. This, and the Leeu- 
wengroot are of the same type as the pre- 
ceding and are struck in silver. The for- 
mer is of crown size and is also known as 
the Ecu au Lion. It was issued from 1576 
to the close of the seventeenth century. 

Legal Tender Notes, also known as 
United States Notes. The name given to 
a «eries of paper money first issued by an 
Act of Congress of the United States in 
1862. They have been issued in denomina- 
tions from $5.00 to $10,000.00, and are a 
Legal Tender for all debts, public and 
private, except duties on imports and in- 
terest on the public debt. 

Leg Dollar. The popular name in the 
seventeenth century for the new type of 
Bijksdaalder introduced about 1662 for 
the Province of Utrecht. On the reverse 
is a Knight standing with only one leg 
visible, the other being hidden behind an 
armorial shield. 

Legend, from the Latin legere, the 
words running around the coin inside of 
the border. See Inscription. 

Legienmg. A term used by (merman 
numismatic writers to indicate an alloy, 
especially of silver and copper, or silver 
and nickel. The etymology is probably 
from the Italian legare, to bind. 

Legionary Coint. A name given to cer- 
tain Roman gold and silver coins which 
were issued in honor of the Legions. The 
earliest known were struck by Mark An- 
tony, and the last by Carausius. They 
usually have the inscription leg. 

Legpenninge. See Rechenpfennige. 

LeL See Leu. 

Leicht Geld. A term formerly used in 
Hamburg and applied to Pistoles, Species- 
thaler, etc., which circulated at a slight 
depreciation. See Noback (p. 320). 

132] 



L^jcesterdaaklMr 



Lepton 



Leijcetterdaalder* A silver coin of 
Crown size issued for Gueldres, West 
Frisia, Zeeland, etc., pursuant to an ordi- 
sance of August 4, 1586, and continued 
until about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. It bears on the obverse a reputed 
half-length portrait of Dudley, Earl of 
Leicester, and on the reverse the armorial 
shields of the six Provinces (on some speci- 
mens seven), that opposed the Spanish 
rule. From the latter circumstance it is 
also known as the Unierijksdaalder. 

L.emocia» or Lemoiuu A billon coin of 
the Vicomtes de Limoges and copied from 
the Barbarin (q.v,) of Saint Martial. It 
takes its name from Lemovicas, the mediae- 
val name of Limoges. 

Ouido VI, Vicomte of Limoges (1230- 
1263), substituted his own portrait on his 
coinage, but the pieces were rejected and 
the regular Bretagne type restored. See 
Blanchet (i. 275). 

Lenticiilar Coiiit. A name given to such 
coins as are shaped like a lentil or a lens, 
i.e., thicker in the centre and gradually 
tapering towards the edge, as in the earliest 
emissions of the Roman Acs. 

Leone. A Venetian silver coin struck 
by Francesco Morosini (1688-1694) for use 
in the Levant. It was copied by his suc- 
cessor, Silvestro Valier (1694-1700). 

Alvise II Mocenigo (1700-1709), issued 
a similar coin for Zara of a value of eighty 
Soldi. 

The above coins are called respectively 
Leone Morosino and Leone Mocenigo, and 
obtain their names from the large figure of 
a lion on the reverse. There are divisions 
of halves, quarters, and eighths of the same 
design. 

Leimiiia. A name given to the gold 
two Zecchini piece of Pope Leo XII (1823- 
1829). 

Lecxnmet or Lionine* A base silver coin, 
80 called from the -figure of a lion. See 
Brabant and Mitre. 

Leonzino, or Leondno. Another name 
for the Tallero of Francis I, Duke of- Mo- 
dena (1629-1658), and to that of his suc- 
cessor, Alfonso IV (1658-1662). Its value 
was four Bolognini. 

Leopard. An Anglo-Gallic gold coin 
struck by Edward III of England in 1343. 



It was of the value of half a Florin, and 
obtained its name from the crowned 
leopard on the obverse, though Buding 
states that this animal was in reality a 
lion. 

The legend on the reverse was domine. 
NE.iN.PVRORE.Tvo.ARGVAS.ME. See Floriu. 

Leopold d'Or. The popular name for 
the gold coin of twenty Francs issued by 
Leopold I, King of Belgium (1831-1865). 

Leopoldino. The silver Scudo issued by 
Pietro Leopoldo I, of Lorraine, and Grand 
Duke of Tuscany (1765-1790), is so called. 
In the mint regulations of 1823 its value 
was fixed at ten Paoli, or six and two 
thirds Lira, while the ordinary Scudo was 
equal to seven Lira. 

Leopoldo. The name given to the gold 
Ducat issued by Leopold, Duke of Lor- 
raine (1697-1729) ; and also to the silver 
Piastre of Leopold II, Duke of Tuscany 

(1824-1859). 

Lepton* Originally this was not a coin, 
but simply the smallest practical weight 
applied to gold and silver. After the in- 
troduction of copper money in Greece and 
Asia Minor the Lepton became an actual 
coin. 

At Athens seven Lepta went to the 
Chalcus (q'.t;.). In the eastern portion of 
the Roman Empire it was used to distin- 
guish the local copper coins from the im- 
perial issues. But, generally speaking, the 
word Lepton was the term used for a 
small copper coin and consequently varied 
greatly, according to time and locality. 

It was later equal to one half of the 
Chalcus (g.i;.)> as is confirmed from a 
comparison of a passage in Polybius (ii. 
15) with the well known quotation from 
the Gospel of St. Mark (xii. 42). From 
Polybius we learn that the Assarius was 
equal to half an Obolus, or four Chalki. 
The Roman Quadrans was therefore equal 
to the Chalcus, and as St. Mark says that 
the Quadrans contained two Lepta, the 
Lepton must have been exactly one half 
of the Chalcus. 

The word Mite was employed by the 
translators of the New Testament simply 
because the coin was so very small in size, 
and it retained this meaning for a long 
period. Hyll, in his Arithmeiick, 1600 
(iii. 1), says, **Pour Mites is the aliquot 



[133 1 



Lepton 



UbeUa 



part of a peny, viz. 1/6, for 6 times 4 is 
24, and so many mites marchants assigne 
to 1. peny." Jeake, in his Arithmetick, 
1674 (77), states that sixteen Mites are 
equal to a Farthing. 

Coverdale, in his translation of the New 
Testament, 1535, renders the Gospel of St. 
Mark (xii. 42) as follows: **And there 
came a poore wyddowe, and put in two 
mytes, which make a farthinge." 

Lepton (plural Lepta). A copper coin 
of modern Greece, the Ionian Isles, and the 
Greek Republic under Capo d'Istria. It 
is the one hundredth part of a Phoenix, 
or Drachma. The five Lepta piece is also 
called an Obolos. The word Lepton means 
thin or fragile. 

Leaher Referendum Dollar. See Refer- 
endum Dollar. 

Leu, or Lev. A silver coin of Bulgaria 
and Roumania adopted in 1867, when these 
countries based their monetary systems on 
the Latin Union. One hundred Bani are 
equal to one Leu. The plural is Lei, and 
the name of the coin is synonymous with 
Lira or Livre. Similarly in Bulgaria, one 
hundred Stotinki are equal to one Lev 
(plural Leba). 

Levant Dollar. The name given to any 
coin which is employed in the Levant trade, 
but especially to the Maria Theresa Thaler 
of 1780. This piece is always struck with 
this date for commercial purposes, and is 
accepted in Zanzibar, Abyssinia, Madagas- 
car, and many other countries. Its weight 
is a trifle over 433 grains, and its original 
fineness has been retained. In some of the 
African and Asiatic sections this coin is 
known as the Tallero del Levante, and in 
others as el Real. See Ernest and Wand. 

Frederick II of Prussia issued Levant 
Dollars in 1766 and 1767 for trade with 
the Orient. These have his bust on the 
obverse and the motto suum-cuique on the 
reverse. 

Levy. A corruption of * * eleven pence, ' ' 
and the popular name for the Spanish Real 
in the States of Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, and New Jersey. 

Lewekin. In an ordinance dated July 
14, 1424, and reprinted by Paul Joseph 
(p. 155), a coin of this name is mentioned 
as being equal to one twelfth of a Groschen. 



Lewis. See Louis d'Or. 
Leycetterdaalder. See Leijcesterdaalder. 

Li, or Le. A Chinese weight, also the 
one thousandth part of the Tael of silver, 
and of the recent Chinese Dollar or Yuan. 
The Li is synonymous to the foreign term 
Cash. The copper Li is supposed to weigh 
one tenth of a Tael and it is so expressed 
on coins of Shun Chih (1644-1661) of the 
Manchu dynasty. Recent patterns of some 
of the copper coins have values of one, two, 
and five Li. The Japanese Rin is equal 
to the Li and the same character is used. 

Liang. The Chinese ounce, called by 
Europeans Tael (g.v.)- Some of the earli- 
est round Chinese coins were inscribed Pan 
Liang (g.v.), or Half Ounce. Although 
the word Liang is seldom seen on coins the 
word has been used as a value on paper 
money from the tenth century. Certain 
coins of Hsien Peng (1850-1861) have the 
word Liang impressed on them as a weight. 

Liard. Originally a base silver coin, the 
value of which is difficult to determine as 
it was generally struck without any marks 
of denomination. Some early French varie- 
ties had a value of three Deniers, but with 
the decrease in worth of the latter coin the 
Liard decreased correspondingly and un- 
der Henry IV it was struck in copper and 
became the fourth part of the Sol. 

The name is probably a corruption of li 
ardito, the Gascon form of the Hardi or 
Hardit (q.v.), 

Liardo. A base silver coin struck in 
1720 by Antonio Qrimani, Prince of Mon- 
aco. Its value was two Denari. 

Libella. A Roman silver coin mentioned 
by Varro and stated by him to be equal to 
half the Sestertius. The half of the Libella 
was called the Sembella, and the half of 
the latter coin, or one fourth of the Libella, 
was known as the Teruncia, the last named 
coin being little morQ than a grain and a 
half in weight. 

Some authorities have doubted the exist- 
ence of these smaller coins altogether, and 
suppose them to be either copper divisions 
of the Denarius, or merely money of ac- 
count. Gronovius states that when Varro 
wrote there was no such coin as the Libella, 
but that the term signified the tenth part 
of a Denarius. 



[134] 



Libeiiiiia 



Liond'Or 



Libertnuu A silver coin of Ragusa, is- 
sued from 1791 to 1795, with a value of 
two Ducati or eighty Grossetti. It was 
copied after the Maria Theresa Thaler and 
received its name from the inscription 
LiBBRTAS on the reverse. 

LibertmL The popular name for the 
Quattrini, struck in Siena in 1526, to pay 
the soldiers and repair the fortifications of 
the city, after the siege by the troops of 
Clement VII. 

Libnu The unit of the gold standard 
of Peru, adopted in 1897. It is divided 
into ten Soles, each of ten Dineros, each 
of ten Centavos. 

Libralis. See Aes Grave. 

Licht Thaler. The name given to a 
variety of silver coins struck by Julius, 
Duke of Brunswick-Liineburg (1568-1589). 
They represent the wild man holding a 
candle or torch in his right hand. There 
is a half and quarter Thaler of the same 
design. 

Ligurino. The name given to a variety 
of the silver Luigino (q,v.) of Genoa, is- 
sued in 1668 and later by the Banco di 
San Giorgio, under Cesare Gentile. It has 
on the obverse a crowned shield supported 
by two grifl&ns, and on the reverse a bust, 
inscribed **Liguria." 

LQy Root Money. The name given to 
a variety of Chinese metallic currency on 
account of its resemblance to the root of a 
lily cut in half. These pieces are described 
in detail by Bamsden {pp, 28-29). 

Liiiia*T]rpe« The word Lima, which oc- 
curs on certain coins of George II of 
England, indicates that these pieces were 
coined in great part from silver captured 
by the two British privateers, **Duke," 
and ** Prince Frederick." This capture 
occurred on July 10, 1745, when the above 
mentioned vessels took two ships belonging 
to St. Malo, which were returning from 
Lima. 

Another explanation, given by Snelling, 
that the silver formed part of the cargo 
of the great Mexican treasure-ship from 
Acapulco taken by Anson, June 20, 1743, 
is obviously unsatisfactory, because the 
above-mentioned inscription indicates that 
the metal was of Peruvian and not Mex- 
ican origin. 



The Crowns occur only with the date 
1746, but there are half Crowns, Shillings, 
and six Pences dated 1745 and 1746. 

Lincoln Cent. The popular name for 
the copper Cent of the United States of 
America, first issued in 1909. It bears a 
bust of Abraham Lincoln on the obverse, 
from designs by Victor D. Brenner. 

Lingot. A term used by French nu- 
mismatic writers to describe a cast bar of 
metal adapted for monetary purposes and 
sometimes- stamped with a numeral of 
value, etc. 

Linsen Dukaten. The nickname given 
to the one thirty-second Ducats of Nurem- 
berg and Regensburg, because they re- 
semble lentils in size. 

Lion. A gold coin of Scotland, first 
struck in the reign of Robert II (1371- 
1390) and continued until 1588. It re- 
ceived its name from the rampant lion 
over the shield of Scotland on the obverse. 
The reverse has a figure of St. Andrew ex- 
tended on a saltire cross, hence the name 
**St. Andrew" frequently given to these 
coins. 

The weight was originally thirty-eight 
grains, but later it varied considerably. A 
larger coin of nearly double the size, but 
of the same type, received the name of 
Demy {q.v.). 

A Scotch billon coin has received the 
same name. See Hard Head. 

Lion. A billon coin of the Anglo-Oallic 
series, first issued by Edward I. 

It derives its name from the representa- 
tion, on the obverse, of a lion passant 
guardant, which was the heraldic bearing 
of Aquitaine. This device was previously 
incorporated by Henry II, with two lions 
passant guardant, the arms of fformandy, 
thus forming the coat since borne by the 
English Kings. See also Leeuw. 

Lion a la Haie. See Tuin. 

Lion Dollar. See Leeuwendaalder and 
Dog Dollar. 

Lion d'Or. A gold coin of France 
which appears to have been struck only in 
the reign of Philip VI (1328-1350). It 
resembles the Ecu d'Or of the same ruler, 
the only difference being the figure of a 
Hon lying at the foot of the throne, from 
which it obtains its name. 



[136] 



Lion Heaume 



litra 



The type was copied in Flanders and 
the Low Countries, receiving the name of 
Gouden Leenw. 

lion Heamne. The name given to a 
variety of the gold Florin issued in Flan- 
ders by Louis de Male (1346-1384). It 
has on the obverse the figure of a helmeted 
lion under a Gothic archway and the 
inscription lvdovicvs : dei : gra : com' : 

Z DNS : FLANDRIE. with FLANDRES in the 

exergue. See Heaume. 

Lion Shilling. Lion Sixpence* A name 
given to the Shilling and Sixpence of the 
third type of George IV, issued in 1825. 
These have on the reverse a crowned lion 
standing on a crown, with the rose, thistle, 
and shamrock below. 

The Shilling of Edward VII bears the 
royal crest, a lion standing on a crown, 
and recalls the earlier type. 

Lira, plural Lire, and derived from the 
Latin word libra, a pound, was originally 
a money of account in Venice. Payments 
of Lira di Grossi, while made in the latter 
coins, were based on their weight irre- 
spective of their number. The Doge Nicolo 
Tron (1471-1473) introduced the so-called 
Lira Tron, which bore his bust on one side 
and the lion of St. Mark on the reverse. 
It was divided into twenty Soldi of twelve 
Denari, and was copied by some of his 
successors. 

When Italy adopted the Latin Union 
standard the silver Lira was made the unit 
and placed on a par value with the Franc. 
It is divided into one hundred Centesimi. 
The Lira is used in the Italian colonies, in 
Lombardy, Venice, and in San Marinol 

Lira* See Pound Turkish. 

Lira Aragoneae. See Jaquesa. 

Lira Austriaca. See Svanzica. 

Lira Jacioesa. See Jaquesa. 

Lira Mocenigo. See Mocenigo. 

Lira Tron. See Lira. 



A base silver coin of Venice 
issued at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, and current until the termination 
of the Republic. Its value originally ap- 
pears to have been thirty Soldi, but the 
later specimens declined to equivalents of 
fifteen, ten, and five Soldi, and frequently 
have the value indicated on the reverse 
in Roman numerals. See Traro. 



Liretta. A Venetian base silver coin in- 
troduced by the Doge Nicolo Sagredo 
(1675-1676) and copied by a number of 
his successors to the end of the Republic. 

For Zara the Venetians issued pieces of 
four, eight, eighteen, and twenty Lirette 
during the eighteenth century. 

' Lirona. A base silver coin of the Ven- 
etian Republic, originally issued pursuant 
to an act of January 5, 1571, under the 
Doge Alvise I. Mocenigo. It bears on the 
reverse the numeral X, to indicate its 
value of ten Gazzette. This method of in- 
scribing was at a later period used for 
the Lirazza (^.i;.)- 

Lisbmuno. The double Moeda de Ouro 
of the Portuguese monetary system, and 
commonly known as the Moidore. It was 
the fifth of a Dobrao, and originally worth 
four thousand Reis, but raised to four 
thousand and eight hundred in 1688. See 
Portuguez. 

Lis d' Argent. A silver coin of France 
struck by Louis XIV of the value of twenty 
Sols. The reverse has a cross composed 
of eight letter L's, with fleurs-de-lis in the 
angles. The motto is dominie. eleoisti. 
LiLivM.TiBi. There are halves and quar- 
ters of ten and five Sols, respectively. 

Lb d'Or. A corresponding gold coin 
with the same motto and a device repre- 
senting two angels supporting a crowned 
shield. Both coins appear to have been 
issued only in the years 1655 to 1657, al- 
though essays appeared in 1653. The Ital- 
ians gave it the name of Fiordaliso d'oro, 
and Gigliato d'oro. 

Litra. The bronze basis of Sicily, cor- 
responding to the Roman Libra or Pound. 
It was also represented by a silver coin 
of three Hemioboli, and under the stand- 
ard of Tarentum, the one tenth of the 
Stater, weighing 0.87 grammes. 

The divisions of the Siculo-Italiote 
bronze Litra are the following in corre- 
sponding terms of the Roman As: 

XiTpa ==» As, or 12 ounces 
3e)i(0Y>^(0v ^ deunx, or 10 ounces 
Y](i.eX(Tp(Ov =* semis, or 6 ounces 
icevT(o*ptiov = quincunx, or 5 ounces 
TeTpa? = triens, or 4 ounces 
Tpidlg s= quadrans, or 3 ounces 
e^ag » sextans, or 2 ounces 
ouYxia = uncia, or 1 ounce 



[136] 



Livonese 



Lo-han Cash 



The multiples are the 

icevTtixovTaXexpov = 50 litrae 
dexaXcTpov »» 10 litrae 
wevxaXtTpov = 5 litrae 
JeXcTpov =s 2 litrae 

The majority of these were struck in 
bronze or silver, sometimes even in gold. 



A silver Russian issue struck 
by the Czarina Elizabeth for Livonia and 
Esthonia, pursuant to an ordinance of 
October 25, 1756. They consisted of pieces 
of ninety-six, forty-eight, twenty-four, 
four, and two Kopecks, but were soon 
withdrawn from circulation. See Noback 
(p. 923). 

LtvominOy also knoMm as the Livornina 
delle Torre. A silver Piastre, struck for 
Leghorn in 1656 by Ferdinand II de Me- 
dici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and by his 
successors, Cosimo III, and Gian Gastone. 
It has a view of the fortress of Leghorn 
on the reverse. 

Livre* Originally the money of ac- 
count in France, and computed at 'twenty 
Sous of twelve Deniers each. However, 
by reason of the debasement of the silver 
coinage this ratio could not be maintained 
and it sank rapidly in value, and was 
finally abolished in 1803 when the Franc 
system was established. The ratio of sil- 
ver to gold was then made at fifteen and 
one half to one, and the decimal system 
was introduced. 

Livre Faible* See Lausannais. 

Lhnre Toumois* A silver coin of 
France, six of which were equal to the 
Ecu. It was generally known simply as 
the Livre and must not be confused with 
the money of account of the same name. 

It was abolished in 1803 when the Franc 
system was adopted. 

Loduu A popular name of the Cuar- 
tillo or nickel 121^ Centimos of Venezuela. 

Locumtenentthaler^ The name given to 
a medallic Thaler of the Elector Frederick 
III of Saxony (1486-1525), issued in 1518 
and later, on account of the inscription 

IMPERIQVE.LOCVMTENES. GENERAL., a title 

conferred on him by the Emperor Maxi- 
milian I. 

Loserdialer, or JuKusloser are large sil- 
ver coins of the value of from two to 
sixteen Speciesthaler, issued by Julius, 



Duke of Brunswick-Liineburg (1568- 
1589), and made from the product of his 
silver mines. 

These coins owe their origin to an ordi- 
nance of the Duke to the effect that every 
one of his subjects, according to their rank 
and station, was to redeem one of these 
coins (Loser, i.e., redeemer), and be pre- 
pared to account for the same whenever 
demanded. They could pawn them in case 
of necessity but were not allowed to sell 
or exchange them. By this arrangement 
the Duke was always kept informed as to 
the amount of silver money in his do- 
minions which he could levy upon in case 
of necessity. The latter exigency never 
arose, nevertheless these coins are scarce, 
although a large number were struck. 

They were made at Heinrichstadt, and 
bear on the reverse the ducal armorial 
shield supported by two wild men. See 
Wildemannsthaler. 

Losungs-Dukat. Lotimgs-Thaler. The 

name given to a gold and silver coinage 
struck by Gustavus Adolphus for Wiirz- 
burg in 1631 and 1632. The name means 
** Redeemer," and the coins receive their 
designation from the inscription **Gott mit 
uns,'* on the reverse. 

Lowenpfennige* This name is given to 
a variety of Bracteates, generally the 
twelfth part of the early Groschen, issued 
in Saxony, etc., in the early part of the 
fifteenth century. They obtain their name 
from the shield on which is a lion rampant. 
An ordinance of 1482 for the mintmaster 
Augustin Horn of Zwickau reads '*die 
Pfennig soltn schlecht mit dem Geprege 
eins Lawen usw. slahen." 

These coins were also called Lauenpfen- 
nige, and the type was copied by the city 
of Brunswick. The latter have the letter 
B above or at the side of the shield. The 
Lowenheller of Ludwig III, Elector of the 
Palatinate (1410-1436) have a crowned 
lion rampant, and are of somewhat smaller 
size. 

Lo-han Cash. A Chinese coin issued in 
the reign of Kang Hsi (1662-1722), and 
said to have been made from melted down 
Lo-han images. It can be distinguished 
from the other coins of this reign by the 
different form of the character hsi. 



[137] 



Long Cross Tsrpe 



Lttcati 



Long Cross Tjrpe. The name used to 
describe a series of English silver Pennies 
first struck by Henry III in 1248. They 
have on the reverse a long doubly cross 
extending to the edge of the coin. See 
Short Cross Type. 

Lord Baltimore Pieces. An issue of 
silver Shillings, Sixpence, Pourpence, and 
a copper Penny for the Province of Mary- 
land in 1659. For varieties and details 
see Crosby. 

Lord Lucas Fardiings. A name given 
to certain pattern Farthings bearing the 

words QVATVOB.MARIA.VINDIOO., i.e., **I 

claim the four seas," which legend is said 
to have given offence to Louis XIV. Lord 
Lucas referred to them in a speech in the 
House of Lords, on February 22, 1670- 
1671, when he complained of the scarcity 
of money, as follows : 

**0f his now Majesty's coin there ap- 
pears but very little, so that in effect we 
have none left for common use but a little 
lean coined money of the late three former 
princes. And what supply is preparing 
for it, my Lords? I hear of none unless 
it be of copper farthings, and this is the 
metal that is to vindicate, according to the 
inscription on it, the dominion of the four 
seas." 

The ** supply" appeared in 1672, when 
a copper currency for general use ap- 
peared, and the Farthing became a legal 
tender. See Ruding (ii. 14). 

Lorrain. See Double Lorrain. 

Lorraines. A name given to the Tes- 
toons, issued in Scotland in 1558 and 1560 
from the large crowned monogram F M 
{i.e., Francis and Mary) between two Lor- 
raine crosses, which these coins bear on the 
reverse. 

Lot. The one sixteenth of the Mark 

iq.v.). 

hottf or SoloL A Siamese copper coin, 
the half of the Att. See Tical. 

Lotterie Dukat. An undated gold coin 
of Pfalz-Sulzbach, struck by the Elector 
Karl Theodor (1742-1777, and in Bavaria 
until 1799). It has on the reverse the 
figure of a nude Fortuna standing on a 
globe and the inscriptions indvstri^-sors 
above, and hac pavente below. 

Lotus Coins. See Padma Tanka. 



Louisy or Louis d'ArgenL A French 
silver coin, first struck by Louis XIV in 
1643. It is generally known by its size 
and its equivalent in Sols. Thus the larg- 
est is the Louis de 60 Sols, from which 
there is a graduated series of Louis de 
30 Sols, de 15 Sols, de 5 Sols, de 30 De- 
niers, and de 15 Deniers. 

The' Louis de Cinq Sols was specially 
struck for the Oriental trade, and was ex- 
tensively imitated. See Luigino. 

Louis auz Lnnettes* A nickname used 
to designate a type of Louis d'Or, struck 
by Louis XVI in 1777 and later. The two 
shields of France and Navarre on the re- 
verse were supposed to resemble a pair of 
spectacles. 

The Ecu aux Lunettes was of the same 
design. See Brillenthaler. 

Louis aux Palmes. The name given to 
a variety of the Louis d'Or of Louis XVI 
which has on the reverse a crowned shield 
in a frame of palm leaves. 

LouU d'Or. A gold coin of France, first 
struck by Louis XIII in 1640, when the 
reformation of the currency took place, 
and continued until the Revolution of 
1789, when the twenty Franc piece took 
its place. Its original value was ten Livres, 
but this fluctuated and in the reign of 
Louis XVI it went as high as fourteen 
Livres. There are divisions and multiples 
as high as an octuple Louis d'Or. 

The London Gazette of 1674 (No. 904) 
mentions ** Lewises of Gold . . . Escalines 
of Gold.'' 

liOuisiana Cent A name given to the 
copper Sous inscribed colonies fbancoises 
and dated 1721 and 1722, because they 
were intended for almost exclusive use in 
the French colony of Louisiana, which at 
that time included nearly all the territory 
between the Alleghanies and the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Lovenaar. A silver coin of Brabant, 
struck in 1488 during the minority of 
Philip the Good. The reverse inscription 
is taken from the Book of Psalms (cxxi. 
7), and reads: fiat.pax.in.vibtvte.tva. 

Love Thaler. See Janauschek Thaler. 

Lucati. The popular name for the 
Fiorini, with the figure of St. Martin, 
struck in Lucca under Republican rule 
(circa 1200-1342). 



[138] 



Lucchese Nuovo 



Lydan League 



Lucchese Nuovo. A Denaro of Lucca, 
current in the twelfth century. See In- 
fortiati. 

Lucre* An expression meaning a gain 
in money, and usually employed in an ill 
sense, or with the sense of something base 
or unworthy. Alexander Pope has the 
line, 

••The lust of lucre, and the dread of death," 

and Byron, in English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers (xii.), has: 

"Who racke<l their bra Ids for lucre, not for fame." 

The translators of the New Testament 
make use of the following terms: '*Not 
greedy of filthy lucre,'' I Timothy (iii. 3) ; 
* * A bishop must be . . . not given to filthy 
lucre," Titus (i. 7); *' Teaching things 
which they ought not, for filthy lucre's 
sake," Titus (i. 11); **Peed the flock of 
God . . . not for filthy lucre," I Peter (v. 
2). 

LuculleL The name given to gold coins 
struck in Greece under Sylla. See Blan- 
chet (p. 5). 

Liibische Pfennige. See Hohlpfennige. 

Lugenthaler. The name given to a 
Thaler struck by Henry Julius of Bruns- 
wick-Liineburg, in 1596 and 1597. It has 
on the reverse an inscription hvete.dich. 

PVR.DER.TADT.DEB.LVEGEN . WIRDT . WOL . 
RADT. 

For an extended account of the origin 
of this coin conf. Madai (No. 1111). 

LuigL The common name for the gold 
coin of ten Scudi, struck in Malta by 
Emanuele Pinto (1741-1773) and his suc- 
cessors. It was of the same value as the 
Louis d'Or. See Beato Luigi. 

Luigino. The common nickname for the 
silver coins of five Sols, or one twelfth 
Livre, originally struck by Louis XIV in 
1643. They received this title in Italy, to 
which country they were sent in large 
quantities for use in the Levantine trade. 
See Louis. 

Luigino. A silver coin of Genoa issued 
in 1668 and later by the Banco di San 
Giorgio, under Cesare Gentile. It has on 
the obverse a crowned shield supported by 
two griffins, and on the reverse a figure of 
St. George on horseback. From the latter 
circumstance it is sometimes called Gior- 



gino. Its value represented 24 Soldi. 

The Luigino was also issued by the 
Spinola family of Ronco, Tassarolo, and 
Arquata; by Violante Lomellini for Tor- 
riglia; and by the Malaspina family for 
Fosdinovo (1667-1677). It was copied 
from the half Ecu or piece of five Sols 
struck at Trevoux. See Timmin, and conf. 
Poey d'Avant (viii. 109). 

Lundrenses. Ruding (i. 193-194) cites 
an ordinance of 1279-1280, empowering 
William de Turnemire of Marseilles, the 
master of the mint, to make Farthings 
throughout England. They were called 
Lundrenses, probably on account of the 
inscription londoniensis on the reverse. 

Lundrest. W. Lowndes, in his Amend- 
ment to the Silver Coinage, 1695 (p. 17), 
states that **A Sterling . . . was once 
called a Lundress, because it was to be 
Coined only at London." 

Lunga. See Moneta Lunga. 

Lu'ong Bac. See Nen. 

Lupetta. See Cervia. 

Luthburger. A name given to a silver 
Penny imported from Luxemburg into 
England, in the reign of Edward III and 
forbidden in the latter country. 

Langland, Piers Ploughman, 1377 (xv. 
342), says, **In lussheborwes is a lyther 
alay (? alloy) and yet loketh he like a 
sterlynge." 

Chaucer, in the prologue to the Monk's 
Tale (74) states **God woot no lussheburgh 
payen ye ; " and Cowell, in The Interpreter 
1607, mentions Lushoborow, **a base coine 
vsed in the daies of King Ed. the 3. 
coined beyond Seas to the likenes of Eng- 
lish money." 

Ruding (i. 222) states that in 1346 
**many merchants and others carried the 
good money out of the realm, and brought 
in false money called Lusshebournes, which 
were worth only eight shillings the pound 
or less." 

Lutherthaler. These are medals rather 
than coins, and the name is applied to 
pieces struck in 1661 at Eisleben, and in 
1717 to commemorate the bi-centenary of 
the Reformation. They usually have a 
bust of Luther on the obverse. 

Lydan League. See League Coinage. 



[139] 



Maccarooi PSecet 



Mac 



M 



Maccaroni Pieces* See Macquina. 

Maccochino. See Macquina. 

Mace* The name given by foreigners 
to the Chinese Ch'ien {q.v.) or Tsien, the 
tenth part of a Tael or Liang. In the 
modern struck Chinese silver coinage the 
following pieces bear the name Mace: 

7 Mace 2 Candareeos or Dollar (Yuan) 
3 Mace 6 Caodareens or half Dollar 
1 Mace 4.4 Candareens or fifth Dollar 

See Tael and Yuan. 

Mace. A gold coin of Atjeh. See Mas. 

Macelinus. Du Cange states that this 
is an old name for the Marabotin. 

Mach* The Annamese word for a tenth 
of a string of Cash. See Quan. 

Macciuinay or Macuqma. A Spanish 
word meaning a clipped coin. See Cob. 

Chalmers states that in Jamaica ^'the 
Mexican quarter dollars were called Mac- 
caroni pieces, . . . which may be a repre- 
sentative of Maccochino, a word still used 
in Venezuela to denote cut money, and the 
name Maccaroni was transferred to the 
British Shilling rated as a quarter Dollar, 
and was in vogue in British Honduras." 
See Moco. 

Macula. A Portuguese copper coin is- 
sued from the middle of the eighteenth 
century for Angola and other African pos- 
sessions. The coin has a value of fifty 
Reis, and the multiples from two to twelve 
Macutas are in silver. All of the preced- 
ing coins are frequently counterstamped. 
The low denominations are in copper. 

The name is probably derived from the 
Makua or Makuana, one of the tribes be- 
hind Mozambique. See Fernandes (p. 
266). 

The Macuta was the basis of the mone- 
tary system in Sierra Leone in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. 

Bonneville, Traite des Monnaies, 1806, 
defines it as ^^monnaie de compte, ou plu- 
tot une maniere de compter en usage parmi 
les n^gres de quelques endroits des cotes 
d'Afrique, particulierement a Loango sur 
la cote d' Angola." See also Chalmers 
(p. 208). 



Mada. A gold coin of ancient India, 
the one fourth of the Pagoda. See Pana. 

Madonnenthaler. The name given to 
any coin on which the Virgin and Child is 
depicted, but specially applied to the is- 
sues of Hamburg during the seventeenth 
century on which the Madonna seated or 
standing is a prominent feature. 

Madonniiuu Another name for the Lira 
struck at Genoa during the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The obverse has a figure of the Ma- 
donna and on the reverse is a crowned 
shield supported by two griffins. There is 
a corresponding doppia Madonnina and 
mezza Madonnina. 

In Bologna a silver coin of the value of 
six Bolognini received the same name. It 
was issued in the sixteenth century under 
Papal rule. 

Madonnina. A Papal copper coin of 
the value of five Baiocci, struck by Pius 
VI (1775-1798). There are varieties for 
Ascoli, Civita Vecchia, Permo, Gubbio, 
Macerata, Perugia, Tivoli, Montalto, Mate- 
lica, Viterbo, San Severino, Ronciglione, 
etc. The half was called the Sampietrino, 
both coins receiving their designations 
from the figures represented thereon. 

Madridja. A nickname given to the 
Spanish Dobla in Morocco (where this 
coin formerly extensively circulated), on 
account of its origin. See Noback (p. 243). 
It represented a value of ten Miscals or 
Metsquals. Ponrobert (5696). 

Maerra Peninga* This term occurs in 
the Anglo-Saxon laws of Aelfred, and is 
translated ** larger pennies." Ruding (i. 
110) thinks that with at least equal pro- 
priety, **it might have been rendered 
*pure,' or as it would now be called, 'law- 
ful money.' " 

Magy possibly an abbreviation of Mag- 
pie {q.v.). An English slang name for 
a half Penny. It is thus defined by G. 
Parker, in Life's Painter, 1781 (p. 129). 

Dickens, in Bleak House (xxiii.), uses 
the phrase **It can't be worth a mag to 
him," and Henry Kingsley, in Ravenshoe 



[140] 



Magatama 



Majhawala 



(i. 9) says, ''As long as he had a mag to 
bless himself with, he would always be a 
lazy, useless humbug." See Maggy Robb. 

Magatama. A piece of jade or agate 
in the shape of a tiger's claw, and sup- 
posed to have been used as a primitive 
money in Japan. See Munro (p. 5). 

Magdalon. A gold coin issued at Tar- 
ascon and other mints of Provence. It 
was struck by Renatus of Anjou (1434- 
1480) and by his successors. It bears a 
figure of St. Mary Magdalen and the 
double cross of Lorraine. 

Maggy Robby or Maggie Rab. Accord- 
ing to Jamieson, Etymological Dictionary 
of the Scottish Language, this was a pop- 
ular name for a bad half Penny. He de- 
fines Magg as a cant term for a half Penny 
with the plural Maggs. The latter word 
is used in Lothian to designate the gratu- 
ity which servants expect from those to 
whom they carry any goods. 

The same authority cites an Aberdeen- 
shire saying, **He's a very guid man, but 
I trow he's gotten a Maggy Rob o' a 
wife." 

Magister Thaler. A silver coin of Sach- 
sen- Weimar, struck in 1654 to commem- 
orate the rectorship of the University of 
Jena, which was conferred on Prince 
Bernhard. See Madai (No. 1491). 

BAaglia* The Italian equivalent of the 
Maille (g.v.) At Casale under Giovanni 
III (1445-1464), was struck the copper 
Maglia di Bianchetto. For detailed ac- 
counts of this issue see Rivista Numismat- 
ica, 1867 (ii. 3), and Revue Beige, 1866 
(xi. 3). 

Magpie. An English slang term for a 
half -penny. Dickens, in Oliver Twist (viii) 
has: **I'm at low-water-mark myself, only 
one bob and a magpie." See Mag. 

Mah. A money of account in Abyssinia, 
twenty- two being equal to an Ashrafi (g.v.) . 

BAahallak. A brass coin of El-Harrar, a 
province of Abyssinia, issued A.H. 1284 
and after. See Valentine (p: 82). It was 
the one-twentieth part of the Gersh, or 
Ghrush. The same name was given to the 
first silver coin struck at El-Harrar by 
Menelik. It has a value equal to the 
Egyptian Piastre. 

Mahbob. See Mathbu and Zer-mahbub. 



Mahbubia. The name given to the 
handsome silver Rupee introduced into cir- 
culation in Hyderabad in 1904. It re- 
ceives its name from Mir Mahbub Ali 
Khan, the Nizam of the Deccan, * * as a com- 
pliment to the ruler who declined to abro- 
gate his currency privileges." The term 
Mahbubia Annas is also applied to the 
copper coinage of this rule. 

Mabmudiy also called Khodabandi. A 
Persian silver coin of the Sufi or Safi dy- 
nasty. Its value was one half Abbasi or 
two Shahis. It is also known as the Sad- 
Dinar. 

At Bassorah, in Asia-Minor, a money of 
account formerly prevailed based on the 
Persian system, as follows : 

1 Toman = 100 Mahmttdt or MamQdts. 
= 1,000 Danlms or Danimes. 
= 10,000 Plusch. 

According to Noback (p. 652), the 
Mahmudi was also a former copper coin 
of Maskat, and the twentieth part of the 
Piastre or Spanish Dollar. It was sub- 
divided into twenty Gass or Goz. 

Maflle, from a French word signifying 
a mesh or a link in a suit of armor, is from 
its probable resemblance, applied to a small 
billon or base silver coin. The Maille 
Tierce or demi Gros and the Maille Tour- 
nois were issued under Philip IV of Prance 
(1285-1314). The Maille Blanche ap- 
peared under Charles IV (1322-1328), and 
other varieties are the Maille Noire, Maille 
Parisis, Maille Bourgeoise, and the Maille 
d'Or, the latter a gold coin struck in 1347 
by Jehan Bougier of Arras, for the Bish- 
opric of Cambrai. 

The Maille was also common in Flanders, 
and there are special issues for Lille, Ant- 
werp, Brussels, and other towns, which re- 
sembled small Deniers. 

MafllechorL See Argenton. 

Maille Noble* A name given to the 
half Noble first issued in the reign of Ed- 
ward III. See Noble and Ferling. 

Maiorchmo. The popular name for the 
Grosso issued in the island of Majorca. It 
is subdivided into eighteen Piccoli. 

Majhawala. Another name for the gold 
Mohur of Nepal of the weight of half a 
Tola. The word means **a middle coin." 
See Suka. 



[141] 



Migoriiia 



Mangir 



Majorina, or Pecania Major. A name 
given to the largest size of bronze coin 
issued by Diocletian after his monetary re- 
form. After Diocletian the piece was is- 
sued only intermittently, notably by Ju- 
lian and Valentinian. 

Make* An obsolete English dialect and 
slang term for a half Penny. See Flag. 

In an old poem of 1547 entitled The 
Hye Way to the Spyttel House occurs the 
line : 

"Docked the deU for a coper meke." 

Sir Walter Scott, in his novel Wood- 
stock (xxxvi.) has, **I take it; for a make 
to a million." 

Mahuiiie. A silver coin introduced by 
Albuquerque, Governor General of Mal- 
acca, in 1510. See Caixa. 

Maley Grosdieii. See Maly Groszy. 

Malkontentenguldeii. A series of coins 
struck in Hungary under Francis Rakoczy 
during the rebellion against Austria, from 
1703 to 1711. They were issued from 1704 
to 1706. 

Malku The smallest of all the Spanish 
copper coins. Its value was one half of 
a Dinero, and it circulated in Majorca and 
Barcelona as early as the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The name appears to be the Spanish 
equivalent for Maille. 

Bilakcliilling. A silver denomination of 
Anton Giinther, Duke of Oldenburg (1603- 
1667, and copied by Adolf, Count of 
Bentheim-Tecklenburg. 

Maluco. The name given to a cast piece 
of eighty Reis, struck for the island of 
Terceira in 1829 during the war against 
Don Miguel. These coins were made from 
metal obtained from the bells of the con- 
vents. See Mailliet Suppl. (72 i.), and 
Fernandes (p. 312). 

Maly Groszy, or Maley Grotcheii. The 

word 7naly in Polish means small, and this 
name was given to certain diminutive 
Groschen issued in Bohemia under Rudolf 
II in the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Eighty-four were equal to one Gul- 
den Thaler. 

Mame Gin. See Cho Gin. 

Mamudi. See Mahmiidi. 

Man. The old Annamese word for a 
Quan iq.v.) or string of Cash. 



Manah. The Babylonian form of the 
Mina (^.t;.). 

Mancanza. The name given to a Nea- 
politan gold coin of the value of forty 
Carlini or four Ducati. It was struck by 
Charles III in 1749, and later by Ferdi- 
nand IV. Its weight is two thirds that 
of the Oncia. 

Man^eau, or Man^ois. See Mansois. 

MancotOy or Mancuso. A term sup- 
posed to have been derived from the Latin 
manus and consequently applied to such 
coins as exhibit the figure of a hand. A 
Solidus Mancusus of silver is mentioned at 
the time of Charlemagne as being equal to 
thirty Denarii Nuovi, and an ordinance 
of the Abbey of Sesto at Friuli, dated 778, 
refers to XX mancoseos auri. 

A Denaro Mancuso is found in the Papal 
coinage under Benedict IV (900-903), and 
John XII (955-964). In the Byzantine 
series the Soldo Mancuso occurs under Con- 
stantine V and Leo IV (751-775), and it 
was copied in Beneventum by Luitprand, 
a contemporary ruler (751-758). All of 
the preceding coins have a hand as a prom- 
inent figure. 

The Mancus d'oro was also struck, by 
Raimond Berengar IV, Count of Barce- 
lona (1130-1162) who married Petronilla, 
Queen of Aragon. This coin has the in- 
scription BARKiNOT, implying Barcelona. 
See Blanchet (i. 312). 

Finally in the Lucchese coinage the name 
Mancoso occurs as early as 1551, and is 
used for the half of the Scudo d'Oro. 

Mancus. An Anglo-Saxon money of ac- 
count mentioned in pa>Tnents as early as 
the ninth century. An annual tribute of 
365 Mancuses was made to the Pope for 
the maintenance of the English school in 
Rome, the lighting of St. Peter's, etc. This 
tribute does not, however, imply 365 coins. 

Mancuso. See Mancoso. 

MandaL See Assignat, 

Maneh. An early Jewish weight stand- 
ard, the value of which is defined in Ezekiel 
(xlv. 12). See Mina. 

Mangir, or Manghir. A copper coin of 
the Ottoman Empire, introduced by Murad 
I (A.H. 761-792). It ranged apparently 
at first from eight to sixteen to the Akcheh, 
and eventually became of equal value with 
it. 



[142] 



ManUla 



Marchetto 



The Mangur, as it is sometimes called, 
finally became the fourth part of the Asper 
or the four hundred and eightieth of a 
Piastre. • 

It was introduced in Egypt under Solei- 
man I (A.H. 926-974). See Fonrobert 
(5006). 

Manilla, or Manille* A species of ring 
money, resembling a horseshoe, which was 
formerly current in the Grand Bassam, 
Southwest Nigeria, and other sections on 
the West Coast of Africa. Specimens occur 
in iron, tin, and copper. See Z&y (p. 
246-247). 

Mankush. An Arabic word, the past 
participle of the verb nakash, to engrave. 
It is incorrect to say that it means a coin, 
although it is occasionally found in poetry 
applied to coins as the ** engraved'* pieces. 

Mannen Tsuho. See Jiu Ni Zene. 

Manoel. A later name for the Cruzado 
(q.v,). 

Manouvrier Note. The name given to 
a rare variety of the five Dollar note of 
the Confederate Government, issued at 
New Orleans, La., in July, 1861. It re- 
ceives its name from the engraver, Julius 
Manouvrier, a Frenchman who was in busi- 
ness in New Orleans until about 1875. 

Mansois. A billon coin struck by Henry 
V of England in the Anglo-Gallic series 
(1415-1422). The reverse inscription, 
MONETA DVPLEX, indicates that it was a 
variety of the double Tournois. 

The name is variously written ManQois, 
Mangeau, Manseau, Monsoys, and in Low 
Latin Manseus. See Ruding (i. 260). 

Mantelet d'Or. Another name for the 
Petit Royal d'Or, struck by Philip III of 
France (1270-1285). See Royal d'Or. 

Marabotin Alfonsin. The gold Dinar 
struck by Alfonso VIII of Castile in imita- 
tion of the Almoravide Dinars. These 
coins have the inscriptions in Arabic and 
the letters alp at the bottom. 

Marabotfais. The contemporary name in 
Europe for the gold coins of the Almora- 
vides, struck in Spain and Morocco during 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. See 
Maravedi. 

Maradoe* According to Kelly (p. 214), 
this was a former Chinese money of ac- 
count and computed at six hundred Cash. 



MaravedL This coin corresponded to the 
gold Dinar and the Marabotin, which was 
struck in Spain by the Moorish dynasty 
of Almoravides (El-Mur4bitin). The coins 
of the Christian rulers of Spain are copied 
to some extent from their Moorish prede- 
cessors, and even the names are retained. 

The Maravedi appeared in the reign of 
Ferdinand and Isabella and became the 
unit of the Spanish copper coinage. Mul- 
tiples of two, four, six, and eight Mara- 
vedis were issued, and frequently the val- 
ues were altered by means of countermarks. 
Its nominal value, however, was one thirty- 
fourth of a Real. See Bassegna Numis- 
matica (x. 53-56). 

Marc* The French, Spanish, and Italian 
equivalent for the Mark as a weight and 
a money of account. The Castellano (g.v.) 
was based on the fiftieth part of this 
weight. In 1093, Philip I of France do- 
nated nine Marcs of silver for the restora- 
tion of a church which had been destroyed 
by fire. 

Marca ArgentL See Mark. 

Marcello* A silver coin of Venice which 
receives its name from the Doge Nicolo 
Marcello (1473-1474), who introduced it. 
It was retained until the middle of the 
sixteenth century. 

Originally its value was ten Soldi, but' 
later issues were struck of four, six, and 
eight Soldi, as well as one of five Soldi for 
colonial purposes. 

The Marcello bears on the obverse a 
figure of the standing or crowned Christ, 
and on the reverse the kneeling figure of 
the Doge, in the act of receiving a banner 
from St. Mark. 

The type was copied at Mantua as early 
as 1529 and was retained under Francesco 
I Gonzaga (1540-1550). In the coinage of 
Modena during the sixteenth century the 
Grosso of five Soldi was also copied from 
the Marcello. 

Marchesino* The name given to a vari- 
ety of the Bolognino, struck at Ferrara 
during the fourteenth century, while the 
city was under the rule of the House of 
Este, called Marchesi di Ferrara. 

Marchetto. A copper coin of Venice, in- 
troduced by the Doge Giovanni Bembo 
(1615-1618), and continued until the latter 



[143] 






Marchioiies 

part of the eighteenth century. There is 
a corresponding mezzo Marchetto. 

The name- is derived from the figure of 
St. Mark, which occurs on the coin. 

In Bergamo at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century trading was carried on 
in Marchetti, i.e., in Lira of twenty Soldi. 

Marchioiies. See Marques. 

Marengo. The name given to a gold 
coin struck in the mint of Turin after the 
battle of Marengo, which occurred on June 
14, 1800. It bears the head of Minerva 
and on the reverse the date l'an 9 or 
l'an 10, i.e., 1801 or 1802. The value was 
twenty Francs, and it was designed by 
Amadeus Lavy, the mintmaster at Turin. 
This coin is also known as the Marenghino. 

Margaretengroscheii. The name given 
to some silver coins of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, struck by Frederick II, Margrave of 
Meissen, which bear the letter M in addi- 
tion to the ordinary inscription. Authori- 
ties are agreed that this represents Mar- 
garet, the wife of Frederick, to whom were 
accorded certain minting privileges. 

Margengroschen* See Mariengroschen. 

Maria. The popular name for a Spanish 
silver coin struck by Charles II (1665- 
1700). On the reverse was a large letter 
M with an A crossing the same and the 
value. There is a Maria of four Reales 
and another of eight Reales. 

Maria Theresa Thaler. See Levant 
Dollar. 

Mariengroscheiiy or Gros a la Madone. 

A silver coin originally issued at Goslar in 
1505 with a value of eighty to the Mark, 
and consequently inferior to the Bohemian 
Groschen, which were computed at sixty 
to the Mark. These coins received their 
name from the figure of the Virgin and 
Child on the reverse. In Adam Berg's 
New Muntzbuch, 1597, they are called 
Margengroschen, and their value is stated 
to be equal to ten white Pfennige. 

The type was copied in Hanover, Bruns- 
wick-Liineburg, and many parts of West- 
phalia. During the seventeenth century 
this coin was legalized at one thirty-sixth 
of the Thaler, or one twenty-fourth of the 
Gulden, and numerous multiples and divi- 
sions were struck. 



Mark 

The name was retained long after the 
original design was abandoned, e.g., there 
exist pieces for Brunswick-Liineburg of 
twelve and twenty-four Ms#iengroschen 
with the running horse design. 

Marienthaler. This coin, like the Gros- 
chen of the same name, receives its title 
from the figure of the Virgin and the Child 
on the reverse. They were originally 
struck at Hamburg, Goslar, and Hildes- 
heim, were copied in Hungary and were 
issued in Bavaria as late as 1871. 

Marigold. An obsolete slang name for 
a Guinea, and probably given to the coin 
on account of its yellow color, which is a 
distinctive feature of the flower. Abraham 
Cowley, in his play. The Cutter of Cole- 
man Street, 1663 (ii. 3), says: **I'll . . . 
put five hundred Marygolds in a Purse.*' 

Marjase. The Hungarian name for the 
Austrian seventeen Kreuzer pieces. 

Maricy or Marca ArgentL The Mark as 
a gold and silver weight is mentioned in 
Germany as early as the eleventh century. 
In the Nibelunglied, composed between 
1180 and 1190, there is mention of zehen 
marc von golde, Richard I of England was 
ransomed for ten thousand Marks, and 
Shakespeare in The Comedy of Errors (ii. 
1 and iii. 1) speaks of ^'a thousand marks 
in gold.*' It was extensively employed in 
Cologne during the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, and the Kolnische Mark in 1524 
was made the accepted weight standard 
throughout Central Europe. 

As a money of account it was used for 
the payment of large sums where the small 
silver coins of different sizes and fineness 
were simply weighed. See Usualmark. 

The divisions of the Mark were : 

The one fourth, called Vierdung, Viert- 
ing, Pirdung, or Ferto. 

The one sixteenth, called Lot. 

The one thirty-second, called Setin, and 

The one sixty-fourth, called Quentin, or 
Quentchen. 

These divisions were uniformly recog- 
nized, though the weight varied in different 
localities. 

Mark. The unit of the currency of Ger- 
many. It was introduced as a silver coin 
pursuant to an ordinance of December 4, 
1871, and divided into one hundred Pfen- 
nige. 



[144] 



Mark 



Massa 



There are multiples of two, three, and 
five Marks in silver, the latter denomina- 
tion being now abolished. In gold there 
are multiples of five, ten, and twenty 
Marks. 

The ten Mark piece was originally called 
a Krone, and the silver coin of three Marks 
replaced the Thaler. 

Mark. A silver coin which appeared 
early in the sixteenth century in Scandi- 
navia, Livonia, Holstein, Hamburg, Lu- 
beck, Mecklenburg, etc., and which repre- 
sented approximately .a half Thaler. 

In Sweden it was struck as early as 1512 
and retained until the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. In Denmark its value 
was sixteen Skilling and it was in use to 
the reign of Frederick VI (1808). 

A Mark was issued in Livonia in 1573 
for payment of the garrison of Pernau. 

Mark. See Nova Constellatio. 

Mark Banco. See Banco. 

Markka (plural Markkaa). A silver 
coin of Finland, issued in 1865 and sub- 
divided into one hundred Pennia. Fin- 
land has had a gold standard since 1877, 
and its coins are based on the system 
adopted by the Latin Union. Multiples 
exist in gold of ten and twenty Markkaa. 

Mark Newby Coppers. See St. Patrick's 
Money. 

Marmussini. A money of Milan men- 
tioned as early as 1473, and later regu- 
lated at seven to a Grosso to conform with 
the coinage of Savoy. See Promts (ii. 34- 
35). 

Marque. A name given to a class of 
billon coins struck by France for use in 
its colonies. Their dates range from about 
1738 to 1744, and they were received at 
various values. Thus in Canada they repre- 
sented a double Sol of twenty-four Deniers 
and a Sol of half that value; in the Isles 
of France and Bourbon they corresponded 
to three Sols; in the Antilles to two Sous 
and six Deniers, etc. See Sol and 
Tampe, and conf. Zay (pp. 65-70), and 
Wood, in American Journal of Numismat- 
ics (xlviii. 129-136). 

Marque Blanc. The name given to the 
billon coin of French Guiana of the value 
of ten Centimes, struck in 1818. As they 
contained twenty per cent of silver they 



presented a whiter appearance than the 
Noirs or older Marques. 

Mar<|iies. Hugo, Comte de la Marche, 
established a mint at Bellac in 1211 and 
struck coins called Marques, or Marchiones, 
bearing a figure resembling a half moon. 
See Blanchet (i. 287). 

Marti. The popular name for the Cuban 
gold coin of the value of five Pesos issued 
in 1915. It bears on the obverse the head 
of Jose Marti, the Cuban patriot, who died 
in 1895 at the early age of forty-two years. 

Martinsgulden. See Albansgulden. 

Martinsthaler. See Bettlerthaler. 

Marzellen. This term was formerly used 
in Germany to designate coins with the 
figure of St. Mark. The Diet of Augsburg, 
on June 19, 1589, established their value 
at nineteen Kreuzer. 

Mas. A gold coin of the former King- 
dom of At jeh in Sumatra. It can be traced 
to the latter part of the sixteenth century. 
Sir John Davis, in his Travels, 1598, states 
that 

1600 Caixas = 1 Mas, or Mace. 

400 Caixas = 1 Koupan. 

4 Koupans = 1 Mas, or Mace. 

4 Mas = 1 Pardaw. 

4 Pardaws = 1 Tayell, or Tail. 

Netscher states that he has never seen the 
Koupan, Pardaw, or Tayell, and considers 
them moneys of account. Conf. also Millies 
(p. 72). 

Masaka. A coin of Ceylon which is re- 
ferred to in commentaries written as early 
as the fifth century. It appears to have 
been of both metal and wood, though no 
specimens are now in existence. See Rhys 
Davids (sec. 13). 

Masenetta. A silver coin of Ferrara of 
the value of one Grossetto, with the figure 
of St. Maurelius on one side and a corn- 
mill on the reverse. 

It was introduced in the fifteenth cen- 
tury either by Duke Borso (1450-1471) or 
by his successor, Ercole I (1471-1505). For 
detailed accounts of the origin of the name 
and the curious devices, see Rivista Italiana 
di Numismatica (xviii. 560). 

MathrabL See Mushtari. 

Maskat Pice. See Balsa. 

Matsa. A Latin term denoting a Flan 
or Blank (g.v.). 



[146] 



M&ssa 



Maundy Money 



Massa. A copper coin of Ceylon, speci- 
mens of which have been discovered dating 
back to the middle of the twelfth century. 
It was probably a later form of the Masaka 
iq.v.), and was copied by a long line of the 
native rulers. 

Massachusetts Cent This well-known 
coin first appeared in 1787 and the corre- 
sponding half Cent in the following year. 

It was evidently the intention to issue 
coins of larger denominations also, as men- 
tion is made in Fleet's Pocket Almanack 
for the year 1789 that **a mint is erected 
on Boston Neck, for coining of gold, silver, 
and copper, of the same weight, alloy, and 
value as is fixed by the Resolve of Congress 
of the 8th of August, 1786. Copper only 
has as yet been coined, viz : Cents and Half- 
Cents.*' See Crosby. 

Masse d'Or. A gold coin of France 
struck only by Philip III (1270-1285) and 
his successor Philip IV (1285-1314). It 
has on one side a figure of the King seated 
on a throne and holding in his hand a long 
sceptre or mace (Fr. la masse) from which 
it receives its name. 

Masson. A silver coin of Lorraine and 
Bar, which receives its name from Mons. 
Masson, the Director of the Mint in 1728 
and 1729. See De Saulcy (pi. xxxiii. 1). 

Masumnuu See Mazuma. 

Matapauy or Grosso Veneto. The 

name given to a variety of the Grosso (q.v,) 
which was first struck by Enrico Dandulo, 
Doge of Venice, from 1192 to 1205. The 
etymology of the word is uncertain, but it 
is known that the Venetians took part in 
the fourth Crusade in the year 1204, the 
result of which was the annexation by 
Venice of several islands and territories in 
the Aegean Sea, among them being Morea. 
As the Venetians retained possession of 
this section for some time, and probably 
established mints there, the name may be 
connected with Cape Matapan in Morea. 

The Matapan usually has on one side a 
figure of the Doge receiving a banner from 
St. Mark, the patron saint of Venice, and 
on the reverse a figure of Christ seated on 
a throne. 

These coins were extensively struck up 
to the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
and were copied by the Balkan States. The 



Matapan was succeeded by the Grossetto 
(g.v.). 

Mathbuy or Metbuo. A gold coin of 
Morocco, which appears to have been intro- 
duced about the period of Muley Ismail 
ben Scherif (A.H. 1082-1140), and discon- 
tinued in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century. Its value was one and a half 
Rials or twenty and a quarter Ukkias. 

Matica (plural Maticaes). A currency 
adopted by Portugal for Mozambique. See 
Barrinha. 

Matter. See Matthiasgroschen. 

Matsuri Sen. A form of the Japanese 
E Sen {q.v.)y sometimes known as ** Festi- 
val" Sen. They are cast in such a way 
that several pieces form a group often very 
picturesque. They are made to stand up- 
right or to set in a holder and are used 
for shrine offerings or ornaments. 

Matthiasgroschen. A name originally 
bestowed on certain varieties of the silver 
Groschen of (Joslar, struck in 1464. They 
bore on the obverse a bust of St. Matthew, 
the patron saint of the city, whose body 
it was claimed was brought to Goslar by 
the Emperor Henry III in the year 1040. 

These coins were of the value of six 
Pfennige, and they were extensively copied 
in Hildesheim in 1663, in Hanover, etc., 
where their value was subject to consid- 
erable fluctuation. 

The terms Matthier, Matier, or Mattier, 
are abbreviated names for coins of similar 
type struck for Ravensberg by Frederick 
William of Brandenburg. They were of 
the value of four Pfennige, or one half of 
a Mariengroschen, and were used in Bruns- 
wick as late as the nineteenth century. 

Maundy Money. This money was first 
issued in 1670, to conform to the old cus- 
tom of distributing the royal bounty to 
certain poor persons on Maundy or Holy 
Thursday. The name seems to be derived 
from the maund or bag in which they were 
carried. The coins consist of silver Pour- 
pence or Groats, Threepence, Twopence or 
half Groats, and Pennies; they are not in- 
tended for currency but are, nevertheless, 
legal tender. 

In the reign of Victoria a considerable 
number of the Threepences and half Groats 
were exported to Jamaica and used as cur- 
rency there. See Wire Money. 



[146] 



MazimiEan d'Or 



Mcgg 



The practice of distributing coins to the 
populace dates from the time of the Roman 
emperors, where such pieces, called Mis- 
silia, were thrown to the public on days of 
festivity, during the performances at the 
circus, etc. In the German series, coins 
specially struck for distribution during 
commemorative exercises receive the name 
of Auswurf Miinzen, i.e., ** money to be 
thrown out." 

Maximilian d'Or. A gold coin of Ba- 
varia, a variety of the Pistole or five Thaler. 
The name is principally applied to the 
issues of Duke Maximilian III (1745-1778). 

MayilL A Kanarese word which is sup- 
posed to signify a token. The term Mayili 
Kasu followed by a numeral, and meaning 
** Token Cash,*' is found on the copper 
coins of Krishna Raja Udaiyar, the ruler 
of Mysore (1799-1868). 

Mayoii« See Salung. 

Mazuma, or Masumma. This word is 
American Yiddish for money; Yiddish be- 
ing a patois of Polish, Russian, German, 
and Hebrew, and American Yiddish being 
made up of the same languages plus Eng- 
lish. The word comes from the Polish- 
Yiddish word, Masummen, which in turn 
is derived from M'Zumon, being literally 
** Means of Sustenance. ' ' The latter is 
from the verb Zoman, i.e., **to feed." 

Meaia, or Meaja. An obsolete Spanish 
word, meaning a medal. 

Mealha. A billon coin resembling the 
Denier, and which appears to have been 
struck only during the reign of Alfonso I 
of Portugal (1128-1185). 

Mechelaar. A silver coin of Brabant 
struck in 1485 and later. Its value was 
one and a half Grooten, and the corre- 
sponding Dubbele Mechelaar was generally 
known as the Penning van drie Grooten. 
See Heylen (p. 64). 

MedagUay Medaille. The correspond- 
ing names in Italian and French for a 
medal. 

Medal. A piece coined for the purpose 
of commemorating some historical event, or 
as an award for personal merit. It is never 
intended to pass for money. 

Various derivations of the word are 
given. Scaliger derives it from the Arabic 
Methalia, a sort of coin with a head upon 



it, and Vossius states that it comes from 
Metalluni, metal. The most probable ety- 
mology, however, is from the Italian meda- 
glia, a term which can be traced to the 
fourteenth century, and which was applied 
to a coin outside of circulation, and valu- 
able only for its historical or artistic fea- 
tures. See Schauthaler. 
MedaleL A small medal. 

Medallion. A name generally given to 
, very large pieces which occur in the Roman 
series, and which were struck by Imperial 
authority in gold, silver, and bronze. It 
is not definitely settled whether they were 
used as actual currency or intended as 
commemoration pieces. See Stevenson 
{s.v.). 

Mediacula. An obsolete Italian term 
signifying a medal. Poey d'Avant (iii. 
179) cites it from the mint records of the 
Abbey of Cluny, and from ordinances of 
William, Duke of Aquitaine, A.D. 1019. 

Mediano. This term was used in Milan 
to describe the half Soldo of six Danari. 

Mediatino. A name given to the double 
Danaro, struck in Verona from 1259 to 
1329. 

Medino. A copper coin of Egypt, the 
fortieth part of the Ghrush, the twentieth 
of the Yigirmlik, and the fifth of the 
Beshlik. 

A billon coin of twenty Medins is cited 
by Mailliet (Suppl. 23, 5) as having been 
struck during the French occupation of 
Cairo, 1798-1801. 

Medio. A Spanish word meaning one 
half, and not infrequently applied to the 
half Real. It was extensively used in 
North America during the colonial period, 
and to some extent after the War of the 
Revolution. Its value represented six and 
a quarter Cents. 



Ijidie, or Irmilik. A silver coin of 
the modern Turkish series of the value of 
eighteen and one half Piastres, though 
often reckoned at twenty Piastres or eighty 
Metalliks. 

Megg. A nickname for a Guinea. 
Thomas Shadwell, in his play. The Squire 
of Alsatia, 1688 (i. 1), says: '*Meggs are 
Guineas, Smelts are half -guineas. " See 
Decus. 



[147] 



Mehnder-Mulie 



Mexican Dollar 



Mehnder-Mulie. Kirkpatrick, in An 
Account of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1811 
(pp. 217-218), states that in 1793 ''the sil- 
ver eight-anna piece, now called Mohr and 
Adheeda, was formerly denominated Mehn- 
der-Mulie, after the Prince who first struck 
it (i.e., Mahendra Malla, A.D. 1566), and 
by treaty established it in the neighboring 
Kingdom of Tibet. ' ' 

Meke* An obsolete dialect term for a 
half Penny. See Make. 

Mencalit. Du Cange states that this is 
the name of a Spanish coin which occurs 
in documents written in Latin. 

Menelik. The name given to the Talari 
issued by Menelik, King of Abyssinia. 
These coins were struck at Paris. 

Menudoy frequently called Menut, an 
obsidional copper coin, struck at Vich 
during the French occupation in 1645; at 
Barcelona in 1643; and in Civita Vecchia 
from 1642 to 1646. See Mailliet (cxx. 12- 
15, Suppl. 11, No. 12), etc. 

These appear to have been copied from 
a regular type issued by Philip II and 
Philip III of Spain. 

Meraner Kreuzer. See Kreuzer. 

Mereau. Originally a moneyer 's pass or 
token, which originated in Prance. At a 
later period it was used for the identifica- 
tion of members at council meetings, re- 
ligious festivals, etc. 

M. Blanchet, in his Numismatique du 
Moyen-age et Moderne, Paris, 1890, repro- 
duces on the cover of the Atlas a moneyer 's 
pass in silver of the mint of Lyons, bear- 
ing on the obverse a crowned bust of Fran- 
cis II. The Paris Cabinet des Medailles 
preserves similar mSreaux of the mints of 
Grenoble, Cremieu, Lyons, Avignon, and 
Trevoux. That of Avignon, which is the 
latest in date, was issued in the name and 
has the arms of Cardinal de Bourbon 
(Charles X), who was at the time Legate 
of the Holy See to the Comtat Venaissin. 

The work of de Fauris de Saint- Vincens 
describes one of these silver passes, bearing 
the name of Louis XII, with the title of 
Comte de Provence, which has on reverse 
an initial A, evidently indicating the mint 
of Aix. 

De Courtois Revue Numismatique, 1848, 
(p. 66) illustrates a mereau, of small mod- 
ule, issued by the moneyers of Tarascon. 

[ 



Merk. A Scottish coin which owes its 
origin to the mediaeval Mark, which was 
originally a weight, next a money of ac- 
count, and lastly a coined piece. 

The Merk first appears in the Scottish 
series of money, as a coin, in 1591, where 
a '* Balance Half Merk*' of James VI is 
mentioned. See Patrick, Records of the 
Coinage of Scotland (i. introd. and pp. 
118, 177, 253, ii. pi. 9). These were fol- 
lowed by the Thistle Merk (g.v.) of 1601 
and later. 

The value of the Merk continued to be 
two thirds of the Pound (i.e., 13s. 4d.), 
but when James VI ascended the English 
throne the Scottish money had so deteri- 
orated that it compared to the English as 
one to twelve. The Double Merk was also 
known as the Thistle Dollar. See Noble. 

MesuFy or Mishir. A gold coin of the 
modern Turkish series oi the value of 
twenty-five Piastres. 

Menthaler. The name given to the sil- 
ver coins struck by the Bishops of Sitten, 
in Switzerland, on which are usually de- 
picted a figure of St. Theodolus before an 
altar. 

Metallik, or Metallique. The name given 
to a variety of low grade silver Turkish 
coins, which constituted a large part of the 
ordinary circulation, chiefly in Asia Minor. 

The largest of these Metalliks when com- 
posed of fifty-two parts of silver and forty- 
eight of copper, is known as the Altilik, 
and has a value of five Piastres. When, 
however, the same sized coin contains only 
twenty-five per cent of silver, it is known 
as the Beshlik, and is only equal to two 
and one half Piastres. As the smaller 
Metalliks are in the same ratio, the great- 
est confusion formerly prevailed, which, 
however, was remedied in 1911 upon the 
introduction of the nickel coinage. 

Metboo. See Mathbu. 

MetsqaL See Miscal. 

Metzblanken. The name given to the 
Breitgroschen of the city of Metz, struck 
during the fifteenth century. 

Mexican Dollar. Originally this was the 
popular name for the silver coin of eight 
Reales which was struck in Mexico and 
largely used in the Orient. It is mentioned 
in this sense as early as the beginning of 

148] 



Mazza 



Milled Money 



the eighteenth century. Although the coin 
is no longer issued the name has survived 
to the present day and is now applied in 
the Far East to the Mexican Peso, which 
circulates for the exact amount of silver 
that it contains, and consequently has a 
fluctuating value. See Chopped Dollar. 

Mezza* An Italian word meaning one 
half, and applied to coins to indicate the 
half of some recognized unit. 

Mezzanino. An Italian silver coin of 
half the value of the Grosso {q.v.). It was 
first issued under the Doge Francesco Dan- 
dolo of Venice (1326-1339). 

A copper Mezzanino was struck at Ra- 
gusa in 1795 and 1796, of the same value 
as the Venetian type. 

Michaeb Gulden and Michaeb Pfennige. 

The name given to two denominations 
struck by the Abbots of Beromiinster in the 
Canton of Luzerne. They obtain their 
name from the figure of the archangel 
Michael slaying a dragon, which occurs on 
the reverse of these coins. 

MichalatL Certain Byzantine Solidi 
struck in the name of the Emperor Michael 
bore this designation, which was probably 
only a popular term. 

Michieletta. The name given to a series 
of leather obsidional coins issued for the 
city of Tyrus, in 1124. The name is 
derived from Dominicus Michieli, Doge of 
Venice (1117-1130), who introduced them. 
See Leather Money. 

Mihon Sen. See Shiken Sen. 

BffihrabL A gold coin of Akbar, Em- 
peror of Hindustan, valued at nine Rupees. 
See Sihansah. 

Mikron. See Obolos. 

MIL A copper coin of Hong Kong, first 
issued in 1863. It has a round hole in the 
centre for stringing purposes. The in- 
scriptions are bi-lingual, English and 
Chinese, and its value is one tenth of the 
bronze Cent. The Chinese call it Tsian. 

MQan d'Or. The name given to the gold 
coin of twenty Dinara issued in Servia by 
Milan I in 1882. 

Mfldinar. See Hazardinar. 

MQesimo. A former copper denomina- 
tion of the Philippine Islands; the one 
thousandth part of the Spanish Escudo. 



Mfliarensisy or Mflliarensu, Or. MtXcocp- 

((Ttov, a silver coin, introduced by Constan- 
tine the Great, which at first had the value 
of one fourteenth of a Solidus, and ob- 
tained its name from being the one thou- 
sandth part of the pound of gold. It was 
coined continuously from Constantino to 
Justinian I. After the latter 's reign the 
Miliarensis was raised in weight to equal 
the one twelfth of the Solidus and the 
value changed from one and three quarter 
Siliquae to two Siliquae (q.v,). 

Military Guinea. See Guinea. 

MOk Penny. See Old Milk Penny. 

MilL The constructive unit of the mon- 
etary system of the United States. It is 
a money of account and equal to the one 
tenth of the Cent or the one thousandth 
part of the Dollar. 

The name given to certain 



square silver coins struck by the Almo- 
hades in Spain and Northern Africa during 
the twelfth century. They appear to be 
the successors of the Miliarenses {q.v,). 

The name Millares, however, is more fre- 
quently used for the imitations of these 
half Dirhems made by a number of Chris- 
tian cities in Spain, Southern France, and 
Italy for purposes of trade with the Arabs. 
For an exhaustive treatise on the subject 
see Blancard, Le MiUares, 1876, and Engel 
and Serrure (iii. 456). 

Millares. The modem French name for 
the ancient Miliarense (^.i^.)* 

Milled Money. A name given to such 
coins as were made by the employment of 
the mill and screw process which super- 
seded the -hammered coins (q.v.). 

Folkes states that ''the maker of this 
milled money is reported to have been one 
Philip Mastrelle, a Frenchman, who event- 
ually, however, fell into the practice of 
coining counterfeit money, and was con- 
victed, and executed at Tyburn, on the 
27th of January, 1569." Kenyon states 
that the **new process of coining, by 
means of the mill and screw, was intro- 
duced into England from France, appar- 
ently by a Frenchman called Eloye Mes- 
trell.'' Hawkins, on the other hand, as- 
serts that **the name of the Frenchman is 
unknown and the whole history of the pro- 
cess and its employment is involved in 
singular obscurity.'* 



[149] 



Millieme 



Miobolo 



One thing, however, is certain, and that 
is that from 1561 to 1575 milled coins were 
made in England, hut as they did not win 
entire approval, they were discontinued 
and not revived untU November 5, 1662, 
when a warrant was issued for coining by 
the mill altogether. 

Shakespeare alludes to the milled Six- 
pence in The Merry Wives of Windsor (i. 

1). 

For an exhaustive treatise on the early 

minting operations by mill and screw, see 

Mr. W. J. Hocking's monograph entitled 

Simon's Dies in the Royal Mint Museum, 

with Some Notes on the Early History of 

Coinage by Machinery, contributed to the 

Numismatic Chronicle (4th Series, vol. ix.). 

Mniiemey also called Ochr-el-guerche. A 

nickel coin of modern Egypt of the value 
of four Para, or the one tenth of the 
Piastre. There are multiples of two and 
five Milliemes in the same metal. 

Mill-sail Tjrpe. Many Greek coins of the 
Archaic period have for their reverse type 
a square design composed of six or eight 
lines radiating from a common centre to 
the corners and sides of the square. The 
resulting six or eight triangular compart- 
ments are alternately raised or depressed, 
giving somewhat the appearance of a 
swastika or mill-sail and from whence is 
derived the modern name for the design. 

Milreis. The money of account for Por- 
tugal and Brazil. One thousand Reis are 
called Milreis, and one million Reis is 
known as a Conto di Reis. 

The word is derived from milley mil, a 
thousand, and real, rey, a King. The Rei 
of Manuel (1495-1521) was a small copper 
coin of low value which was abolished in 
the sixteenth century, but multiples were 
retained, some of which received specific 
names. Thus the Tostao was one hundred 
Reis ; the Cruzado four hundred, the Coroa 
five thousand, etc. 

A nominal gold standard has been in 
use in Portugal since 1854 and the gold 
coins consist of five and two Milreis, i.e., 
five thousand and two thousand Reis re- 
spectively. In silver the Milreis consist 
of one thousand Reis, and there are smaller 
coins of silver and bronze, the lowest being 
a piece of one Real. 

Portugal imposed her monetary system 
on Brazil but cut the value of the unit 



in two. As a consequence the silver Mil- 
reis of Brazil represent a value of half of 
the Portuguese, and the nickel coins of 
400, 200, and 100 Reis, adopted in 1906, 
are in the same proportion. 

Mimigardelord Deniers. The oldest sil- 
ver coins of Munster are so called. The 
city received this name when founded by 
Charlemagne A.D. 803, and retained it 
until 1041, when the title Monasterium was 
adopted. 

These Deniers have on one side a church 
with three towers or steeples, and the in- 
scription + MIMIGABDEPOBD, Or +MIMIOEBNE- 
PORDE. 

Min«9 or Manah. An early weight 
standard employed by the Babylonians 
and Greeks, and one sixtieth of the Talent 
(g.v.). The Greek Mina was equal to one 
hundred Drachmai, and the Babylonian 
and Persian Mina or Manah was divided 
into one hundred Sigloi. 

Mining-pieces. See Ausbeutemiinzen. 

Minnespiinning. A term used by Swed- 
ish numismatists to indicate a token or 
medalet issued to commemorate some spe- 
cial event. The word minne means mem- 
ory. 

Mint Condition* This term when ap- 
plied to coins or medals means that they 
are in the highest degree of preservation, 
or absolutely bright and perfect as when 
issued by the mint. 

Mint-Marks. Abbreviations of words on 
coins to indicate the place where the coin 
was struck. They are usually to be found 
on the lower part of the coin or in the 
exergue, but instances occur where they 
are placed above the head on the obverse. 

Minuto. The name given to a small bil- 
lon coin issued in Genoa in the thirteenth 
century during Republican rule. It was 
in use until about the year 1700, after 
which time it was struck in copper. The 
latter type was copied in Cagliari, Savoy, 
etc. 

MinutuluSy or Argenteus Minutulus, an- 
other name for the Argenteus (g.v.). 

Compare Lampridius, Sev. Alex. (xxii. 
8). Also see Siliqua. 

Miobolo. An obsolete copper coin of 
the Ionian Islands. The name is probably 
a corruption of medio obolos, and is applied 
to the half Obolos. 



[ 150 ] 



Mirfiton 



Mite 



Mirlitoii« The name given to a variety 
of the Louis d'Or struck by Louis XV. It 
has on the reverse two interlaced cursive 
Ls, with a crown above and a palm-branch 
on each side. 

Mirror Sen.. See Kagami Sen. 

MitcaL A unit of weight for bullion, 
prevalent in all Muhammadan countries. 
It is the equivalent of twenty-four Nak- 
hods or Peas, and the Nakhod is equiva- 
lent to four gandums or grains of wheat. 
The Committee for the Reform of the Cur- 
rency in Egypt experienced great difficulty 
in determining the exact weight, and fin- 
ally decided to set aside the miscal and 
adopt the metric system. 

Mr. H. L. Rabino contributed an inter- 
esting paper on the coins of the Shahs of 
Persia to the Numismatic Chronicle (series 
iv. vol. 8) from which the following is 
extracted : 

**When the Imperial Bank of Persia 
started operations in Persia in 1890, it had 
to import capital in bar silver to be coined 
in Tehran. A standard weight had to be 
fixed. Hajji Muhammad Hassan, Amin ez- 
Zarb, late Mint-master to the Persian Gov- 
ernment, and Mr. Rabino, chief manager of 
the Bank, after a series of experiments 
with the Mint and Bank weights, estab- 
lished the proportion between miscals and 
ounces troy as 250 miscals = 37 ounces 
troy, or 1 miscal == 71.04 grains. This has 
ever since been recognized as the equiva- 
lent of the miscal for bullion transactions. 

* * I must add that when the Customs Ad- 
ministration were preparing the New Com- 
mercial Convention they had no knowledge 
of this standard, having at the time no 
control over the Mint, and after weighing 
the heavy weights in use in their admin- 
istration, they fixed the equivalent of the 
batman Tabrizi of 640 miscals as 2.97 kilo- 
grammes. This equivalent is confirmed, so 
to say, by treaty. On taking charge of 
the Mint the Customs found an established 
standard weight for bullion, which they 
maintained. 

** There is consequently now in Persia a 
legal weight for bullion, the miscal of 71.04 
grains ; and a legal weight for merchandise, 
the miscal of 71.61 grains.'' 

The Miscal, also called Metsqal and 
Mitsqal, is a silver coin of Morocco, intro- 
duced by Muhammad Abd-AUah ben Is- 



mail (A.H. 1171-1205). Its value is ten 
Dirhems. See Kesme. 

In recent years the Chinese have struck 
in Turkestan bi-lingual silver coins of five, 
three, two, and one Miscals. 

Mise. An obsolete term for the double 
Albus or Weisspf ennig. It originated from 
the fact that this was the amount of the 
stake or entrance money for playing the 
game of lotto formerly controlled by the 
Hessian government. Conf, the French 
Mise, 

Mise Money. An obsolete payment of 
money by way of contract to purchase 
some particular exemption. Blount, in 
Ancient Tenures, 1679 (p. 162) states 
that **The tenants shall pay him a certain 
sum of money called Mise-money, in con- 
sideration whereof, they claim to be ac- 
quit of all fines and amerciaments, which 
are recorded at that time and in Court 
Rolls and not levyed." 

Mishir. See Messir. 

Misqaly or Misqali. Another name for 
the Sanar (q,v.) in the coinage of Afghan- 
istan. See Miscal. 

MisrL See Zer-mahbub. 

Missilia. See Maundy Money. 

Mistura. A general name for Italian 
billon or base silver coins, but more espe- 
cially applied to the early issues of Asti, 
Cremona, Fano, the Papal coins of Avig- 
non, etc. , , 

Mitad. This word is found very fre- 
quently on tokens of Latin America, and 
designates a half Real. 

Mite. The Domesday Book, circa 1086 
(i. 268), mentions the term minuta, from 
which comes the English word mite. 

Ruding (i. 217) says, **a mite, in mon- 
eyer's weight is the twentieth part of a 
grain, and an indenture of the 17th year 
of Edward III mentions un mytisme de 
carafe,'' See Lepton and Myte. 

« 

Mite. The expression ^'a Mite" is used 
mainly to indicate an extremely small unit 
of monetary value. In arithmetical books 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
it is mentioned as the lowest denomination 
of English money of account. 

Caxton, in his Dialogues, 1483 (p. 51), 
has, **A peny, a halfpeny, A ferdyng, a 
myte ; ' ' and Jeake, in his Arithmetick, 1696 



[161] 



Mithqal 



Mon 



(p. 77), states that there are sixteen mites 
in one Farthing. See Lepton. 

MithqaL A dialectic form of Miscal 
(q.v.). 

Mitre* J. Simon, in his work on Irish 
Coins, 1749 (p. 15), states that ** other for- 
eign coins called Mitres, Lionines, etc., 
from the stamp or figures impressed on 
them, were . . . uttered here for pennies, 
though not worth half a penny. ' ' See Ro- 
sary. 

Mitsqal. See Miscal. 

Mizti nimmiL See Plated Coins. 

Mnaieioii ((jivatcTov). A piece of one 
hundred Drachms. 

The gold Octodrachms (or one hundred 
silver Drachms) of Egypt were known by 
this name in ancient times. 

MocenigOt also called Lira Mocenigo. 

A silver coin of Venice, which receives its 
name from the Doge Pietro Mocenigo 
(1474-1476), who introduced it. The type 
was similar to the Marcella (q.v.) and the 
coin was retained until about the middle 
of the sixteenth century. Its original value 
was ten Soldi. 

Moco. A West Indian silver piece cut 
from a Spanish Dollar. It corresponded to 
the Bit {q.v.), and was extensively used 
in the islands of Dominica and Guade- 
loupe. See Zay and Chalmers (passim). 

The name is probably a corruption of 
the French morceau, but Chalmers states 
that ^^Moco seems to be an abbreviation 
of the word Maccochino, of which the 
forms Maccaroni and Macquina were em- 
ployed in Jamaica and Trinidad to denote 
cut money." 

Module. A word used to indicate the 
diameter of a coin. 

Moeda. See Moidore. 

Morcheo* See Morchen. 

MogrebL The name formerly used for 
the Spanish Dollar in Arabia. See No- 
back (p. 679). 

Mohar. The name used in Nepal for the 
Pa-nying Tang-Ka, or Ang-tuk {q.v.). 

Mohur, or more properly, Miihr* A 
gold coin of India, the issues with native 
inscriptions dating back to the dynasty of 
the Moghul emperors in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The name is from the Arabic, sig- 



nifying the impression of a seal. See Si- 
hansah. 

The Mohurs of the East India Company 
were first struck as patterns in 1765 for 
Bombay, and in 1769 at the Murshidabad 
mint for Bengal. The English regal coin- 
age of Mohurs commenced soon after 1858 
when the government of India was trans- 
ferred to the Crown. 

In 1899 the silver standard of India was 
superseded by the gold standard and the 
Mohur was replaced by the Sovereign. 

In the former money of account for 
Bombay, Madras, etc., the Mohur was com- 
puted as follows: 

1 Mohur = 3 Fanams or Paunchea. 
= 15 Rupees. 
= 240 AnDDH. 

= 750 Fuddea. or double Pice. 

= 1500 Pice or Dogganey (Duganlh). 

= 1000 Doreas or Durihs. 

= 3000 Urdees or Urdlhs. 

= 6000 Rels. 

See Noback (p. 137). 

Moidore^ or more properly, Moeda, 
from moneta, money, a gold coin of Por- 
tugal and Brazil. When originally issued 
under Sebastian I (1557-1578) it was 
given a value of five hundred Reis, but 
this coin was nothing but a one and one 
quarter Cruzado. The Moidore proper, of 
four thousand Reis, was first struck in the 
reign of Pedro II (1683-1706), and dis- 
continued under John V (1706-1750; some 
writers even limiting the period of issue 
from the years 1688 to 1732. 

It was struck much longer for Brazil, 
and was superseded by the gold coin of 
four thousand Reis, issued by Pedro I in 
1823. See Chalmers (p. 396) and Lis- 
bonino. 

Molybdot (Gr. iJi6Xu^8og)=»Lead {q.v.), 

Momine. Ordinarily a Japanese weight, 
but in some instances used as indicative of 
value. Thus in 1765 appeared a rectilinear 
silver coin called the Tanuma Go Momme 
Gin, or the five Momme Silver of Tanuma 
(Munro, p. 195). It was valued at the 
twelfth of a gold Ryo. See Kwan. 

Mon. A word implying a crest or badge 
and applied to such of the early Japanese 
Sen as had this decoration. See Munro 
(pp. 17, 36). Later the name was syn- 
onymous with Rin, i.e., the tenth part of 
the Sen. The Japanese Tempo {q.v.) was 
worth one hundred Mon. 



[152] 



Monarque 



Moneyage 



In the Korean coinage the Mon or Mun 
is the hundredth part of the present Niang 
or Yang. Copper pieces of five and ten 
Mun are issued. 

Monarque. A French slang expression 
for the silver coin of five Francs, which 
formerly bore a large portrait of the reign- 
ing emperor. 

Moneda Provisional. A term used by 
Spanish numismatists when describing ob- 
sidional coins. 

Monela. This surname was bestowed 
upon Juno, of the Capitol. In B.C. 268 
the Roman mint was established in the 
precincts of the* temple of Juno Moneta. 
At a later period it was used to denote 
both the place of the mint and the minting 
art proper. A Denarius struck about B.C. 
48 bears the head of the goddess Moneta, 
with the inscription moneta. On the re- 
verse is an anvil, die, hammer, and pincers, 

with T ( itUS ) CARISIVS. 

In the reign of Septimius Severus the 
three Monetae appear on coins. They are 
represented as holding each a cornucopia 
and a balance. Under Diocletian, Alex- 
ander Severus, etc., only a single figure 
of Moneta appears on the coins, and is 
usually represented in the act of dropping 
coins into a measure. 

Moneta Abatuda is money clipped or 
diminished. The term is used in old rec- 
ords and occurs in Du Fresne, Glossary. 

Moneta Argentosa. See Billon. 

Moneta di Coppella. The name given 
to a Scudo struck by Ferdinand II at Flor- 
ence in 1656. It bears on the reverse the 
inscription impvritate reiecta, and was of 
extremely pure silver. The operation of 
refining gold and silver from all alloys is 
known as coppellazione. 

Moneta Duplex. See Double. 

Moneta Falsa, or Moneta FaUficata. 
The Italian equivalent for counterfeit 
coins. 

Moneta Farthing. The name given to a 
Farthing of David II of Scotland (1329- 
1371), which is characterized by the fol- 
lowing curious reading : ohv. moneta regis 
D. rev. Avro scottor. 

Moneta Lunga, meaning ' ' light money. ' ' 
In Florence it was formerly the custom to 
compute in Tuscan silver, called moneta 
buona, to distinguish it from the moneta 

[ 



lunga of Leghorn, which was four per cent 
less in value. 

Moneta Miliarensit. See Miliarensis and 
Millard. 

Moneta Nova. A common expression on 
European continental coins, to denote a 
new coinage, which in many instances was 
only made possible by melting the coins 
previously in use. 

Moneta Palatina. A term which occurs 
on some of the Merovingian coins of the 
seventh century, which were issued by the 
authority of Eligius, a moneyer to Dago- 
bert I. 

Moneta Papalis. See Paparina. 

Moneta Spezzata. The Italian equiva- 
lent for fractional or subsidiary coins. The 
term can be traced to the verb spezzare, 
i.e., to split, or break. 

Monetarius. A mintmaster, or moneyer. 
The term is found on many Anglo-Saxon 
coins. 

Monetary Unit. A name given to a cer- 
tain coin which has been agreed upon as 
the base of a monetary system. From this 
basis are made the multiples and divisions. 

Money. Any material that by agree- 
ment serves as a common medium of ex- 
change and measure of value in trade. 

The oldest spelling appears to be mone, 
and in this form the word occurs in the 
Chronicle of R. Brunne, circa 1330. The 
Anglo-Saxon laws of Aethelstan, circa 900, 
mention the term mynet, in the sense of 
money, or payment in general. 

Money used as a verb, i.e., to coin or 
mint money, is now but rarely used. George 
Augustus Sala, in his Diary in America, 
1865 (iii. 136), says, ''The American 
double-eagle ... is perhaps the most beau- 
tiful and splendid coin ever moneyed in 
any mint." 

Moneyage. This term means not only 
the right to coin money, but was also for- 
merly applied to a tax paid to some of 
the Norman rulers of England, in consid- 
eration of their refraining from debasing 
the coinage. 

Carte, History of England, 1747 (i. 482), 
says: ** Moneyage was a duty of twelve 
pence paid every third year in Normandie 
to the Duke for not altering the coin.*' 

Hume, History of England, 1762 (i. 
App.) has: ''Moneyage was also a general 

163] 



Money Batterer 



Mordoft Dollars 



land-tax . . . levied by the two first Nor- 
man Kings, and abolished by the charter 
of Henry I." 

Money Batterer, One who defaces coins, 
especially a person who clips or otherwise 
mutilates them for dishonest purposes. In 
a rare tract entitled Cocke LorelVs Bake 
(11), printed circa 1515, and reprinted by 
the Percy Society, occurs the passage: 
** Players, purse cutters, money baterers, 
Golde washers/' 

Money of Account. The general term 
employed to express a value not repre- 
sented by an actual coin, but which is 
computed on the basis of a number of 
struck pieces, the money of account repre- 
senting a unit value, in some instances very 
minute or insignificant, and in others very 
large. 

Examples are the Talent of the An- 
cients, the Conto of the Portuguese, the 
Beutel of the Muhammadans, the Indian 
Lac of Rupees, and the Mill in the coinage 
of the United States. 

The German numismatic writers use the 
term Rechnungsmiinzen, and the French 
say Monnaies de Compte. 

Money of Necettity. See Obsidional 
Coins. 

Monkey. An English slang expression 
meaning the sum of five hundred pounds. 

Monnaie, La. The familiar name for 
the mint of Paris, abbreviated from Hotel 
de la Monnaie. 

Monnaies a la Croix. The general name 
for coins exhibiting a cross but antedating 
the Christian era. Notable examples are 
Gaulish imitations of drachmae, and usu- 
ally assigned to the Cadurci, Volkes Tecto- 
sages, etc. 

Monnaies Angevines. A term originally 
used to distinguish the Deniers struck at 
Angers from those of Tours. Later the 
name Angevin or Angevine was applied to 
the double Gros issued in Flanders and th« 
Low Countries which was copied from the 
French type. There is an extensive series 
struck by the Bishops of Metz, beginning 
with Thierry V (1363-1384). 

Monnaies de Compte. See Money of 
Account. 

Monnaies d'EssaL See Essays. 

Monnaies de Verre. See Glass Coins. 



Monnaies Fourrees. See Plated Coins. 

Monnaies Muettes. A French term ap- 
plied to coins that have no inscription. 
See Mute and Anepigrafa. 

Monneron Tokens. The name given to 
a series of copper medals issued by the 
brothers Monneron of Paris in 1791 and 
1792, which were intended to be used for 
the redemption of the Assignats {q.v.). 
The Monnerons, who were bankers, had a 
patent for making these tokens, and they 
struck them in denominations of two and 
five Sols. 

M<Misoys. See Mansois. 

Mopiis. A slang term for a Farthing 
or half Penny, and also for money in gen- 
eral. The word can be traced to the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century. Thack- 
eray, in Vanity Fair (vi.), mentions **the 
old gaff's mopus box." 

Morabitino. A gold coin of Portugal 
struck only in the reigns of Sancho I (1185- 
1211) and his successor Alfonso II (1211- 
1223). The figure of the ruler on horse- 
back probably served as the prototype of 
the- Rider and similar gold coins adopted 
in Europe some time later. 

Moraglia. A base silver coin struck by 
Agostino Tizzone, Count of Dezana (1559- 
1582). It was of the type of the Sesini of 
Modena and bore the inscription moneta 
DECi£NSis on the obverse, and on the re- 
verse s. GERMANus, with a figure of the 
saint. See Murajola. 

Morchen, also called Morchen and Miir^ 

chen, were small uniface base silver coins, 
and they are mentioned in 1409 and 1425 
in the mint regulations of Cologne. They 
circulated extensively in the Rhenish prov- 
inces, and their value was the same as the 
Heller. 

The name, meaning a small moor, was 
bestowed on them in derision, as they soon 
turned black on account of the small per- 
centage of silver they contained. See 
Busch. 

Mordowlds. A name given to imita- 
tions of the Kopecks made by the Mordwas 
and the Tartars for the purpose of orna- 
menting their dress. See Blanchet (ii. 
193). 

Morelos Dollars. A name given to cer- 
tain Mexican cast silver pieces of eight 
Reales, issued from 1811 to 1813 by Gen- 



[164] 



Morisca 



Miinz Recht 



eral Jose Maria Morelos of the Republican 
forcas, in the Province of Oaxaca. There 
are corresponding coins of the value of 
two, one, and one half Reales of the same 
design. The word sud on the reverse re- 
fers to the army of the South, of which 
he was the commander in chief. 

Morisca, or Mourisca. An early coin 
of Castile current in Portugal during the 
fourteenth century. It was computed at 
312 Marabotini. 

Moritzpfennige. The name given to a 
series of silver coins issued by the Arch- 
bishops of Magdeburg from the twelfth to 

the fourteenth centuries. They have on 
the obverse a figure of the patron, Saint 
Mauritius, who is variously represented as 
standing, or with the bust only. Arch- 
bishop Wigmann von Seeburg (1152-1192) 
struck the largest and most beautiful speci- 
mens. 

Moriziotti. This term is applied to cop- 
per coins of the value of five Soldi, issued 
in Piedmont by Victor Amedeo III in 1794. 
Like the preceding they bore a figure of 
Saint Mauritius. 

Morphe ([JLop^-n). The Greek term for 
Flan. 

Mortuary Pieces. A name given to such 
coins and medals as are struck by one 
monarch to commemorate the reign and 
acts of his predecessor. 

They are usually issued very shortly 
after the demise of the preceding ruler, 
and in many instances contain both the 
portraits of him and his successor. 

The German equivalents are Sterbe 
Denkmiinze, Sterbe Thaler, and Begrabniss 
Thaler. 

Morveux* The name given to a variety 
of the Taston of Charles IX of Prance, 
struck at Orleans by the Huguenots. Be- 
low the laureated bust are the letters A and 
O, one within the other. See Blanchet (i. 
161). 

Mostofka. See Mustofske. 

Mother Sen. See Haha Sen. 

Mouches, or Moiuchet, meaning flies, 
was the nickname given to certain varieties 
of Liards, or pieces of three Deniers, issued 
in Avignon by Urban VIII (1623-1644). 
They bore on one side the figures of three 
bees which were mistaken for flies. 



Mourisca. See Morisca. 

Mousquetaire. A name given to the 
billon coin of thirty Deniers, struck by 
Louis XIV in 1710 and 1711 for Canada. 
See Zay (p. 66). 

Mouton, or Mouton d'Or. A larger 
form of the Agnel (g.v.)- It is generally 
attributed to Edward III of England 
during his occupation of France (1337- 
1356), but, as the title **King of France*' 
and the English arms are absent from this 
piece, a writer in the Numismatic Chron- 
icle (1906, p. 274) has suggested that it 
should be assigned to Edward, Duke of 
Gueldres. 

Moutonneaulx. Du Cange (iii. 189) 
cites this as applying to a gold coin men- 
tioned in an ordinance of 1422. It was 
probably a variety of the preceding coin. 

MozzL A class of coins mentioned by 
Promis (ii. 12), as being current in Pied- 
mont in 1335 and of the value of two to a 
Grosso and a half. 

Mu ChHeii« * * Mother coin, ' ' the Chinese 
word for the coins made from the hand- 
cut model, and which are sent to the vari- 
ous mints to make the Yang Ch* ien or pat- 
tern coins which are in turn used to make 
the regular cast coins for circulation. For 
the Japanese equivalents see Haha Sen 
and Tane Sen. 

Miickenpfemiig. A copper coin of 
Brunswick-Liineburg, struck in 1696, which 
has the figure of a fly on the reverse. See 
Neumann (No. 7466). 

Miickenthaler. See Wespenthaler. 

Miiiize. A German word, meaning a 
coin. 

Miinsfiind. An expression used by Ger- 
man numismatists in connection with dis- 
coveries of coins, and the equivalent of the 
French ''trouvaille" and the English term 
''find." 

Miinz Gulden. A gold coin of the Re- 
public of Luzerne, issued from 1794 to 
1796. It appears to have been struck only 
in multiples of twelve and twenty-four, 
and the reverse has the value abbreviated: 
Mz.Gl. 

Miinz Recht. A right to coin money 
vested, with more or less reservation, in 
many European rulers, ecclesiastics, prov- 
inces, and cities. 



[156] 



Miinz-Zeichen 



Myte 



Miiiiz^Zeiclieii. The German. equivalent 
for mint mark. 

Miircheii. See Morchen. 

Milter. See Myte. 

Muettes. See Monnaies Muettes. 

Muggerbee* See Gubber. 

Miihr. See Mohur. 

Miihr-Ashrafi. See Ashrafi. 

Mutiii. A gold coin of Akbar, Emperor 
of Hindustan, valued at nine Rupees. See 
Sihansah. 

Mule. A coin, token, or medal, made 
by using two dies which were not originally 
intended for each other. 

The term was first generally used in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, and 
it may have been adopted from the * * Token 
Collectors^ Half-penny'* of 1796, the re- 
verse of which represents an ass and a 
mule saluting each other, with the inscrip- 
tion, **Be assured, friend mule, you shall 
never want my protection.*' 

The German name for this class of coins 
and medals is Zwittermiinzen, and speci- 
mens exist dating from the early part of 
the sixteenth century. 

Mu-mon Gin Sen. The Japanese word 
for non-inscribed silver Sen which was sup- 
posed to have been made before the reg- 
ular Japanese inscribed coinage. Another 
name is Kwammon Gin Sen, or '* Flower 
Badge Silver Sen.'' 

Mun, or Mon. The Korean name for 
the Chinese Wen (q.v.). For further note 
see Mon. 

Murajola, or Muragliola, a diminutive 
of Moraglia (g.v.)> a general term for all 
coins of dark color probably due to impure 
silver. As a coin it was first struck in 
Bologna and Piacenza by Paul III in 1534, 
of the respective values of two and four 
Baiocci. It was imitated in Modena in 
1542, and in Ferrara, Guastalla, and Cor- 
reggio shortly afterward. In 1642 the 
mint at Bologna struck the Murajola of a 
value of one Bolognino. 

As a Papal coin its value varied consid- 
erably. Clement XI issued it equal to 
eight Baiocci in 1717 for Bologna and 
Ferrara ; Clement XII for sixteen Baiocci ; 
Benedict XIV in 1747 for four Baiocci; 
and Pius VI struck it at various mints 
and of numerous values. 



MothtarL A name given to the copper 
forty Cash piece of Mysore, by Tipu Sul- 
tan, in 1793. This coin had previously 
been called Asmani (q.v.), and the change 
of name was necessitated owing to Tipu 
having given the names of the different 
stars to his smaller copper coins. 

Marsden (ii. 724) calls it Mashrabi. The 
word Mushtari is the Arabic designation 
for the planet Jupiter. 

Mustoftke. A Russian copper coin re- 
ferred to by Adam Olearius, in his Travels 
of the Amhassadors, etc., 1636 (p. 97), and 
of the value of one fourth of a Kopeck. 
The term is also found written Mostoska. 

Mote. A term applied to a coin when 
the same is without any inscription and 
can therefore only be identified by the de- 
vices upon it. See Monnaies Muettes, and 
Anepigraphic Coins. 

Mutton Head Cent. The popular name 
for one of the Connecticut Cents issued in 
1787. It bears one of the largest heads 
represented on coins of that State. See 
Crosby (p. 215). 

Muzuna. A small copper coin of Al- 
giers, the twenty-fourth part of the Bud- 
schu. It was discontinued about 1820, but 
the half was retained longer. 

In the Morocco coinage the copper Cent- 
imo is also known as a Muzuna. The 
latest coins have the value so expressed. 
See Blanquillo. 

Myddelton Token. A copper half 
Penny dated 1796 for the British settle- 
ment in Kentucky, and made payable by 
P. P. P. Myddelton. It was of English 
origin. 

Mj^eL See Money. 

Mjrshemfliecte (MuavjitUxTOv), or Hemi- 
obol of gold. Specimens were struck at 
Cumae and by Pixodaros, Satrap o£. Caria. 

Mydbemitetarte (|JiuaiQ[i.tTeTapTV)), or the 
Tritemorion of gold, equal to one and 
a half Drachms or nine Obols of silver. 
Specimens were coined at Athens but are 
very rare. 

Mjrte, sometimes called Mite and Miite 

(plur. Myten, Miiter), and the diminutive 
Miiterken. A billon coin of small value 
current in Flanders and Brabant as early 
as the fourteenth century and copied in 



[156] 



Myte 

Germany and the Low Countries. The 
etymology is probably from the Latin 
minutia, as the name was indiscriminately 
applied to coins of small value. 

In Flanders, Louis de Male (1346-1384) 
probably introduced it, and the Braband- 
sche Mijt, as it was called, appeared under 
Jean IV (1417-1427) and had a value of 
one sixth of a Orote. A chronicle of Lemgo 
states that "Miiter" were struck at that 
place in 1497. 



Myte 

The myte occurs in the coinage of Arn- 
hem before 1460; it was issued at Osna- 
bruck under Bishop Konrad von Rietberg 
(1482-1508), and at Lippe it had the value 
of a double Pfennig in the time of Bern- 
hard VII (1431-1511). 

At a later period the name was applied 
to billon coins struck at Munster, and in 
1764 it was used to designate pieces of 
three Pfennige which had been reduced to 
one half of their original value. See Mite. 



[157] 



N 



• • 



ly also called Rupi and Punsad- 
Dinar. A silver coin of Persia, which takes 
its name from the Shah Nadir, who intro- 
duced it in 1738. Its value was computed 
at five hundred Dinars. 

Napgen Heller, or Napfchen Heller* A 

nickname given to counterfeit coins of very 
inferior silver which appeared in Saxony 
in the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The name was bestowed on account 
of their concave or bowl-like form. 

Nag-Tang. See Tang-Ea. 

Nami Sen, or Wave Sen. A certain 
form of the Japanese Kwanei Sen {q.v.) 
with waves or curved lines on the back. 
They are sometimes called Shi Mon Sen 
or four Mon Sen, being valued at four of 
the regular pieces. Various other coins 
with waves on them were called Nami Sen, 
such as one of the coins of Akita Province. 

Nan Chien. The name given to the 
Feng Huo Ch*ien issued by the Chinese 
Emperor Wu Ti (A.D. 502-548) of the 
Liang dynasty and to the Pu Ch'uan of 
Wang Mang, because if worn by a woman 
she would give birth to a son. 

Napoleon. The popular name for the 
twenty Franc gold coin, struck by Napo- 
leon I, from 1805 to 1815. 

Conf. also Masson, Napoleon et les 
Femmes, 1894 (p. 103), where the piece 
of forty Francs issued by the same em- 
peror is called a double Napoleon. 

Natch. A money of account used in 
Arabia of the value of twenty Dirhems. 

Nasfi. A copper coin of Dehli, intro- 
duced by Muhammad III ibn Tughlaq, 
about A.H. 730. The corresponding half 
was known as Hashtkani, and the quarter 
as Dokani. See Thomas, Chronicles (Nos. 
204-206). The word means a half. 

Naulum. The name given by the Greeks 
to money put in the mouths of deceased 
persons to insure their passage over the 
river Styx. 

r 158 



Nashe, in Saffron Walden, 1596, says: 
**I hearing the fellow so forlorne . . . 
gaue him his Charons Naulum or ferry 
three half pence."- See Juvenal (viii. 97), 
and Aristophanes, Frogs (270). 

Navicella, or Navesella. The common 
name for the Papal Ducato, struck in 
Rome, Ancona, etc., during the sixteenth 
century, which bore on the reverse the 
figure of St. Peter in a boat. 

Navit. The popular name among the 
Romans for the reverse of a coin. The or- 
igin for this term is naturally to be sought 
among the Republican issues where the 
common reverse type to be found on the 
bronze coins was the representation of a 
ship's prow. Hence the expression caput 
aut navis would correspond to our ** Heads 
or tails." 

Neat Gfld. See Black Mail. 

Necessity Money. See Obsidional Coins. 

Negenmeimeke. A silver coin of Bra- 
bant issued in 1480-1481, and originally of 
the value of nine Myten. By the Ordon- 
nantie of February 4, 1520, its value was 
reduced to six Myten and it was conse- 
quently called Seskin or Sesken. It was 
extensively copied in the Low Countries. 

Mertens and Torfs, Oeschwdenis van 
Antwerpen, 1847 (iii. 325) state that this 
coin was employed extensively as alms for 
mendicants. 

Negotiepenning. A name given to the 
gold ten Florin piece of William III, King 
of the Netherlands (1849-1890). The 
twenty and the five Florin coins of the 
same ruler are correspondingly entitled 
Dubbele and Halve Negotiepenning. 

Nen. A silver ingot of a parallelopiped 
form slightly curved with an average 
length of 115 mill. ; a breadth of 28 mill., 
and a thickness of 17 mill., and which 
should weigh about three hundred and 
seventy-eight grammes. These were used 
in Indo-China and Cambodia. 

] 



Bac 



Nisfiah 



Nen Bac. The name given to the Anna- 
mese rectangular silver bars introduced 
under the Emperor Ngaien-tschnng (1802- 
1820). They are supposed to equal in 
weight the native ounce, called Lu'ong, and 
are consequently frequently referred to as 
Lu'ong Bac. See Fonrobert (2097, 2105). 
There is a half of similar shape. 

Neptune's Car Penny. The popular 
name for a copper Penny of Barbadoes, 
issued in 1792, which bears a figure of 
Neptune's car on the reverse. There is a 
corresponding half Penny. See Atkins (p. 
314). 

Nesiaca Drachma, or SpoxpLY] vY](Ti(«>T(x^r 
mentioned by Alexandrian writers, was a 
silver coin struck by the ** Island League" 
(xoivov wv vtjattOTOv), principally in Tenos 
but also with other types, in the Islands 
of Andros, Melos, Paros, Naxos, and oth- 
ers. See Babelon, Trait e (vol. i. 501). 

Nesle. See Gros de Nesle. 

Nessfijeh. See Nisfiah. 

Neugrotchen. See Silbergroschen. 

New Beaver %]ns. See Hudson's Bay 
Tokens. 

Newby Coppers. See St. Patrick's 
Money. 

New England Shilling. This, with the 
Sixpence and Threepence, were the earliest 
coins issued by the Colony of Massachu- 
setts. They are plain planchets of silver, 
without date, legend, or inscription, and 
bear on one side the figures of value and 
on the other the letters N.E. 

The shilling was made current, accord- 
ing to the act establishing a mint, at two 
Pence less than the corresponding English 
coin. 

For detailed descriptions conf, Crosby. 

New Jersey Cents. A State issue in cop- 
per from 1786 to 1788, inclusive, and all 
bearing the inscription nova caesarea. 
For details and varieties see Crosby. 

Ngun Tawk. A name given to certain 
rough silver pieces of the Lao States. See 
As 'ek. 

Niang. The old name for the Korean 
Yang. It was the tenth of the Warn {q.v,). 
There are pattern pieces having this spell- 
ing. 

Ni Bu. A Japanese term meaning two 
Bu (g.v.). 



Nichelino. The popular name in Italy 
for the nickel coin of twenty Centesimi in- 
troduced in 1894. 

Nickel, when employed for coinage, is 
generally mixed with copper. This alloy 
was used by some of the Kings of Bactria 
in the second century B.C. 

The first national issue of a modern 
nickel alloy coinage was made by Switzer- 
land in 1850, the pieces being struck at 
Strasburg. The United States introduced 
a nickel Cent in 1856; Jamaica a nickel 
Penny in 1870; and the German Empire 
adopted a subsidiary nickel coinage in 
1873. 

The word is now colloquially used to 
designate the five Cent piece of the United 
States. 

Nim-BistL See 'Bisti. 

Ninepence. This denomination in Brit- 
ish coinage occurs only as a part of the 
lozenge shaped necessity money of Newark, 
and also in the series of Inchquin money 
issued in 1642. 

The Newark coin is dated 1646 and 
bears a crown with the letters C R at the 
sides, and the value IX below. 

The Ninepence in the Inchquin series 
has nine annulets indicative of its value. 



Nippence. An English dialect term for 
Ninepence. Sarah Hewett, in The Peasant 
Speech of Devon, 1892, has, **Eggs be 
awnly nippence a dizen tu-day in tha mar- 
ket." 

Niquet. A variety of the double Tour- 
nois issued by Charles VI of France (1380- 
1422). The obverse exhibited three flours 
de lis crowned, and the type was copied 
with slight modifications in the Anglo- 
Gallic series and in Burgundy as late as 
the sixteenth century. See Hoffmann (34). 



A gold coin of Hindustan, made 
for the purpose of distribution **on the 
occasion of great festivals, such as State 
processions or at marriages, when they 
were scattered amongst the crowd.*' They 
are usually somewhat thinner than the cur- 
rent coins. See Codrington (p. 120). 

Nbfiahy or Nisfiyeh. A gold coin of the 
Ottoman Empire, of the weight of about 
twenty grains and the half of the Zer- 
mahbub. The name is derived from nisf, 
the half. 



[ 159 ] 



Nishka 



Noble 



In the Algiers currency it is the half of 
the Sultany or Solthani. 

Nishka. A gold coin of ancient India, 
the quadruple Suvarna. Cunningham (p. 
48) thinks that it may have been only an 
ingot of gold of a fixed weight. No speci- 
mens have thus far been found. See Pana. 

Ni Shu. See Shu. 

Nixun. See Sizinia. 

Noailles. A variety of the Louis d'Or, 
struck by Louis XV, which bears on the 
reverse two shields of France and two of 
Navarre, arranged in the form of a cross. 

Nobilis Rotatiit. See Noble. 

Noble. A gold coin of England first 
issued in 1344 in the reign of Edward III, 
being a successor to the Florin. Its orig- 
inal value by proclamation was six Shil- 
lings and eight Pence, and no one could 
refuse to take them in sums of twenty 
Shillings and upwards. At the same time 
were issued half Nobles called Maille No- 
bles and quarter Nobles called Ferling 
Nobles, their value being in proportion. 

The name of the coin is supposed to be 
derived from the noble nature of the metal 
of which it was composed, it having only 
one half of a grain of alloy. 

The prominent feature of the coin is the 
great ship in which stands the King hold- 
ing a sword and shield, from which cir- 
cumstance the coins are sometimes referred 
to as Ship Nobles. The ship may com- 
memorate the naval victory which the Eng- 
lish fleet, commanded by the King in per- 
son, obtained over the French fleet at 
Sluys, on Midsummer Day, 1340, and as 
an old rhyme states : 

"Foure things our noble sheweth unto me» 
King, ship, and sword, and power of the sea." 

The legend on the Noble was ihc avtem 

TRANSIENS PER MEDIVM njLORVM IBAT, taken 

from the Gospel of St. Luke (iv. 30), and 
it was explained to mean that '*as Jesus 
passed invisible and in most secret manner 
by the middest of the Pharisees, so gold 
was made by invisible and secret art 
amidst the ignorant." A legend also states 
that it was put upon the coins ** because 
Ripley, the Alchymist, when he made gold 
in the Tojver, the first time he found it, 
spoke these words, 'per medium eorum/ 
i.e., per medium ignis et sulphuris. 



yy 



The large cross on the reverse has vari- 
ous letters in the centre: E for Edward, 
L for the London Mint, and one struck at 
Calais has a C. Those of the succeeding 
monarchs have B for Richard II, and H 
for the Henries. 

The original weight of the Noble was 
one hundred and thirty-eight and six 
thirteenths grains; in 1346 it was reduced 
to one hundred and twenty-eight and 
four sevenths grains, and in 1351 it was 
further reduced to one hundred and 
twenty grains, although retaining the same 
nominal value of six Shillings and eight 
Pence. Henry IV, in 1412, reduced the 
weight to one hundred and eight grains, 
and Edward IV in 1465 restored it to its 
former weight of one hundred and twenty 
grains. He raised its value to ten Shil- 
lings, and to distinguish the new Nobles 
from the old ones he stamped a rose on 
each side of them, from which they re- 
ceived the name of Rose Nobles, corrupted 
into Royals or Ryals, a name borrowed 
from the French. The white rose was the 
badge of the King's family. See Ryal. 

In the time of Henry VII a double Ryal 
was struck, called a Sovereign {q.v.). 

The Noble was copied in Burgundy and 
by the Archdukes of Austria. It was also 
closely imitated in the Low Countries un- 
der the names of Gouden Nobel and Rose- 
nobel (g.v.). In a proclamation by Robert 
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, as Governor in 
the Low Countries, mention is made of the 
various unlawful coins then current, and 
among them is Nohilis Rosatus, struck in 
(Jorcum by the authority of Don Antonio, 
of which one side is said to agree with the 
English Noble. 

Noble. A gold coin of Scotland, first 
issued in the reign of David II (1329- 
1371), and almost identical in type with 
the contemporary English coin of the same 
name. There appear to be no further is- 
sues of Nobles until the second coinage of 
James VI, when one was struck with the 
date 1580, sometimes called the Bareheaded 
Noble. In the fourth coinage of this mon- 
arch occurs the Thistle Noble {q.v.). 

The silver Noble of Scotland is more gen- 
erally known as the Half Merk. It orig- 
inally weighed one hundred and five grains 
and first appeared in the second coinage 
of James VI, with dates from 1572 to 1580, 



[160] 



Noble Angek 



Novgorodka 



and a half Noble or quarter Merk was is- 
sued at the same time. The last appear- 
ance of the Noble in Scottish coinage is 
in the reign of Charles II, from 1664 to 
1675, inclusive. 

Noble Angeb. A name given to the 
Angels in the time of Edward IV, because 
their value, six Shillings and eight Pence, 
corresponded with the previous value of 
the Noble. 

Nocfauu The name given to the coins of 
Greece, on which there is the figure of an 
owl, the emblem of Minerva or Pallas 
Athene. 

Noirs. A name given to the billon 
Marques in the French Antilles and at 
Cayenne, on account of their black color. 

Nomisma, derived from vopio^, law, cus- 
tom, becanie among the Greeks the generic 
term for money. In late Roman and By- 
zantine times it designated a gold coin. 

Nomitiiuu The Greek name for the 
Solidus. 

Nomot (v6(jLog) law, custom, came to be 
employed in the sense of a piece of money, 
legal money, the synonym for vopLtorfjia. See 
also Noummos. 

Non Sunt. A name given to a Scotch 
billon coin which was issued in 1558 and 
1559. It is also known as a Twelvepenny 
Plack. 

The name is derived from the reverse 
inscription, iam non svnt dvo sed vna 
CARO, i.e., **They are no more twain but 
one flesh,*' taken from St. Matthew (xix. 
6), and which refers to the marriage of 
Mary Stuart and Francis of France. 

. Norkyn. See Halard. 

Norman Penny. The name given to a 
Denier of Richard I, and one of his Anglo- 
Gallic coins. It bears on the reverse the 
inscription rodvmdvco for rodomago, and 
resembles the coins of Aleonor, queen of 
Louis, King of France. 

Northumberland Shilling. A name given 
to a Shilling struck in 1763 for distribution 
among the people, on the Earl of Northum- 
berland *s public entry into Dublin as Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland. Only two thousand 
were struck and the coin is consequently 
rare. The designer is Richard Yeo. 

Notf-Wokye. See Eesme. 

Notdaler. See De Oortz Daler. 



Notmiinzen. An expression used by 
German numismatists to indicate obsidi- 
onal coins. 

Noumia, or Noummia (^oufifiiov). A 

small Roman copper coin which appeared 
about the reign of Julianus II (360-363) 
and continued to the end of the Western 
Empire. Its weight was ten grainy. 

Noununot, the Dorian form of vopuog, 
used in South Italy to designate the prin- 
cipal silver coin issued in the many cities 
of this district. The Noummos here cor- 
responded in weight to the Corinthian 
Stater or Attic Didrachm. The term Noum- 
mos was also used to designate the silver 
Litra {q.v.)y struck in the same locality. 
See Babelon, Trait e (i. 450-453). 

Nova Conttellatio. The common name 
for a series of copper coins engraved by 
Wyon, and made in Birmingham, England, 
in 1783 and 1785, for use in America. 
See Crosby. 

Another series, of the same name, con- 
sists of three silver coins, of the denomina- 
tion of Mark, Quint, and Cent, which repre- 
sent a plan of coinage, advocated January 
15, 1782, by Robert Morris. These coins 
are pattern or experimental pieces, and 
were never adopted. 

NoTcic (plural Novcica). A copper de- 
nomination formerly current in Bosnia and 
Montenegro and equal to the one hun- 
dredth part of the Gulden or Florin. 
When the Krone system was introduced 
into Austria in 1892, this coin was super- 
seded by the Heller. 

NovtmOf or Novene. The name given to 
a billon coin issued by Alfonso X of Cas- 
tile (1252-1284), and his successors, and 
struck at Burgos, Leon, Seville, etc. The 
general type presents a lion rampant on 
the obverse, and a fortress of three towers 
on the reverse. It was discontinued in 
the sixteenth century. 

Novgorodka. The name given to the 
Denga struck in Novgorod in the four- 
teenth century, and valued at two Dengui 
at Moskow. See Chaudoir (p. 116). 

This is the money referred to by John 
Hasse, in The Coines Weights and Meas- 
ures, "iised in R'lissia, 1554, Hakluyt, Prin- 
cipal Navigations, London, 1589 (p. 293), 
as follows: **0f silver coines there be 
these sortes of pieces. The least is a Pol- 



[161] 



Novini 



Nsrudci Jimpo 



denga, the second a Denga, the third a 
Nowgrote, which is as much to say in Eng- 
lish, a half penie, a penie, and two pence." 

NovinL The name given to silver coins 
of Savoy and Genoa of the value of nine 
Danari, issued in the latter half of the 
fifteenth century. See Rivisia Italiana di 
Numismatica (vi. 368). 

Nowgrotei See Novgorodka. 

Nowt Geld. In Ine's Laws, circa 693, 
a regulated sequence of fines is given, esti- 
mated in the payment of cattle, and called 
nowt-geld. But as the valuations here re- 
corded were not subjected to subsequent 
alteration, it is probable that the nowt- 
geld was disused by the Anglo-Saxons soon 
after Ine's time. In Scotland, however, 
cattle payments continued to the reign of 
David I (1124-1153). 



NumisniA, the Latin form of the Greek 
Nomisma {q.v.). 

Numismata. A generic term for money. 

Namini Cadoceati. The name given to 
such varieties of the Roman Denarii as 
bear a representation of the caduceus or 
staff of Mercury. 

Nimiini Cattrenses. The name given to 
such coins as were issued by military com- 
manders to pay their armies. Well known 
examples are the gold coins of Rome, struck 
by order of Sulla, Pompey, and Julius 
Caesar, and a rare piece issued by Flami- 
nius in Greece, about the period of the 
Second Macedonian War, which bears his 
name and portrait. 

All of the military coinage was struck 
outside of Rome. 

Nummi Cavi. A name used by some 
numismatic writers to designate the Brac- 
teates {q.v.). 

Nuniini GrossL See Dick Thaler. 

Nuniini MiztL See Plated Coins. 

Nuniini Plumbei. The general term for 
leaden coins or tokens, but specially used 
for those struck by the ancients. 

Plautus, in his Trinummo, says: ''Cui 
si capitis sit nummum credam plumheum.^' 
Some writers apply the name to imitations 
of the Denarii of the Consular and Im- 
perial series. 



Nummi ScyphatL See Concave Coins. 

Nummi VitreL See Glass Coins. 

Nummulariu^ A Roman money changer. 
The term is found in English literature 
in the Mir our of Saluacioun (58), written 
circa 1450, to wit: **He ouerthrewe the 
hordes & shedde the monee of the Numel- 
ariens." 

NummuSy also written Numut. In Latin 
a generic term for money, and the name 
applied to the chief current coin in any 
system. See Sestertius and PoUis. Multi- 
ples, e.g., Pentanummion, Decanummion, 
etc., are frequently used in describing the 
Byzantine coins. 

The Nummi of Alba and Signia in Cen- 
tral Italy, issued B.C. 303-268, correspond 
to the As of about ten Roman ounces. 

Nummus Aermit. A small copper coin 
of late Roman times (see Noumia) ; prin- 
cipally used as a generic term for a bronze 
coin. 

Nummus Argenteus. See Denarius. 

Nummus Aureus* See Aureus. 

Nummus Bracteatus. See Bracteates. 

Nummus Centenimialis. See Follis and 
Centenionalis. 

Nummus Denlatus. See Serrated Coins. 

Nummus Epularis. See Labay. 

Nummus Incusus* See Bracteates. 

Nummus Ratitus. A general name for 
Roman coins which bear the figure of a 
galley or the prow of a galley. 

Nummus Realis. See Real. 

Nummus Serratus. See Serrated Coins. 

Nunciata. A corruption of Annunciata 

(q.v.). 

Nurlingy or Knurling. Another name for 
the reeding on the edge of a coin. 

Nusflik. A gold coin of the modern 
Egyptian series of the value of fifty Pias- 
tres. It was introduced A.H. 1255 or A.D. 
1839. 

The corresponding silver coin of the 
value of ten Piastres is called Nusf. No- 
back (p. 243) cites the Nusf as a gold 
coin of Morocco of the value of half a Rial, 
or six and three quarter Ukkias. 

Nyueki Jimpo. See Jiu Ni Zene. 



[162] 



Oak Tree Cmnt 



Obnrzum 



o 



Oak Tree Coins. An early silver issue 
for the Colony of Massachusetts. The 
series consists of Shillings, Sixpences, and 
Threepences, dated 1652, and Twopence 
dated 1662. See Pine Tree Coins. Conf. 
Crosby. 

O AshL The common Japanese name 
for money. The word means ** Honorable 
Foot." 

Oban. The largest of the Japanese gold 
coins. It is oval in shape but variable in 
size, some specimens being six inches in 
length, and weighing over five ounces. 

The face of this coin is usually covered 
with symmetrical lozenge shaped flutings, 
and it is stamped at the ends and sides 
with the Grovernment crest of the day, 
namely, the Kiri flower and leaves. The 
value, usually about ten Ryo, is painted in 
Japanese ink on the face by the superin- 
tendent of the mint. 

The Oban came into use A.D. 1573-1592, 
and was issued until about 1860. For the 
many varieties conf, Munro (p. 188 et 
seq,), 

ObeliskoL See Iron Coins. 

Oblongs. A nickname given by the 
soldiers to the bills of the Bank of the 
United States in allusion to their shape. 
The term appears to have been common in 
Ohio in the early part of the nineteenth 
century. See Cist, Cincinnati in 1859 
(Pt. i.). 

Obol, Oboliis, or Obolot. Originally a 
weight of ancient Greece, and later a silver 
coin, the one sixth of the Drachm (g.v.). 
The etymology of the name is uncertain, 
but the generally accepted theory is that 
it is derived from o^eXog, oPeXtjxog, i.e., a 
spit, or skewer, the appellation given to 
the earliest iron bar money which was made 
in this form. The normal weight of the 
Obol was 0.73 grammes, or 11.25 grains. 

The multiples of the Obol consisted of 

Pentobolon =: 5 Oboll. 

Tetrobolon =4 " 

Triobolon = 3 

Dlobolon =2 

Trihemiobolion =1% 



The divisions of the Obol were the fol- 
lowing : 

Trltemorlon = ^ of the Obol. 

Hemlobollon = % " 

Trlhemltetartemorlon = % " 

Tetartemorion . = % " " 

Hemitetartemorion = % " 

The last named coin was the same as 
the Chalcus {q.v,). By Roman times the 
Obol had degenerated into a bronze coin. 
At Athens the Obol of gold was another 
name for the gold Hemihecte {q.v,). 

The Obol was the coin which it is said 
was put in the mouth of deceased persons 
to pay to Charon for their passage over 
the Styx. See Naulum. 

Obole. A name generally given to the 
half Denier of the Middle Ages. The term 
is applied to the earliest small coins of 
the Oauls, and is also used to describe the 
base silver pieces of the Merovingian and 
Carlovingian dynasties. It was retained in 
the Hungarian coinage until the sixteenth 
century. 

ObolinOy implying a small Obolo, is the 
name given to a silver coin of Como, issued 
by Loterio Rusca (1412-1416). It also oc- 
curs in the coinage of Enrico III to Enrico 
V of Milan (1039-1125), and Ludovico of 
Savoy (1439-1465). 

Obolo. See Grano. 

Obolot. A name given to the five Lepta 
piece of modem Greece. 

The Ionian Islands, under British pro- 
tection, 1834-1863, issued copper pieces of 
one, two and one half, five, and ten Oboli 
in 1819 and later, as well as a silver coin 
of thirty Oboli. The one Obolos was also 
known as Mikron and the silver coin as 
Tripenon. 

Obryxum, or Obnissum Aurum, is the 

Latin term for pure gold. This expression 
is signified on the gold Solidi after the 
reign of Constantine the Great by the let- 
ters OB or OBR usually found in the exergue 
on the reverse. 



[163] 



Obsidional Coins 



Oirtken 



Obtidifmal Coins, or Siege PieceSt as 

they are generally called, are stamped 
pieces of metal struck during sieges or by 
beleaguered cities, when the customary 
money became scarce. They frequently 
represent a fictitious value, and a promise 
of redemption at some future time. The 
subject cannot be treated here in detail, 
but conf. Mailliet. 

Obverse of a coin is the side which bears 
the more important device or inscription; 
the other side is called the reverse. In 
the United States the side bearing the date 
is called the obverse, irrespective of device. 
On ancient coins the side bearing tl^e por- 
trait of a ruler or the picture of a deity 
is always the obverse. Some writers claim 
that in classifying ancient coins the obverse 
must always be regarded as the side which 
received its impression from the lower die, 
i.e., the die supported by the anvil. 

Ochavo. A copper coin of Spain, the 
half of the Quarto {q.v.). It dates from 
the be^nning of the sixteenth century and 
received its name from being valued at one 
eighth of the Real: * It was also issued 
during the French occupation of Barce- 
lona and Catalonia (1808-1814). See Oc- 
tavo. 

Ochota. A Spanish copper coin struck 
by Charles III pursuant to an ordinance of 
May 5, 1772. Its value was two Quartos 
or eight Maravedis. 

Ochr el guerche* See Millieme. 

Odachalk. A piece of eight Chalks 
{q.v,). This multiple of the Chalk is not 
specifically mentioned by ancient writers 
but certain large bronze coins of Egypt, 
from their weights, were probably of this 
denomination. 

Odadrachm, or 6xTadp(xx(i>ov, represent- 
ing the multiple of eight Drachms (g.v.), 
was a coin struck not regularly, but occa- 
sionally in Thrace, Macedonia, and more 
generally at Sidon in Phoenicia. The 
Octadrachm of gold (also known by the 
term Mnaieion, q.v,) was struck by the 
Seleucid and Ptolemaic kings. 

Octasy or Octussb. A multiple of eight 
Asses after the first reduction. It is doubt- 
ful, however, whether such a coin was actu- 
ally struck, or whether it was only a money 
of account. 



Octavo. A copper coin of Mexico of the 
value of one eighth of a Real, adopted 
during the Revolution of 1812-1813, and 
later copied by the state of Jalisco from 
1828 to about 1862. See Ochavo. 

Octobol (Gr. oxTcipoXov). The multiple 
eight Obols {q,v,) and equal to one and 
one third Drachms. No coins of this de- 
nomination are known. 

Octussb, or piece of eight Asses. Never 
struck in bronze, but only in silver under 
another and more common term : Quinarius 
{q,v,) or half a Denarius (when this had 
become equal to sixteen Asses). 

Odelos (Gr. hlCkhq), A term for Obol 
{q,v.)y sometimes found in Arcadia, Crete, 
and also at Delphi and Megara. 

Odoike (Gr. oBoXx-^, 68oXxat), Hesychius 
says, was the name of the Obol {q.v.) in 
Crete. 

Oertchen. A diminutive of Ort {q.v.). 
According to the monetary regulations 
adopted by the district (**Kreisordnung") 
of lower Saxony in 1568, its value was 
established at two Pfennige. It is of fre- 
quent occurrence in East Priesland and 
was in use in a number of the German 
States to the end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. 

A similar coin, also called Oirtken, was 
struck for Brabant in 1512 and later with 
a value of twelve Myten. See Frey (No. 
231). 

Orterer. The popular name for the 
quarter Gulden, established by the mone- 
tary convention of Essling November 10, 
1524. 

OertIL The name given to a billon coin 
issued at St. Gallen, Schwyz, and other 
Swiss cantons during the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. They exist on both 
round and square planchets, and were 
equal to four Batzen. 

Offering Pieces. A name given to cer- 
tain coins of Alfred the Great, which are 
considerably larger in size than the then 
prevalent issue. Carlyon-Britton considers 
that they were intended for Shillings. See 
British Numismatic Journal (i. 5). 

Ogata Sen. The Japanese name for 
large specimens of their cast Sen. 

Oirtken. See Oertchen. 



[164] 



Okelpenning 



Oord 



Okelpenning. A variety of Denier, the 
precise etymology being unknown. In an 
ordinance of 1314, Johann V, Margrave of 
Brandenburg is authorized to coin certain 
Deniers **qui vulgariter Okelpenninge vo- 
cantur,^' -In Pommeranian archives of the 
year 1325 they are called Denarii Augmen- 
tabiles, and in Brandenburg at a somewhat 
later period they are referred to as Kel- 
penninge. See Kehlpfennig. 

Oke Money. See Hock Money. 

Oklda. See Ukkia. 

Oktodrachmon* See Octodrachm. 

Old Milk Penny. An English dialect 
term used in West Yorkshire to indicate a 
Penny of the eighteenth century which 
was formerly added to the standard 
weights to give a good weight. 

OlotL See Sicca. 

Oninibuset. See Polleten. 

Onbeshlik. A silver coin of the Ottoman 
Empire of the value of fifteen Paras. Its 
weight is from sixty-five to one hundred 
grains. 

Onca. See Canello. 

Oncetta. A Neapolitan gold coin of the 
value of three Ducati, with multiples of 
two, five, and ten. It was made pursuant 
to the ordinance of April 20, 1818, double 
in value to the Oncia of Palermo. See 
Ducato. 

Onda (Gr. o-ptta, ou-ptia). The Latin 
Uncia, the small unit of the Siculo-Italian 
Litra (g.v.), of which it was the twelfth 
part. It was struck only in bronze, and 
at many cities of Sicil}'^ and Southern Italy. 

Onda. A gold coin of Sicily, notably 
of Palermo. It was originally equal to the 
Oncetta of Naples, as is indicated by the 
value T 30, i.e., thirty Tari, on some of 
these pieces dated 1793, etc. By the or- 
dinance of April 20, 1818, it was reduced 
to half the value of the Neapolitan coin. 
See Ducato. 

The Oncia of Malta was a silver coin in- 
troduced early in the eighteenth century 
and was equal to thirty Tari or two Scudi. 

Ongaro. See Ungaro. 

Onion Penny. An obsolete English dia- 
lect term, formerly used principally in 
Hampshire. The English Dialect Diction- 
ary cites a manuscript glossary compiled 



by W. Kennett, circa 1700, which reads: 
**At Silchester they find great plenty of 
Roman coins which they call Onion Pen- 
nies, from one Onion whom they foolishly 
fancy to have been a giant, and an inhab- 
itant of this city.'' 

On-le-vault. The popular name for the 
Denier Blanc of Cambrai, coined in 1347 
by Jean Bougier of Arras, for Guido IV 
of Ventadour, the Bishop of Cambrai. It 
was valued at two Deniers Tournois. See 
Blanchet (i. 462). 

Onlik. A Turkish silver coin originally 
of the value of ten Paras, but later slightly 
reduced. See Rebia. 

The issues for Egypt, introduced by 
Soleiman I (AH. 926-974), were of cop- 
per, and of the value of ten Aspers; this 
was followed by a billon Onlik under 
Mahmud II (A.H. 1223-1255) ; and finally, 
under Abd-el-Medschid (A.H. 1255-1277), 
the silver coins equal to ten Paras were 
made. 

In Tripoli the Onlik was a billon coin 
of the value of one fourth of a Ghrush. 
It does not seem to have been issued prior 
to the reign of Abd-el-Hamid I (A.H. 1187- 
1203). 

Onza. A name given to the gold eight 
Escudo piece of Spain and the Spanish 
Colonies. See Dobla. 

Oof. An English slang term for money, 
and a corruption of ooftish, i.e., from the 
German auf dem Tisch, meaning **on the 
table.'' 

J. W. Pearce, in Modern Society (Jan- 
uary 16, 1892), says: **Oof as a current 
pseudonym for money has been in use for 
about seven years, but ooftish, which also 
is Whitechapel slang for coin of the realm, 
has been in use in England over thirty 
years." 

Oordy or Double Duit. A base silver 
coin, common to all the provinces of the 
Low Countries, and of the value of one 
fourth of a Stuiver. 

There are many varieties. Those of 
Gueldres, Zeeland, and Overysel have the 
bust of Philip II on the obverse; those of 
Holland a female seated figure; those of 
Utrecht and West Friesland the arms of 
the respective provinces, etc. * All of the 
preceding types were struck in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century. 



[ 165 ] 



Or 



OtelU 



The name of the coin is variously writ- 
ten: Oord, Oordje, and Ortje. 

Or, See Ore. 

Ora. Buding (i. 114) states that this 
was an Anglo-Saxon money of account, and 
that the name is supposed to be derived 
from the Anglo-Saxon word ore, i.e., ore 
or metal. He adds that * * it seems to have 
been brought into this island by the Danes, 
at least the first mention of it occurs in 
the league between Edward the Elder and 
Guthrun the Danish monarch. The exact 
date of this treaty does not appear, but 
it must have been ratified between the 
years 901 and 924. The Danes used this 
term both as a denomination of money and 
also as a weight. ' ' See Ore. 

Ordensthaler, and Ordensdukaten. The 

name given, to such coins on which are 
representations of the insignia or badges 
of the Orders of Knighthood, etc. Thus 
on a Thaler of Frederick I of Prussia the 
chain of the Order of the Black Eagle, 
founded by him, is depicted; and on a 
Crown of Christian V of Denmark the cross 
of the Order of Danebrog is pictured. 

ttrc. The name of this coin is probably 
derived from eyrir, a Norse word meaning 
a weight of an ounce, and Latinized ora 
or flora. It was employed in Anglo-Saxon 
and Scandinavian computation. Schmid, 
Clavis Numismatica (i. 50), states that it 
means the same as the Latin octans, or the 
eighth part of the silver Mark. 

It appears originally as a silver coin of 
Sweden, in the middle of the fourteenth 
century, but under the name of Ortug; 
while the Ore with its double is found in 
the early part of the sixteenth century. 
The silver issues ceased about 1626, since 
which time the Ore has been a copper coin. 

Erik XIV issued square silver coins of 
four, eight, and sixteen Ore from 1562 to 
1567. 

After the adoption of the Biksdaler the 
latter was made the equivalent of one hun- 
dred copper Ore, and this ratio was re- 
tained when the Krone was established by 
the monetary convention of 1875. 

The Icelandic form is Aur. 



Orichalcum. See Brass. 



OmMmd Money. A series of silver 
coins issued in 1643 under the superin- 
tendence of James, Marquis of Ormond, the 
Viceroy of Ireland. 

They consist of seven denominations: 
Crowns, Halfcrowns, Shillings, Sixpences, 
Groats, Threepence and Halfgroats. See 
British Numismatic Journal (ii. 341-348). 

Ort. An abbreviation, for the sake of 
convenience, of Ortsthaler, and used to 
designate the one fourth Speciesthaler com- 
mon to many of the Oerman States in the 
seventeenth century and later. The cur- 
tailed form must have been ofScially recog- 
nized, as in the Swedish series, under 
Christina, the Ryksort or Riksort occurs, 
struck for Stettin, of the value of one quar- 
ter Rixdaler, and in Brandenburg, (Jottin- 
gen, Brunswick-Liineburg, etc., there is the 
Keichsort, with divisions of halves and 
quarters. 

The one quarter Ort is also called Acht- 
zehner, i.e., one eighteenth, as this coin was 
equal to eighteen Pfennige or the one six- 
teenth part of the Thaler of twenty-four 
Groschen, or two hundred and eighty-eight 
Pfennige. See Oord and Oertchen. 

Ortelin. The name given to the quarter 
Pfennig of Strasburg, struck in 1393. See 
Blanchet (i. 494). 

Ortje* See Oord. 

Ortsthaler. A Thaler of small size, com- 
mon to a number of the German States, 
and popularly designated as Ort (g.v.). 

Ortug. See Ore. 

Orty. The plural of Ort (q.v.), used in 
Poland to indicate the quarter Thaler. 

Oscentet. See Denarius Oscensis. 

Oselbu It was the custom in Venice at 
the time of the Republic for the Doge to 
make a present on New Year's Day to the 
members of the Council, said present con- 
sisting of birds (u^celli). This practice 
was altered at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century by substituting a memorial 
coin of silver, which received the name 
Osella from the original gift. 

The earliest of these was struck by An- 
tonio Grimani in 1522, and the custom was 
continued, with few interruptions, until 
1797. These historical medals usually bear 



[166] 



Odunany 



Ox Si 



the name of the Doge and the regnal year, 
but otherwise they present a great variety 
of designs and inscriptions. 

There were occasional issues struck in 
gold, the earliest being that of Alvise I, 
Mocenigo, dated 1571, on the naval victory 
at Lepanto. The Dogaressa also had the 
privilege of coining Oselle in her own name. 

Of the many varieties. the Osella di Mu- 
rano bears a date instead of a regnal year. 
These occur as early as 1711. See Schmid, 
Clavis Numismatica (i. 13). Conf, also 
Werdnig, Die Osellen oder Mum-Medaillen 
der Repuhlik Venedig. Wien, 1889. 

Othmany. See Akcheh. 

OttaTetti, or OttavinL A type of silver 
coins resembling the Luigini, and current 
in Genoa during the seventeenth century. 
They were valued at eight Soldi. An or- 
dinance of 1667 refers to clipped or light 
money and mentions the Ottavetti. 

Ottavo. An Italian term, implying one 
eighth of some accepted standard, e.g., the 
Ottavo di Scudo di Tassarolo, issued by 
Agostino Spinola in 1607. 

Ottene. A billon coin of the value of 
three Deniers, issued by Louis XI of 
France (1461-1464), for Savona in Sar- 
dinia. 

Ottenpfennige. A name given to cer- 
tain Deniers of the Middle Ages, so called 
after Otto I, Emperor of Germany (936- 
973), in whose reign they appear. 

These coins have on one side a cross 
with the inscription otto rex, and on the 
reverse the name of the locality. 

Ottino. A silver coin of eight Danari, 
current in Milan during the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It was another name for the Soldo 
of twelve Danari, after the same had been 
reduced in 1410 by the Conte di Virtu. 



Otmlik. See Utuzlik. 

Overstrike. This term is used by nu- 
mismatists to describe a coin where a por- 
tion of the design, and especially the date, 
appears under another design or date. 

Owb (Gr. rXauxe?). The familiar name 
for the Athenian Tetradrachms, which bear 
a figure of an owl on the reverse. See 
Glaukes. 

Oxford Crown. The name given to a 
variety of the silver crown of Charles I, 
dated 1644, and made by Thomas Rawlins, 
while mintmaster at Oxford. 

Behind the figure of the King on horse- 
back holding a drawn sword, is ^hown a 
view of the city of Oxford, in which some 
of the chief buildings and fortifications are 
delineated. See Exurgat Money. 

Oxford Unite. When the civil war 
broke out in England in 1642 the mint at 
Shrewsbury was removed to the New Inn 
Hall at Oxford, where gold pieces, consist- 
ing of triple Unites, Unites, and double 
Crowns, were struck. 

All of these coins have on one side a 
portrait of King Charles I, and bear on 
the other a scroll with the words Religio 
Protestans, Leges Angliae, lAbertas Parlia- 
menti (abbreviated), referring to the 
King's declaration, on September 19, 1642, 
that he would ** preserve the Protestant re- 
ligion, the known laws of the land, and 
the just privileges and freedom of Parlia- 
ment." The type upon which this inscrip- 
tion occurs is, therefore, called the * * Declar- 
ation Type.'' 

The other inscription, Exurgat Deus 
dissipentur ininiici, is from Psalms (Ixviii. 

1). 



Ox 



See Sheep Silver. 



[167 1 



Pacheia 






p 



Pacheia, Ila^eta ip<xx[Lr^, or ''Heavy 
drachm,'* the term given by the Athenians 
to the Aeginetan Drachm, which weighed 
about two grammes more than their own. 
This name has also been applied to Di- 
drachms in contradistinction to the 
Drachms. 

Pada. Authorities differ as to whether 
this is a weight or a coin. In the Mah& 
Vagga, edited by Mr. Dickson in the Jour- 
nal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1875), 
occurs a liturgy used at the admission of 
laymen to the Buddhist order of mendi- 
cants, and he translates Pada as the quar- 
ter of a Pagoda. Other writers recognize 
it as a weight of small value. For a full 
account of this subject, the reader is re- 
ferred to the work by Rhys Davids (sec. 4) . 

Padaka. A copper coin of Kaschmir of 
the Gonerdiya and Gupta dynasties. See 
Fonrobert (2396-2400). 

Padens. See Badam. 

Padifl^one. The Italian name for the 
Pavilion d'Or (q.v,). 

Padikay another name for the Tang-Ka, 
a silver coin of ancient India. The word 
means **one fourth,'' and is used. to in- 
dicate the quarter of Karsha. See Pana. 

Padma Tanka, or Lotus Coin. A name 
given to a gold coin of Southern India, 
concave in shape and averaging about fifty- 
eight grains. Their peculiar form con- 
nects them with the coinage of the Western 
Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani, but their 
date cannot be determined with accuracy, 
though it is later than the sixth century. 

The obverse shows a seven-petalled lotus 
flower, and the reverse is blank. 

Paduant. The general name for coun- 
terfeits of ancient coins, especially the Ro- 
man first bronzes; they were extensively 
manufactured by Cavino and Bassiano of 
Padua, about the middle of the sixteenth 
century. 



Pagoda* A name given to both a gold 
and silver coin current in Madras, Chan- 
dergerry, and many parts of Southern 
India. For an extensive history of the 
derivation of the term see Thurston (p. 

11). 
The Tamil name is Yar&ha, i.e., a boar, 

due to the circumstance that some of the 

older types had on the obverse the figure 

of this animal. The Hindustani name of 

the Pagoda is Hun, a word probably 

derived from Honnu, the Eanarese name 

for the half Pagoda. See Pana. 

The modern Pagoda can be traced to the 
early part of the seventeenth century and 
among the more prominent varieties are 
the Lakshmi, the Swami, the Star, and the 
Porto Novo Pagoda, all of which are sepa- 
rately referred to. 

The divisions of the Pagoda are usually 
computed as follows: 

20 Kaa - 1 Fels. 

4 Falus = 1 FaDam. 
42 Fanams = 1 Paifoda. 

**But," says Codrington (p. 121), "owing 
to attempts made by orders to equalize 
the currencies of the Presidencies, the rel- 
ative value of the coins became altered, 
and we have copper coins of Madras with 
a variety of legends stating their value." 

The French equivalent, Pagode, is ap- 
plied to a gold coin struck in the reign 
of Louis XV for Pondichery. See Zay 
(p. 298). 

The Dutch introduced the Pagoda at 
Paliakate in the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, and rated it at one hun- 
dred and twenty Sous. Tavernier, in his 
Voyages, Paris, 1676, describes it. 

Paiy or PhaL A Siamese copper coin, 
the one thirty-second part of the Tical 
(q.v.), and conf. Suka. 

Paisa, or Paistah* A copper coin of 
Hindustan, frequently referred to as Pice, 
though Paisa is probably the older name. 
It is found existing as far back as the 
sixteenth century. The value varied, being 
from forty to eighty to the Rupee. 



[168] 



PaU 



Panterino 



The minor coinage of Mysore, under 
Tipu Sultan, is usually classified by this 
name. 

In Mombasa, Zanzibar, and German East 
Africa, the Pais&, also called Pysa, has 
been introduced since 1881. Conf. also 
Baisa. 

Pala. The name given to both a gold 
and silver denomination of ancient India. 
See Pana. 

Palanca. The popular name given to 
all coins of the value of one Soldo, in 
Liguria, Tuscany, and Venice. 

Pallades. Greek coins (particularly 
those of Athens) with the head of Pallas 
are thus referred to. 

PaUadhnn. An attempt has been made 
to utilize this rare element for medallic 
purposes. A communication to the Revue 
Beige de Numismatique, 1869 (p. 477), 
states that Sir Thomas Graham, Comp- 
troller of the English Mint, struck a medal 
of palladium alloyed with gold, silver, or 
nickel. 

Palpa. Promis (ii. 34) cites this as a 
coin of Milan referred to in an ordinance 
of 1473 of the Duke of Savoy; Du Cange 
finds **Palpas" in another monetary ordi- 
nance of 1465. 

Pana. An early copper coin of Ceylon. 
It is referred to in works of the fifth cen- 
tury and later, and is frequently alluded 
to under the name of Kah&pana. 

The English traveller, Robert Knox, who 
was in Ceylon from 1659 to 1679, and 
whose writings were published in 1681 by 
order of the East India Company, states 
that '*the King's proper coin is called a 
pounam (panam) ; it is as small as a 
spangle; 75 make a piece of eight, or a 
Spanish Dollar. *' See also Rhys Davids 
(sees. 14-18). 

In the coinage of ancient India the Pana, 
or Karshapana, as it is sometimes called, 
was based on the weight of eighty rati 
seeds, equivalent to one hundred and forty- 
four grains, or nearly nine and a half 
grammes. The name, like the Greek 
Drachma, means a ** handful,'' and is 
derived from pani, the hand. See Cun- 
ningham (pp. 4-5, and 42-44). 



The following table exhibits the names 
and weights of the early Indian coins in 
detail : 

OoppiiR Coins 

Eqalvalent Weight 

In Rati in 

Name Seeds or Grains. 

Cowries. 

Ardha-Kftklnl or one eighth Pana 10 18 

KAkini or Vodrl, or one quarter Pana 20 36 

Ardhapana. or one half Pana 40 72 

Pana or K&rshftpaua 80 144 

Dwi-pana, or two Panas 160 288 

Silver Coins 
Tang-ka, or PAdika, or one quarter 

KArshA 8 14.4 

Kona, or one half KArshA 16 28.8 

KArshApana, Dharana, or Purana 32 67.6 
SatamAna or Pala, or ten KArshfts 320 

Gold Coins 

Fanam, or one tenth Pagoda 6.28 

liiada, or one quarter Pagoda 13.20 

PratApa, or one half Pagoda 26.40 

Pagoda, VarAha» or Hun 62.80 

KArsha 67.60 

Suvama 140-144 
Nishka, Pala, SatamAna, or quadruple 

Suvarna 660-576 

Panam. Prom the Sanskrit pana, 
wealth, and probably corrupted by Euro- 
peans to Panam (q.v,). The name given 
to certain Travancore gold coins. These 
vary slightly in value and receive different 
names, as — 

Kali panam (Cullian Fanam) = 4 Chuckrams, 3 
Kasus. 

Chinna (little) panam = 5 Chuckrams. 

NAma panam = 6 Chuckrams. 

Vella panam = 6 Chuckrams, 12 Kasus. 

VeerarAya panam = 7 Chuckrams. 

Ananta vamen panam = 9 Chuckrams, 3 Kasus. 

See Panam. 

Panchia, or Panchio. A silver coin of 
Cutch and Kathiawar of the value of five 
Koris, or one and one quarter Rupees. It 
is described in detail by Codrington, in 
the Numismatic Chronicle, 1895 (Series iii. 
XV. 59), who also cites a corresponding 
half, called an Ardpanchio. See Kori. 

Pandu. A silver coin of India and equal 
to one fifth of a Rupee. See Sihansah. 

Pan Liang. The name given to certain 
of the ancient Chinese round coins from 
the inscription on them, Pan Liang, or 
Half Ounce. This style of coin was issued 
during the Ch*in and Han dynasties, circa 
B.C. 220-86. It originally was of good 
weight, but gradually so deteriorated that 
the coinage was abolished. 

Pano. A former copper coin of Angola 
and other Portuguese possessions. See 
Equipaga. 

Panterino. See Quattrino. 



[169] 



Papnying Tang-Ka 



Pant 



Pa-nying Tang-Ka. See Tang-Ea. 

Pao. A Chinese word, meaning treasure. 
The term is used in conjunction with Tung, 
i.e., currency, on coins, forming two of the 
usual four characters on the obverse. See 
Ho. 

Pao. The more recent Chinese word for 
Ting in reference to the silver ingot or 
shoe. It generally means the fifty Tael 
piece. Another name is Yuan Pao, or 
round ingot. 

Paolino. Another name for the Scudo 
d'Oro, struck by Pope Paul III in 1535, 
and bearing the figure of St. Paul. It was 
originally issued from the mint at Ancona, 
then at Rome, and later at Camerino, 
Bologna, Perugia, and Parma. 

Paolo. An obsolete Papal silver coin 
which obtained its name from Pope Paul 
III, in whose reign it was originally issued 
to replace the older Giulio (q.v.). 

In the sixteenth century it was also 
coined in the Duchy of Perrara, and later 
by the Dukes of Tuscany, and in Modena. 

Ten Paoli were equal to one Scudo, and 
the Paolo of Tuscany was the fifth of a 
silver Florin. Conf. also San Paolo and 
Paul. 

Paparini. A name given to coins issued 
in the thirteenth century, which were made 
for the exclusive use of the subjects of the 
Popes. They were principally struck at 
Viterbo and Montefiascone. 

The term should not be confused with 
the Moneta Papalis, which is used to desig- 
nate coins struck at Rome and Avignon 
at a later period. See Rivista Italiana 
(xxii. 379, xxiii. 37). 

Paparoni. The term given to certain 
coins of the same value as Piccoli in an 
ordinance of 1398 of the Archbishop of 
Orvieto. 

Paper. The earliest use of paper money 
is probably the reference to be found in 
the Travels of Marco Polo (ii. 18), who 
states that it was extensively used in China. 

Among the obsidional coins Mailliet 
(Ixxi. Ixxii.) mentions various denomina- 
tions from five to thirty Sols issued at 
Leyden when besieged by the Spaniards in 
1574, which are supposed to have been 
made from the leaves of missals. See Sao. 



Papetlo. A small Papal silver coin, 
equal to one fifth of the Scudo. It ap- 
pears to have been first issued under Ben- 
edict XIV (1740-1750), and was continued 
until the period of Pius IX. 

Papineau. A nickname given by the 
French-Canadians to the Pennies and half 
Pennies issued by the Bank of Montreal, 
City Bank, La Banqiie du Peuple, and the 
Quebec Bank in 1837. Pierre Papineau 
was the leader of the rebellion which oc- 
curred in this year. The coins bear on one 
side the figure of a native in winter cos- 
tume. The value of this Penny was in- 
creased one fifth by an order in the Coun- 
cil, passed August 30, 1870, which estab- 
lished a uniform currency of Dollars and 
Cents, and converted its purchasing power 
at two Cents. See Breton (521-522). 

Papione. See P6pion. 

Para. Originally a silver coin of the 
Ottoman Empire, which came into exist- 
ence about A.H. 1066, and eventually took 
the place of the Akcheh (^.t;.), although 
at first it had a value four times as great 
as the latter coin. 

The Para was made the fortieth part of 
the Piastre or Ghrush, a value it has al- 
ways retained. Some of the earlier issues 
are rectangular in form. 

The modern Para and its multiples are 
of copper and nickel; it was instituted by 
Abdul Medjid, A.H. 1260, i.e., in 1844. 
Ten Paras are today roughly computed as 
worth a Metallik. 

Para. The name given to the smallest 
copper coin of Servia, adopted in 1867 
when that country followed the Latin 
Union in its monetary system. One hun- 
dred Para are equal to one Dinar. King 
Milan issued pieces of five and ten Paras 
in nickel in 1883 and later. 

The Para of Montenegro has a somewhat 
higher value, as it is the fractional part of 
the Perper, which latter has the same value 
as the Austrian Krone. Nickel and copper 
coins respectively of ten and twenty Paras 
in nickel, and one and two Paras in cop- 
per, were struck for Montenegro at the 
Paris mint in 1909. 

Para. A copper coin of Russia issued 
in 1771 and 1772 for Moldavia and Walla- 
chia. The Para was equal to three Dengi 
and the double Para to three Kopecks. 



[170] 






ParaH 



Pataca 



ParalL This was a subdivision of the 
older Leu of Roumania. Twenty-eight 
Parali were equal to one Leu, and on the 
adoption of the decimal system they were 
succeeded by the Bani. 

PardaOy or Pardau. A silver coin 
originally issued under John V (1706- 
1750) for the Portuguese Indies, and 
struck principally at Goa. 

It was valued at half a Rupia and the 
type represents a bust of the ruler on the 
obverse and the Portuguese arms on the 
reverse. Varieties occur with the figures 
300 stamped on them to indicate their 
value in Reis. 

Pardaw. A former money of account at 
Atjeh. See Mas. 

Paritisy or Parisis d'Or. A gold coin of 
Prance, originally struck by Philip VI of 
Valois (1328-1350). Its name is based on 
the fact that the Paris standard was one 
fourth above that of Tours. It was re 
tained in Prance to the end of the seven- 
teenth century, but it gradually lost its 
technical significance. 

A Royal Parisis appeared in the reign 
of Philip IV (1285-1314) ; this was of bil- 
lon. The Denier Parisis was struck about 
the same time, and of the same composition. 

Parpagliola. A base silver coin of the 
value of two and a half Soldi struck by the 
Emperor Charles V for the Duchy of Milan 
(1535-1556). Louis XII of Prance issued 
it for Asti, and William II (1464-1483) 
for Casale. At Correggio, under Gamillo 
of Austria (1597-1606), it had a value of 
three Soldi; it was struck at Montalcino 
in Tuscany in 1556 and 1557, and at Mi- 
randola and Siena about the same time. 
See Rassegna Numismati^a (xi. 31-34). 

All of the preceding are probably copied 
from a Swiss coin, known as the Parpaiole, 
which continued in use until the sixteenth 
century. It was quite common in the can- 
ton of Waadt, under Barthelemi Chuet, 
Bishop of Lausanne (1469-1472). 

Pamiccone. A nickname for the Quad- 
rupla d'Oro of Charles III of Spain, issued 
from 1761 to 1785. The word means a 
wig, and the allusion is to the abundance 
of hair and curls on the sovereign's head. 



Partenope. The popular name for a sil- 
ver coin of twelve Carlini, issued in Naples 
in 1791 to commemorate the return of the 
rulers, Perdinand and Caroline, from Ger- 
many. 

Parthenoiy meaning ' ' maidens. ' ' A name 
given to the silver coins of Athens, from 
the head of Pallas on the obverse. 

PastiTy probably a corruption of the 
Prench verb passer. A name given to 
pieces of brass or copper resembling coins 
which had a weight denomination stamped 
on them and were used by banks, mer- 
chants, etc., to determine whether a coin 
was equal to the necessary weight standard. 
A well known example is the brass liouis 
d 'Or of 1772, stamped PASsm. 

Kelly (p. 8) states that the name Passier 
Dukaten was used in Germany to indicate 
such Ducats as were deficient in weight or 
fineness more than one sixth of a carat. 

Pasteboard Coins. See Paper. 

Pataca, or Patacao. A Portuguese sil- 
ver coin of the value of three hundred and 
twenty Reis, which appeared in the reign 
of John IV (1640-1656) after the restora- 
tion of the House of Braganza. There are 
doubles and halves of corresponding values. 

Teixeira de Aragao (p. 219) mentions 
an edict of November 13, 1630, by which 
the value of ,the Pataca was fixed at six 
Tangas; this was evidently for the Portu- 
guese colonies. This coin is the one re- 
ferred to under the name of Patachine by 
William Barret in his Book of Travels, 
1684, who writes of Malacca: 

** There is also a sort of silver mony 
which they call Patachines and is worth 6 
Tangas of good mony which is 360 reyes 
and is stamped with two letters S T which 
is St. Thomas on one side and the arms 
of Portugall on the other.*' 

In Brazil Meili catalogues specimens as 
early as 1695 struck at Bahia, and 1700 
struck at Pemambuco. The colonial issues 
are frequently counterstamped with higher 
or lower values. See Butaca. 

Pataca. In the Neapolitan series this 
name was applied to the half of the silver 
Ducato (q.v.)y authorized by the ordinance 
of April 20, 1818. 



[171] 



Pataca 



Pattaoona 



Pataca, or Patack. The Species Thaler 
is so called in Abyssinia. See Wakea. 

Pataca^ Chica and Pataca Gourda* For- 
mer money of account in Algiers. The 
first was reckoned at eight Mnzunas of 
twenty-nine Aspers, or two hundred and 
thirty- two Aspers; and the latter at three 
times that amount. 

Patacchinay also called Petacchnuu A 

small silver coin of Genoa issued during 
Republican rule in the fourteenth century 
and in use until the period of the Sforza 
dynasty. Specimens struck under the 
French occupation (1396-1409) bear the 
divided arms of France and Genoa, or 
France and Savoy. 

Pataccho. A silver coin of the Princi- 
pality of Monaco, which appeared early in 
the seventeenth century. Under Onorato 
II pieces of four Patacchi were issued from 
1640 to 1649; they have on the reverse 
a cross, formed by four letters H, all 
crowned. 

Patachine. See Pataca. 

Pataco (plural Patacoes). A copper 
coin of Portugal, first issued by John III, 
of a value of ten Reis, and intended as a 
substitute for the small silver coins of the 
same value. It was revived from about 
1811 to 1833 with a value of forty Reis. 

Patagon. The name given to the piece 
of fifty Stuivers issued in various parts of 
Brabant and the Low Countries during the 
seventeenth century. The word, like Pie- 
fort, means heavy. 

Pataqiie. The largest of the silver coins 
of the Ottoman Empire. See Yuzlik. 

Patard. A silver coin of Flanders, Bra- 
bant, Burgundy, etc., originally issued in 
the latter part of the fifteenth century. 
Its value fluctuated, although in the main 
it was about equal to the Dutch Stuiver. 
At Liege and Cambrai the Ecu d 'argent 
was equal to thirty or thirty-two Patards. 
The Daalder of the Low Countries was 
valued at thirty-two Patards, and the gold 
Florin at thirty-four. 

Patard. A billon coin of France, struck 
by Charles VI (1380-1422), and copied by 
Charles VII and Louis XL The last 
named ruler issued it for Perpignan, and 
Louis XII for Provence and Milan. See 
Hoffmann {passim). 



Pataz. The Hungarian name for the 
Groschel {q,v.), which was computed at 
three fourths of the Kreuzer. 

Pathemniinzen. A term used by Grer- 
man numismatists for tokens presented at 
baptisms by the god-parents or sponsors. 

Patina. An oxidation produced by cer- 
tain soils and moisture upon copper coins. 
This oxidation takes a black, brown, red, 
blue, or green color, according to the ma- 
terials which have affected the surface of 
the coins. 

Pada. Another name for the gold Mo- 
hur of Nepal, of the weight of half a Tola. 
The word means **a thin coin." See Suka. 

Padachte. The name given to cacao 
beans which circulated as money among the 
ancient Mexicans. See Sicca. 

Patolquachtli. Bancroft, in Native 
Races of the Pacific States of North Ameri- 
ca, 1875 (ii. 381-382), states that among 
the ancient Mexicans this name was used 
for ** small pieces of cotton cloth used as 
money in the purchase of articles of im- 
mediate necessity or of little value." 

Patricius Farthing. A copper coin of 
Ireland, struck in 1463 by Germyn Lynch, 
the warden of the mints at Dublin and 
Trim. 

The obverse has a bishop's head, with 
the inscription patricivs, and the reverse 
a cross pattee, with salvatoe. 

Patrick. At a Parliament held at Drog- 
heda, 1460, before Richard, Duke of York, 
Lord Lieutenant, it was enacted that '*a 
proper coin separate from the coin of Eng- 
land was with more convenience agreed to 
be had in Ireland," and among the pro- 
posed coins was one ** having imprinted on 
one part of it a crown, and on the other 
part a cross, called a Patrick, of which 
eight shall pass for one Denier.'* See 
Ruding (i. 278). 

This probably refers to a copper half 
Farthing issued by Henry VI for Ireland, 
which bears the inscription patrik. 

Patriotenthaler. See Pelikanthaler. 

Pattacona. A nickname given in Istria 
to the Austro-Hungarian copper coin of 
four Kreuzer which was abolished about 
1890. It is probably a corruption of Pata- 
gon {q,v.). 



[172] 



Patte d'oie 



Pelavillano 



Patte d'oie. A name given to a variety 
of the Gros Blanc a la fleur de lis, issued 
by John II of Prance (1350-1364). It has 
the word franc in large letters horizontally 
across the reverse. See Hoffmann (49, 50). 

Pattern. A suggested design, which may 
or may not be adopted. Pattern pieces are 
those for which the dies have been designed 
and cut for a proposed coinage. These 
models are afterwards submitted to the 
mint authorities for approval and have 
been discarded by them for various rea- 
sons. 

PauL An obsolete English term for the 
Paolo (q.v.). 

Sterne, in Tristram Shandy (ix. 24), 
says: **I paid five Pauls for two hard 
eggs;" and James Russell Lowell in his 
Journal in Italy remarks: **You give the 
custode a paul for showing you the wolf 
that suckled Romulus and Remus. '* 

Paulah. A copper coin of Hindustan 
and equal to one fourth of the D&m (g.v.)- 

Paonchea, or Paunschih. A former 
money of account of Bombay, etc., com- 
puted at five Rupees. See Mohur. 

PavalL Lewis Rice in the Mysore Gazet- 
teer, 1877 (p. 8), states that a silver coin 
of this name, and of the value of one quar- 
ter Rupee, was in circulation in the above- 
mentioned year. 

Pavfllon d'Or. A gold coin of Prance, 

issued by Philip VI of Valois (1328-1350). 
It receives its name from the canopy or 
tent under which the King is seated. It 
was copied by Edward the Black Prince 
in the Anglo-Gallic series, and struck at 
Bordeaux. 

Pax T3rpc. A designation employed to 
classify English silver coins. The coins of 
Harold II all have pax across the reverse, 
which device was copied to some extent on 
the pennies of William I. These have the 
letters paxs (perhaps signifying pax sit), 
in the angles of the cross. 

Pc See Prak Pe. 

Peack. A corruption of Wompompeeke, 
a variety of Wampum. See Roanoake. 

Peca. A Portuguese gold coin of six 
thousand and four hundred Reis, or four 
Escudos, introduced in 1750, and repre- 
senting a reduced form of the Dobra 

11 



(g.v.). It circulated extensively in Brazil 
and was struck at Rio and Bahia. 

Pecco. See Bahar. 

Pecunia. The Latin name for money, 
derived from pecus, a flock of sheep or a 
herd of cattle. This indicates that animals 
were the earliest mediums of exchange. 
See Homer, Iliad (vi. 235). In the third 
century the word was used to define the 
Roman copper money. 

In the Domesday Book, issued circa 
1086, the word is used for cattle almost 
universally, and in a few instances it has 
the meaning of possessions or personal 
property. 

Pecunia Major. See Majorina. 

Pecuniola* Du Cange cites an ordinance 
of 1600 in which this word is used as a 
diminutive of Pecunia and is specially ap- 
plied to copper coins. 

Peerdeke. A base silver coin issued at 
Nimegue, Zutphen, Zwolle, Groningen, 
Roermond, etc., during the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Its value varied slightly, being from 
one half to one third of the Escalin or 
Snaphaan. The name, like that of the 
Cavallo {q,v,)y appears to be derived from 
the figure of the running horse on the ob- 
verse. See v.d. Chijs {passim). 

Pegasi. A popular name for Greek 
coins of Corinth, Syracuse, etc., bearing a 
figure of Pegasus. They are also variously 
known as Polos and Pullus. Conf, Greek 
TCCdXoc. 

Pegione. A silver coin of the Grosso 
type of the Visconti, Dukes of Milan. It 
appeared first in the reign of Galeazzo II 
and Barnabo Visconti (1354-1378), and was 
continued to the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The types show a figure of St. Am- 
brosius, usually seated, with a. triple- 
thonged whip in his hand. See Ambrosino. 

The name is variously spelled Pegione, 
Pigione, and.Piochione, and the etymology 
is uncertain. It is of the value of one and 
one half Soldi. 

Pei. The Chinese name for the Cowrie 
ig.v,), 

Pelanor (HeXovop, HeXovoc;). The Greek 
name for the iron bars long used as money 
at Sparta and other places in ancient 
Greece. 

Pelavillano. See Poillevillain. 
73] 



Pelegrini 



Penny Poize 



PelegrinL See Foghetti. 

Pelf, probably allied to pilfer, means 
money or riches, but it often conveys the 
idea of something ill-gotten or worthless. 

It was in use as early as the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, and Spenser, in 
the Fairie Queene, 1590 (iii. ix. 4), has 
the line, * * But all his mind is set on mucky 
pelf/' 

Pelhauciiiins. The name given to cer- 
tain leaden jetons or tokens used for games 
and issued during the second half of the 
fourteenth century. They are described in 
detail by Adrien Blanchet in the Proces- 
verhaux de la Societe Frangaise de Numis- 
matique, 1907 (xxxix.). 

Pelikanthaler. The name given to a 
Thaler struck by Henry Julius, Duke of 
Brunswick-Liineburg in 1599. It bears on 
the reverse the figure of a pelican feeding 
its young, and the inscription pro ares et 
Focis, i.e., **for home and hearth;" from 
this it is also known as the Patriotenthaler. 

For details, including the legend for- 
merly current, that the pelican fed its off- 
spring by tearing its own breast, conf. 
Madai. 

PelUcalatL See Plated Coins. 
Pempobolon ( iccijliccd^oXov ) . Another 
form of the word Pentobolon (q.v,), 

Penabad. The half Kran in the coinage 
of modern Persia. See Kran. 

Pengar. The Swedish name for money 
in general; it is derived from Penning, 
Pfennig, etc. 

Penge. A Danish word for money in 
general. 

PennL A copper coin of Finland, the 
one hundredth part of the Markka. There 
are multiples of five and ten Pennia. 

Penning. The Dutch equivalent of 
Pfennig (g.v.), and applied to the Denier. 
There were special issues for Brabant and 
the Low Countries called Penning van een 
en een halven (one and one half) Groot; 
Penning van Twee Grooten {i.e., Stuiver) ; 
Penning van Drie Grooten (i.e., Mechelaar, 
and later called Tweeblankspenning) ; 
Penning van Ses (six) Grooten, etc. 

Penny (plural. Pennies and Pence). An 
English coin, the twelfth part of a Shil- 
ling. It succeeded the Denarius or Denier 
of the Anglo-Saxons since the eighth cen- 



[174] 



tury and from this circumstance probably 
retained the abbreviation D or d. 

Offa, King of Mercia (757-796) is the 
first king to whom any silver Pennies can 
be attributed with certainty; and from 
this time this coin remained the basis until 
the introduction of the Groat and half 
Groat by Edward III. The type is almost 
uniformly with a portrait on one side and 
a long or short cross with pellets in the 
angles on the reverse. 

In 1257 Henry III struck a gold Penny, 
which was first valued at twenty silver 
Pennies and later at twenty-four; it 
weighed forty-five and one quarter grains. 
**This piece," says Ending, **was properly 
a Ryal, and the first of the sort coined in 
Europe: the petit Ryal of Philip le Bel 
being much in imitation of it, and he was 
the first King of France who coined Ry- 
als.'' See Jaku. 

The silver Pennies struck for Ireland 
frequently have the bust of the King in 
a triangle; those for Scotland were called 
Sterlings (q.v.). 

Thirds of Pennies are mentioned in the 
laws of Aelfred (872-901), and the half 
Pennies of Edward the Confessor may be 
actually thirds of Pennies, as they weigh 
from seven to nine grains. 

The earliest specimen of an English cop- 
per Penny is one dated 1601, which was 
evidently intended for a pattern. The ob- 
verse has a bust portrait of Elizabeth with 
the words the. pledge. op. On the re- 
verse is the royal monogram crowned, with 
the date and the inscription a. penny. 
The half Penny is not dated; it has the 
royal monogram on one side and a rose 
crowned on the other. 

Montagu's work cites the long series of 
copper Pennies and half Pence which sub- 
sequently appeared, and the reader is re- 
ferred to this book. 

For many of the British colonies and 
possessions Pennies and half Pence were 
also struck, and for Southern Nigeria Pen- 
nies in nickel and one tenth Pennies in 
aluminium were issued, both perforated. 
See Pfennig. 

Penny Poize. An early English weight 
standard used for discovering the lack of 
proper weight in the coins. An ordinance 
of the year 1205 states that ** there was 
issued, from the mint office, a penny-poize, 



Penny Yard Pence 



Perkin Warbeck Groat 



wanting one eighth of a penny, to be de- 
livered to any one who would have it, to 
be used until Easter in the next year." 

Ruding (i. 211) states that about the 
year 1331, **a curious kind of fraud was 
devised by Salamon de Ripple, a monk of 
the Abbey of St. Augustin in Canterbury, 
and receiver of the tenth and fifteenth in 
that diocese, as deputy for the abbot. He 
framed a balance, which he called a penny 
pise, and having selected twenty shillings 
in old and heavy pennies, he weighed 
against them the money which he received ; 
by which means those who thought to pay 
only twenty shillings were forced to pay 
five shillings more, or three shillings and 
fourpence at the least. At length a com- 
plaint from the whole diocese was laid be- 
fore the council, and the king gave order 
for proper inquiry to be made; in conse- 
quence of which the abbot was fined eighty 
pounds, for the offence committed by his 
deputy, and was obliged to refund what 
had been unjustly taken, although it was 
done without his knowledge.'* 

Penny Yard Pence. Berry, Encyclo- 
paedia Heraldica, 1828, states that certain 
varieties of silver Pennies receive this 
name, **from the place where they were 
coined, which is supposed to have been at 
Penny Yard Castle, near Ross, in Here- 
fordshire. ' ' 

Pentadrachm. A Greek silver coin of 
the value of five Drachms (q.v,). It was 
rarely struck, though specimens issued by 
the early kings of Macedonia are known. 
A gold Pentadrachm was issued for Egypt 
by Ptolemy I Soter (B.C. 323-284) and 
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (B.C. 284-247). 

Fentalitron, or five Litra (q.v.) piece, 
was struck in silver at Agrigentum. 

Pentanonunion. A name given to the 
eighth part of the PoUis, consisting of five 
Nummi. 

Pentastater (icevTOcaTaTiQpo^) are men- 
tioned by Pollux. They are the gold De- 
cadrachms of Berenice of Egypt. 

Pentechalkon. A Greek silver coin of 
the value of five times the Chalcus, or five 
eighths of the Obol (q.v.), 

Pentecontadradun (xevTYixovTa^po^piov) , 
or fifty Drachm piece, is mentioned by 
Pollux. There was a gold coin of this 
value struck by Alexander the Oreat and 



by several of the Ptolemaic sovereigns of 
Egypt. It is better known to us by the 
more common name of Distater {q.v.), 
double Stater, or gold Tetradrachm. 

Pentecontalitra. The Sicilian name for 
the Decadrachm (q.v.). See also Litra. 

Pentecostak. Ayliffe, Parergon, 1726 
(p. 434), has the following: * * Pentecostals, 
otherwise called Whitsun Farthings, were 
Oblations made by the Parishioners to the 
Parish Priest at the Feast of Pentecost." 
At times they were contributed by in- 
ferior churches or parishes to the principal 
mother church. 

Pentobolon. A piece of five Oboli. See 
Obol. Specimens of this denomination in 
silver were struck at Athens, and in bronzie 
by the Ptolemies. 

Pentoncion (xcvtcoy^^iov), Latin Quin- 
cunx. A multiple of the Uncia {q.v.). It 
was struck in silver at Agrigentum and 
Leontini, in bronze, at Catania, Rhegium, 
Camarina, and by the Mamertines in 
Sicily. 

Pepi<Mi. A billon coin of Castile and 
Leon, issued by Ferdinand III and his 
succ^sor, Alfonso X, during the thirteenth 
century. It was struck at Burgos, Toledo, 
and Cuenca. It is sometimes referred to 
by the name of Papione. 

Pepolea. The name given to coins 
struck in Bologna in 1338 by the Signors 
de Pepoli. 

Pequenino. A copper coin, struck for 
6oa and other Portuguese colonies; it is 
of the value of half the Bazarucco or Leal. 

Pereale. The popular name for the 
Real, struck in Messina by Peter III of 
Aragon (1282-1285). 

PeregozL See Petragordin. 

Peridn Warbeck GroaL In Ruding 
(Suppl. Plate iii. No. 33) is given the rep- 
resentation of a silver coin which is pre- 
sumed to have been struck by the Duchess 
of Burgundy for Perkin Warbeck, when 
he set out to invade England in the year 
1495. On what ground this appropriation 
has been made, Ruding was never able to 
discover. The coin bears date 1494, but 
no evidence whatever of the mint where 
it was struck, or the authority by which 
it was coined exists. The very singular 
legend on the reverse mani teckel phares 



[175] 



Permische Schillmg 



Peston 



•1494* may possibly have been intended as 
a prophetic threat to Henry ; but this sup- 
position is not warranted by any known 
record, nor is this coin mentioned by any 
historian of that period. The motto on 
the obverse, domine salvvm pac reoem, is 
taken from Psalms xx. 9, and th«t on the 
reverse is the denunciation against Bel- 
shazzar. See Daniel (v. 25). The date 
appears to have been the chief, if not the 
only reason for the appropriation. Wise 
says, ^^ejus [nempe Warheck] gratia num- 
mum sequent em in Burgundia cu^um fuisse 
putant antiquariif propter epocam inscrip- 
taniy" Num, Bodleian, Cat. (p. 241). If 
it were really struck by order of the 
Duchess of Burgundy, it might be expected 
that the rose would have been made more 
conspicuously prominent than it is upon 
the coin, bearing in mind the fact that she 
gave Perkin Warbeck the title of **the 
White Rose of England.'' 

Permische Schilling. A silver denomi- 
nation of Belgium under Austrian rule, 
and valued at seven Stuivers. It was 
struck pursuant to a monetary convention 
of 1749. 

Pemer. fife^ Bemer. 

Perper. The gold standard of Monte- 
negro, of the same value as the Austrian 
Krone, and subdivided into one hundred 
Paras. In 1910 the Vienna Royal Mint 
struck gold coins of one hundred, twenty, 
and ten Perpera pieces for Montenegro in 
commemoration of the fiftieth year of the 
reign of Prince Nicolas I. 

Perpero. A silver coin of Byzantine 
origin, current in Ragusa, Dalmatia. In 
the thirteenth century it was a money of 
account and equal to twelve Grossi; from 
1683 to 1750, however, an actual coin of 
this denomination was issued. 

Peseta. The monetary unit of Spain, 
replacing the Escudo in 1868 when the 
Latin Union system was adopted. It is 
divided into one hundred Centimos, and 
there are multiples in gold of ten, twenty, 
and twenty-five, and in silver of five Pese- 
tas. 

The etymology is from pezzo, a piece, 
or portion, whence pezeta, a small piece. 
This is borne out by the fact that it was 
originally a part of the Peso; the latter 
coin consisting of eight Reales, whereas 

[ 



the Peseta was equal to two silver or four 
copper Reales. 

In the Peruvian coinage the Peseta is 
a silver coin equal to the one fifth of a 
Sol, but its value is little more than half 
that of the Spanish unit. It is equal to 
two Dineros, or twenty Centavos. 

Peso. The Spanish equivalent for our 
word Dollar; primarily it means a weight, 
and by implication the weight of an ounce. 
This designation is apparent when it is 
considered that originally it was only a 
silver bar, the value of which was deter- 
mined by weighing. 

As a silver coin of Spain it was issued 
about the middle of the sixteenth century. 
Its value, eight Reales, is frequently found 
on the side of the armorial shield on the 
reverse; thus, VIII or 8, and from this 
circumstance arose the expressioil ** Piece 
of Eight." 

The Peso at times had a value of ten 
Reales. By a decree of June 6, 1856, the 
Paraguay government decided that the 
Spanish Piastre should be reckoned equal 
to ten Reales. See Graty, RepuMica de 
Paraguay (p. 403). This refers to the 
Peso, which is frequently termed a Piastre. 
In Colombia the Peso of ten Reales was 
introduced about 1850, an essay having ap- 
peared in 1849, Ponrobert (8135) ; and in 
Venezuela about 1863, Ponrobert (7953). 

Of the obsidional Pesos there were issues 
for Chile, Copiapo, Lima, Sombrerete, and 
Zacatecas. 

The Peso Duro is a somewhat larger 
coin, and of a value of twenty Reales. It 
was issued under Philip III (1598-1621) 
by Joseph Napoleon from 1809 to 1812, 
and by Isabella II in 1835 and 1836. See 
Duro. 

In the South American series and the 
Philippines the Peso is divided into one 
hundred Centavos. In Uruguay it is one 
hundred Centesimos ; and the Peso of Pan- 
ama is equal to one half Balboa (g.v.), or 
fifty Centesimos. 

The Peso Puerte of Venezuela is equal 
to five Bolivares and is divided into one 
hundred Centavos, and the Peso Maquina 
of the same country equals four Bolivares 
or eighty Centavos. 

Pesson (iceffffov), the Greek name for 
Tessera (g.v.)- 
176] 



Pest Thaler 



Petrus Schilling 



Pett Thaler. This, strictly speaking, is 
not a coin but a commemorative medal is- 
sued when a pestilence or plague ravaged 
a district, or immediately thereafter. There 
are well known specimens for Breslau, 
Hamburg, Erfurt, etc., the majority of 
which were struck in the sixteenth century. 

Petacchina* See Patacehina. 

Petalon (iceTaXov), the Greek name for 
Flan iq.v,). 

Peter. The name given to both a gold 
and a silver coin of the Low Countries, 
which obtains its title from the prominent 
ef&gy of St. Peter on the obverse. The 
Gouden Peter, or Pierre d'or, first ap- 
peared under Jan III of Brabant (1312- 
1355). It was twenty-three and one half 
carats fine and of half the value of the 
Rozenobel {q.v.). The Zilveren Peter, or 
Pi^tre d 'argent, was a silver coin issued 
contemporaneously with the preceding, 
and copied by Jan V von Arkel, Bishop 
of LiSge (1364-1378). 

Petermamicheny also called Petermen- 
ger, were small base silver coins which 
bore on the obverse a bust of St. Peter in 
the clouds, holding a key in his right hand. 

They were struck at Trier as early as 
1621 and had a value of nine Pfennige. 
Their issue appears to have been discon- 
tinued early in the eighteenth century. 

Peter's Pence. The name given to a 
tribute which was collected for the Roman 
pontiflP in reverence of the memory of St. 
Peter. The payment was abolished in 
England in 1366, but not entirely sup- 
pressed, as Fabian in his Chronicle {temp, 
Edward IV) states that in some counties 
of England it was still collected. It was 
finally stopped by a statute of Henry VIII 
in 1533. 

Certain small coins of Poland and Sile- 
sia, probably coined for paying this offer- 
ing, have received the name of Peters- 
pfennige. 

The semi-ecclesiastical Pennies struck for 
St. Peter, at York, about A.D. 920 to 940, 
are commonly though incorrectly called 
Peter's Pence. 

Selden, History of Tithes (217), states 
that the Anglo-Saxon term Almesfeoh or 
Almsfeoh, i.e., alms-money, is supposed to 
be the same as Peter's Pence. It was like- 
wise called Romefeoh and Romescot. 



Petit Blanqiie. See Blanc. 
Petit Dauphin. See Dauphin. 

Petition Crown. In the year 1663 the 
celebrated Simon Petition Crown was pro- 
duced. It arose out of a trial of skill be- 
tween Thomas Simon, who held the office 
of engraver to the mint since 1646, and 
John Roettier, a Flemish engraver, who 
was brought over under the patronage of 
Charles II. Both made pattern pieces for 
a new coinage to be introduced, but Roet- 
tier 's work was accepted and he received 
orders to prepare the dies. Simon ex- 
pressed his displeasure at the verdict and 
was deprived of his office by the King. 

The artists' petition is on the edge of 
the pattern-piece and reads: THOMAS 

SIMON MOST . HVMBLY . PRAYS YOVE . 
MAJESTY TO COMPARE THIS . HIS . TRYAIiL 
. PIECE . WITH . THE . DVTCH . AND . IP . MORE 
. TRVLY . DRAWN . & . EMBOSS 'd . MORE . 
GRACE : PVLLY . ORDERED . AND . MORE . AC- 
CVRATELY . ENGRAVEN . TO . RELEIVE . HIM. 

About twenty of these pieces were struck 
off with the petition, and a small number 
without. See Reddite Crown. 

Petit Royal d'Or. See Royal d'Or. 

Petit Toumob. See Gros Tournois. 



A silver coin of Piedmont, in- 
troduced in 1799 with a value of seventeen 
Kreuzer. See Promis (ii. 192). The name 
was also applied tg the piece of fifteen 
Carantani of Venice. The latter coin has 
the numerals XV in the exergue. 

Petragordiny Pierregordiny or PeregozL 

The name by which the Denier of the 
Counts of Perigord is referred to in Me- 
diseval ordinances. The best known type 
is that of Angoul^me. See Blanchet (i. 
288). A document of the year 1305 states 
that two Florentines agreed to supply to 
the Count of Perigord twenty thousand 
Marques of a white money known as Pierre- 
gordins by July 25 of that year. 

Petrot. Du Cange cites a chronicle of 
1456 in which are mentioned Petros auri, 
meaning the gold coins of the Counts of 
Hainaut bearing the eflBgy of St. Peter. 

Petrus Schilling. The common name for 
a silver coin struck by Hermann V of 
Wied, Archbishop of Cologne (1515-1546), 
which bears a figure of St. Peter. 



[177] 



Pettine 



PhQippi 



Pettiney meaning a comb, is the name 
used in Lombardy for such coins of Napo- 
leon I as have a radiated crown on the 
reverse, said crown being supposed to re- 
semble a comb. 

Pewter. See Tin. 

A slang French term for a Peso. 



The name given to a variety of 
Scudo struck by the Medici family at Leg- 
horn. It appears to have been first issued 
by Ferdinando II about 1660, and was 
retained by Cosmo III and Giovanni Gas- 
tone. It is usually known as the Pezza 
della Rosa from the figure of a rose-bush 
on one side. There is a corresponding half. 
A gold type, struck in Florence in 1716, 
is known as the Pezza d'oro della Rosa; 
and the double Zecchino of this series is 
popularly called Rosina. 

Pezzetta. A billon coin of Monaco, is- 
sued from the period of Onorato II (1640- 
1662) to the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. It corresponds to the Piecette (q.v). 
There is also a mezza Pezzetta. 

Pezzetta Imperiale. A silver coin of 
Guastalla, issued in 1736, and equal to 
twelve Carantani. 

Pfaffenfeind Thaler, also called Gottes- 
freund Thaler. A silver coin issued by 
Christian of Brunswick, Bishop of Halber- 
stadt, in 1622, with the inscription gottes/ 
prevndt/der ppafpen/feindt, and on the 
reverse the figure of an arm emerging from 
the clouds and holding a sword. These 
coins wei*e struck at Lippstadt from silver 
taken from the shrine of St. Liborius in 
the cathedral at Paderbom. 

Pfaffen Pfennige. The name given to 
such varieties of Bracteates (g.v.) as were 
struck by religious denominations or at 
ecclesi&stical mints. 

Pfauenthaler. A silver coin of crown 
size issued under Maximilian II, in 1563, 
upon his coronation as Emperor of Hun- 
gary. It obtains its name from the figure 
of a peacock on the reverse. 

Pfennig. The etymology of the word is 
unsettled. Some authorities claim it is 
from the Keltic word pen, a head. Conf. 
Teston, Kopfstiick, etc. Others derive it 
from the Old High German, phantinc, or 
phentinc, meaning a pledge, and a third 



etymology is suggested from pfanne, a pan, 
due to the saucer shape of some of the 
bracteates. 

The word was formerly frequently writ- 
ten Pfenning, and the plural at this day 
is Pfennig, or Pfennige, both forms being 
used. In all German archives of the 
Middle Ages the Denarius is translated by 
this word. In 1271 mention is made of 
den<irii qxii dicuntur Hantpennige, and in 
1223 the Council of Quedlinburg men- 
tions a payment of talentum Quedlinghe- 
burgensium denariorum quod vulgariter 
Vischepennige dicitur. 

Originally two hundred and forty of 
these coins were computed at the Mark of 
fine silver. In course of time, however, 
they were not only made of lighter weight, 
but a certain proportion of base metal was 
added to their composition. The copper 
Pfennig was introduced in Westphalia in 
the sixteenth century and was soon copied 
throughout central Europe. At the pres- 
ent time the Pfennig is equal to the one 
hundredth part of the Mark. The Gterman 
Empire now issues one and two Pfennige 
in copper, and five, ten, and twenty-five 
Pfennige in nickel. 

Pfimdner, or Zwolfer. A silver Grosch- 
en of the value of twelve Kreuzer, struck 
by Ferdinand I (1521-1564) for Tyrol, 
Carinthia, and Styria. It was copied by 
William de Bronckhorst of Batenbourg, 
(1556-1573), and by Michael Apafi for 
Transylvania. 

PhaL See Pai. 

Phan. The Annamese name for the Chi- 
nese Fen (g.v.). It is a weight and so 
intended when used on the coins. 

Phenyng. See Halard. 

Phetang. The name given in India to 
a bag of gold dust which is current for 
eight Rupees. Cunningham (p. 7) thinks 
that the name is **a survival of the Rig 
Veda name of Pindan, or collected quan- 
tities of gold dust.*' See Suvarna. 



A popular name for the Ecu 
of Louis Philippe of France. 

PhilippeioL See Philippi. 

PhHippi (<E>tX{icxeioi). Gold coins of 
Macedonia, which derive their name from 
having been issued by Philip, the father 
of Alexander the Great. 



[178] 






Philippus 



Piastre 



They are frequently mentioned by an- 
cient writers, and Livy relates (Lib. xliv. 
c. 15) that in the year of Rome 583 (B.C. 
169) ambassadors from Pamphylia brought 
an offering of a crown of gold for the tem- 
ple of Jupiter, wrought from twenty thou- 
sand Philippi. Later this term came to be 
applied to Roman Imperial coins as well. 

Philippiu. A type of the gold Florin 
struck by Philip the Good (1430-1467) for 
Brabant. This coin was issued in 1435 and 
must not be confused with the Filips Gul- 
den, a later gold coin (q.v,). 

The Philippus was of the Rijder type 
with a figure of the Duke on horseback. 
See v.d. Chijs (p. 150). 

Philippus Daalder, also called Filips- 
daalder. A silver coin of crown size 
struck by Philip II of Spain for Brabant, 
Flanders, and the various provinces of the 
Low Countries. It received its name from 
the large bust of the king on the obverse, 
and appeared about 1557, but the type 
was retained for many years, even after 
the Netherlands had become independent 
of Spain. 

Originally it was issued at the value of 
one half of the gold Reaal, or thirty Stui- 
vers ; later many divisions were made, con- 
sisting of one half, one fifth, one tenth, 
one twentieth, and one fortieth. 

This coin is sometimes referred to as the 
Ducaton {q,v.). 

Philistideion (^cXuTtSeiov voiAKTpia), men- 
tioned by Hesychius, refers undoubtedly 
to the handsome sixteen Litra silver coins 
of Iliero II of Syracuse, bearing the por- 
trait of his queen Philistis. 

Phocaides (^coxai^e^, 9(i>y.a'(y.o( jTOCT^pe^, 
9(dxai$e^ exTOti, xpy^'o^ ftoxa'txov), was the 
name by which the electrum Staters and 
Hectes of Phocaea were generally known 
to the ancients. They are frequently men- 
tioned in inscriptions and in these in- 
stances we probably must also include the 
Hectes of Mytilene which were sufficiently 
similar to those of Phocaea to allow them 
to be classed as one with the former. 

Phoenix, called by the Italians Fenice. 
The popular name for the Oncia d'Oro 
struck at Palermo in 1735, by Carlo III 
Borbone. This coin has on the reverse the 
figure of the Phoenix rising from the 
flames, and the inscription besurgit. The 



name is also given to a silver coin of the 
value of thirty Tari, issued in Palermo by 
Ferdinand III (1759-1825). 

Phoenix. A silver coin of the Greek 
Republic under Capo d'Istria, adopted in 
1821 and superseded by the Drachma in 
1833. It is divided into one hundred 
Lepta, and its original value was one 
eighth of the Spanish silver Dollar. 

It obtains its name from the figure of 
the fabled bird Phoenix, which is promi- 
nent on one side of the coin. 

Phoka Dam. See Dam and Suka. 

Phokikoi, (j'zot'zripzq 9(i>x,ey.oi, of Athenian 
inscriptions, were undoubtedly the very 
common triobols of Phocis. 

PhoUis ((?6XXt<;). See FoUis. 

PhulL See Abbasi, and Pul. 

Phiioc. A silver coin of Annam, issued 
under the Emperor Thieu-tri (1842-1847). 
It corresponds in value to ten Quan or five 
Piastres. See Fonrobert (2127). 



1. A Chinese word, the equivalent for 
commodities and for which individuals 
readily exchange their products and ser- 
vices. 

The word also applies to a coin round in 
shape, and many of the modern Chinese 
pieces are thus inscribed with an ad- 
ditional qualifying word, such as copper 
or silver, for a copper or silver coin. 

Primitive rings and amulets and a cer- 
tain form of jade bore this name. Pi was 
also a term given to the early round coins 
when the field is also the width of the 
central hole. See Huan and Yuan. 

Pi is used in conjunction with other 
words as follows: Ch*ien Pi or T*ung Pi 
means copper money ; Chin Pi, gold money ; 
and Chih Pi, paper money. 

Pi. The native name for the Siamese 
Porcelain Tokens {q.v.). 

PianettOy or Planetto. The Denier of 
Brescia issued in the fourteenth century 
is so called on account of its very flat ap- 
pearance. 

Piastre. The Turkish unit of value, 
equal to forty Para, and the one hundredth 
part of the Lira or Pound Turkish. It is 
sometimes known as the Bir-ghrush. In 
Egypt the same system prevails, but the 
value of the Egyptian Piastre is slightly 
higher than that of Turkey, and it is di- 



[179] 



Piastre 



Pice 



vided also into forty Para or ten Ochr-el- 
guerches, also called Milliemes. 

The Piastre of Cyprus was introduced 
in 1901, when, for the English Florin, 
Shilling, Sixpence, and Threepence, silver 
pieces of eighteen, nine, four and one half, 
and three Piastres were substituted. In 
the reign of Edward VII only the quarter 
Piastre was struck. 

The etymology of the name can probably 
be traced to the Italian word Piastra, 
meaning originally a thin plate of metal. 
Another derivation is from the pillars, i.e., 
pilastres, which are found on the Spanish 
coins bearing this 'name. See Ghrush and 
Guerche. 

Piastre, or Piastra* Originally a Span- 
ish silver coin of the value of eight Reales, 
introduced at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, and intended for trade 
with the Orient and the Spanish colonies. 
See Peso. 

Charles III of Bourbon issued the Pias- 
tra of one hundred and twenty Grani for 
Naples from 1735 to the end of his reign, 
and with it a corresponding half Piastra. 
These coins were continued in the Neapoli- 
tan series to the year 1860. In the Re- 
pubblica Partenopea of 1799 the Piastre 
had a value of twelve Carlini. 

In the Florentine series the Medici fam- 
ily struck the Piastra in both gold and 
silver. One variety, called the Piastra 
della Rosa, issued by Cosmo III, receives 
its name from the bunch of roses on the 
reverse. See Rial. 

The name is supposed to be derived from 
the Italian piastro, a plaster. John Florio, 
in his Worlde of Words, 1598, has : * * Pias- 
tra d'Argento, a coine or plate of silver 
used in Spaine.'' Blount, Olossograpkia, 
1674, says: ** Piastre, a coyn in Italy, 
about the value of our crown. ' ' See Chal- 
mers (p. 390). 

Piastre de Commerce. The name given 
to the Dollar size silver coins struck for 
French Indo-China, beginning about 1884. 

Piastre Gourda. A monetary denomina- 
tion of the French and Spanish West In- 
dies. It is usually found with a new value 
stamped on the Mexican Piastres or Dol- 
lars, or with a heart-shaped * ' bit ' ' cut from 
the same coins. See Gourde. 



Piastrino. Another name for the Car- 
lino of Ferdinand II Medici, struck at 
Florence in 1665. 

Piatak. A Russian copper coin of the 
value of five Kopecks, issued in 1758 and 
later for Siberia. They occur with the 
mint marks of Anninsk, Ekaterinburg, and 
Kolywan. 

Piataltininck. Another name for the 
Russian coin of fifteen Kopecks. 



A copper coin of Turin, 
struck originally about 1755 for use in 
Sardinia, and of the value of one twelfth 
Soldo. 

Picajrune. A popular name in the 
Southern States and the Mississippi val- 
ley for the Spanish Medio or half Real. 
It was originally valued at six and a quar- 
ter Cents, but at a later period the same 
designation was applied to the half Dime 
and the five Cent piece. 

Picchione. See Pegione. 

' Picdolino. A diminutive of Piccolo. 
The term was used in Florence and Rome, 
and the coin is mentioned in an ordinance 
of the Papal mint as early as 1454. 



Piccioloy or Piccolo. The name given 
to a small copper coin current in Malta 
and the two Sicilies from the middle of 
the sixteenth century. Its value was one 
sixth of a Grano. 

In the coinage of Verona it is found as 
early as the period of Michele Steno (1400- 
1413), and in the Venetian series from 
Doge Sebastian Ziani (1172-1178). These 
early varieties are rude coins of the De- 
nier type with a cross on both obverse and 
reverse. 



This coin is mentioned in the an- 
nals of Bombay as early as the middle of 
the seventeenth century, and while its 
value varied to some extent, it was gen- 
erally accepted as equal to the fourth part 
of a Fanam. Specimens of Pice, as well 
as halves and doubles, exist in both copper 
and lead. 

In 1835 an Act was passed in the Presi- 
dency of Bengal making the Pice legal 
tender for one sixty-fourth of the East 
India Company Rupee. The copper Pice 
of today retains this ratio and is divided 
into three Pies. 



[180] 



iCh'an 



Piefort 



Among the varieties of the Pice for- 
merly current in the Deccan and other 
parts of Hindustan, two of the principal 
ones were known as the Seorai, equal to 
one sixty-fourth of the Chandor Rupee, 
and the Jamodi or Siahi, equivalent to 
one fifty-sixth of a British Rupee. See 
Paisa. 

The Oazetteer of Aurungabad, 1884, 
cites the following in reference to the coins 
of the Deccan: 

**The copper coins that prevailed were 
the Seorai, Jamodi, Dhabbu, and Siahi. 
The Seorai-pice weighed lli/^ mashas, 
equal to 172^^ grains troy, and 16 gaudas 
of them, viz. 64, were given in exchange 
for a Chandor Rupee. The Jamodi, or 
Siahi-pices, were exchanged at the rate 
of 14 gaudas, viz, 56, for a Surti or 
British Rupee. The Dhabbu weighed 18 
mashas, equal to 270 grains troy, and was 
exchange at 8 gaudas, viz. 32, for a Chan- 
dor Rupee. The Siahi and Dhabbu are 
still sparingly current." 

Pi Ch'an. One of the Chinese names for 
the Spade Money (q.v,), 

PichL See Pitje. 

Picta» or Pictata. See Pite. 

Pictavina. See Poitevin. 

Picture Sen. See E Sen. 

Picoreddu. The popular name for the 
silver coin of twenty Qrani issued by 
Charles II (1665-1700) for Naples and 
Sicily. The word is a corruption of pecor- 
ella, i.e., a young sheep, and the allusion 
is to the Order of the Golden Fleece, which 
is upon the coin. The name was retained 
at a later period for all coins of this type. 

Pie (plural Pies). A copper coin of 
India, which must not be confused with 
the Pice, of which it is the one third part. 

An Act of 1835 passed in Bengal or- 
dained that the Pie should be equal to 
the twelfth part of an Anna, or the 192d 
part of a Rupee. This relationship still 
exists. See Paisa. 

Piece. A piece of money ; a coin. Mory- 
son, in his Itinerary, 1617 (i. 289), says 
**They coyne any peece of which they can 
make gayne.*' 

Piece de Fantaisie. The name given to 
any coin of an unauthorized character 



which is struck for political, religious, or 
other purposes. Consult on this subject 
Stroehlin, Refrappes et Falsifications, Ge- 
neva, 1893. 

Piece de Plaisir. A name given to any 
coin of which only a limited number are 
struck, or of which some specimens are 
struck in a different metal from the ordi- 
nary type. They are found frequently in 
the French coinage from the reign of Louis 
XIV. See Hoffmann (passim). 

Piece of Eight. The name given to the 
Spanish silver coin of eight Reales and 
the predecessor of the silver Dollar of the 
United States. It was extensively coined 
in all of the Spanish mints of North and 
South America, and in the seventeenth 
century it usually was current for four 
Shillings and Sixpence. For extensive 
notes on the practice of cutting it see 
Wood (p. 4 et seq.), and conf. also Peso 
(supra). See Chalmers (passim). 

Pieces of SOver. This term occurs sev- 
eral times in the New Testament. In St. 
Matthew (xxvi. 15, xxvii. 3, 9) the original 
reads TpcaxovTOt apYupta, and the coins are 
usually identified as tetradrachms of An- 
tioch or Tyre prior to A.D. 34. 

The quotation from St. Luke (xv. 8) is 
9pax[J<ce^ $exa in the original, and the coin 
found in the mouth of the fish, St. Matthew 
(xvii. 27), is a Stater. 

Piecette* A billon coin of the cantons 
of Freiburg and Neuchatel, in Switzerland, 
of a value of seven Kreuzer. It was issued 
from about 1780 to the end of the century. 
See Pezzetta. Multiples as high as fifty-six 
Kreuzer were struck. 

The original meaning is any fractional 
part, and it must have been used in this 
sense in England, as Cotgrave, in his Dic- 
tionarie, 1611, has **Piecette, a shred, bit, 
morsell, a small parcell, or peece.'* 

Pied-Guailloux. The name given to a 
variety of Liard, struck by Henri IV of 
Prance (1589-1610). The obverse has a 
crown between three lilies, and on the re- 
verse is a hollow cross. 

Pieforty or more properly, Piedfort, 
means literally any coin struck on an un- 
usually thick planchet as a trial piece or 
essay. The designation is applied chiefly 
to coins of Bohemia, the Low Countries, 



[181] 



Pierced 



Pin Money 



and France, where some of these pieces 
were undoubtedly used as current money. 
The Dickgroschen of Prague are so termed, 
and in the French series Pieforts of billon 
occur as early as the reign of Louis VII 
(1137-1180), while those of silver and gold 
from the fourteenth to the seventeenth cen- 
tury are frequently met with. 

Pierced. A coin or medal is said to be 
pierced when it has a hole in it. This is 
sometimes done by the issuer for purposes 
of suspension, but is more often the work 
of vandals. 

Pierre d'Qr. See Peter. 

Pierregordin. See Petragordin. 

Pietje. A popular name for the piece 
of seven Stuivers, struck for Friesland 
during the seventeenth century. 

Pietre. See Peter. 

Pig. An obsolete English slang term for 
a Sixpence. Fletcher, in his play, The 
Beggar *s Bush, 1622 (iii. 1), has the 
following: **Fill till 't be sixpence, And 
there's my Pig.'' 

. Pigemi Eye Sen. See Hatome Sen. 

Pigione. See Pegione. 

Pignatelle. The name given to a base 
silver coin originally struck in France 
during the sixteenth century and more or 
less circulated in the neighboring coun- 
tries. A Douzain of Henri III counter- 
stamped I.H.S., probably for Geneva, is 
so called, and the name is also given to 
pieces of six Blanques issued by Henri IV. 

Pilarte. A billon coin of Portugal is- 
sued by Fernando (1367-1383), and struck 
at Lisbon and Porto. Its value was two 
Dinheiros: The obverse has a cross with 
surrounding inscription and on the re- 
verse are five shields in cruciform arrange- 
ment. 

Pfle and Tmssell are obsolete Scottish 
terms which corresponded to what are now 
known as the obverse and reverse dies. 

Cochran-Patrick in Records of the Coin- 
age of Scotland, 1876 (I. introd. 49), has 
the following: **Each moneyer had two 
irons or puncheons, one of which was called 
the pile, and the other the trussell. The 
pile was from seven to eight inches long, 
and was firmly fixed in a block of wood. 
On the pile was engraved one side of the 
coin, and on the trussell the other." 



In the Registers of the Privy Council 
of Scotland, 1562-63 (i. 227), occurs the 
following entry : **Ane pile and ane tursall 
maid for cunyeing of certane pecis of gold 
and silvir, the pile havand sunkin thairin 
foure lettris.'* 

Pile is used in French for the reverse 
of a coin. 

Pillar Dollar. See Colonato. 

Pimpion. A slang French term for the 
Pepion {q.v.). 

Pineapple Penny. The popular name 
for a copper penny of Barbadoes, issued 
in 1788, which bears a large pineapple on 
the obverse. See Atkins (p. 313). 

Pine Tree Coins. An early silver issue 
for the Colony of Massachusetts, consisting 
of Shillings, Sixpences, and Threepences. 
They are all dated 1652, but probably did 
not come into use until 1662. Originally 
they were known as Boston or Bay Shil- 
lings or Sixpences, and the name Pine Tree 
was adopted about 1680 to distinguish them 
from the earlier Oak Tree and Willow 
Tree coins. See Crosby. 

The prevalent erroneous conception of 
this coin, due probably to its rarity, is 
indicated by the following curious passage 
in a work by Richard Hayes, entitled The 
Negociator's Magazine, 1740 (pp. 213- 
214). The author had never seen the coin, 
but states that **it is made of good silver, 
and is about the value of a common Eng- 
lish shilling. This piece they first coined 
in Oliver Cromwell's time; and I have 
been told, they continue to coin the said 
Shilling to this very time, and do still re- 
tain the first date upon the same. I am 
told that on one side is a palm-branch and 
a laurel united together like a tree; and 
on the reverse side is St. George's crass 
in a shield, conjoined to another shield, 
within which is an Harp for Ireland." 

Pin Money. A sum of money allowed 
or settled on a wife or other lady for her 
private and personal expenses. In the 
fourteenth century, long after the inven- 
tion of pins, the makers were allowed to 
sell them only on certain days. It was 
then that the women gathered there to buy 
them. When pins became cheap and com- 
mon, they spent their allowances on other 
fancies, but the expression **pin money" 
remained. 



[182] 



Pinp^imellos 



Pitje 



Pinpennellos. Du Cange cites an ordi- 
nance of Philip II of France of the year 
1218, in which small coins are referred to 
by this name. Nothing further is known . 
concerning them. 

Pinto. See Cruzado. 

Pions de Jeiix. See Tessera. 

Pisisthaler. The Francescone of Tus- 
cany is thus referred to by German nu- 
mismatic writers, 

Pistacchio. The popular name used in 
Naples for the small Danaro of the period 
of Alfonso I (1416-1458). Its value was 
one sixtieth of the Carlino. . 

Pistareeiiy also variously written Piste- 
reen and Pistoreen. The name given to 
the Spanish silver piece of two Reales, in- 
troduced at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. Its value was one fourth of the 
corresponding new Peso, but it was rated 
at one fifth of the old type Peso, the latter 
being of inferior silver. It was frequently 
divided or cut for use in the British West 
Indies. See Chalmers (pp. 53 and 395). 

Pistole, from the Spanish pistola, a plate 
of metal. Originally this was a Spanish 
gold coin struck in the beginning of the 
sixteenth century and approximately of 
the value of one fourth of the Dobla. It 
was the prototype of the Louis d'Or of 
France and was also copied in the Pala- 
tinate and by several of the Swiss cantons, 
Geneva, Uri, etc. 

In the later German coinage the Pistole 
represents a gold coin of five Thaler, and 
received various names from the sovereign 
whose portrait it bore, e.g,, Friedrich's 
d'Or, etc. 



A gold coin, sometimes called 
the Twelve-Pound Piece, struck by Wil- 
liam III of England, for Scotland, in 1701. 
Its weight is one hundred and six grains, 
and there is a corresponding half. 

These coins were struck from gold sent 
over from the Colony of Darien, in a 
vessel called the * * Rising Sun. ' ' The name 
of the ship is commemorated by the device, 
under the King's bust, of a sun rising from 
the sea. 

There is also a gold pistole in the Irish 
series of 1642 called Inchquin Money 
(g.v.). It has 4 dwtt. 7 gr. stamped on it. 



Pistole Forte. A name given to a gold 
coin issued in Geneva in 1722 and later, 
on account of its value, which was five 
Florins higher than that of the ordinary 
Pistole. 

Pistolet. A small Pistole. The term is 
applied to the Scudo d'Oro of Francisco 
III of Montef errato ; to the gold issues of 
Herman Thierry, Seigneur of Batenbourg 
(1573-1612), etc. See also Ecu Pistolet. 

A proclamation of Elizabeth of October 
9, 1560, states that **Pistolets, then valued 
at six shillings and two pence, shall go 
for five shillings and ten pence.'' See 
Ruding (i. 338). 

Pistoreen* See Pistareen. 

Pi Tch'eng Ma. The Chinese name for 
Saddle or Riding money, known generally 
as Weight Money (g.v.). 

Pitching Pence is defined by Wharton in 
his Law Lexicon, 1864, as being ** money, 
commonly a penny, paid for pitching or 
setting down every bag of corn or pack of 
goods in a fair or market.'' 

The practice is referred to early in the 
eighteenth century. 



if Pitta, or Picta. A base silver coin 
of Savoy of the value of half of the Obole. 
It was introduced under Count Aimon 
(1329-1343), and is mentioned as late as 
the middle of the fifteenth century. The 
Pitta Qenovese was half of the Danaro. 
Du Cange cites an ordinance of 1599, in 
which the term Picta is used synony- 
mously. See Pogesia. 



Pitje, Pitjiy or Pitis. A tin coin of Java 
introduced about 1750, and copied in Su- 
matra for Atjeh, Palembang, and Djambi. 
See Millies and Netcher (passim), the lat- 
ter of whom (pp. 169 and 173) states that 
4000 Pitjes were equal to a Spanish Real, 
thus indicating their insignificant value. 
To facilitate their use they were sewed in 
bags or on mats as follows : 

250 PitJes = 1 Kedjer = Vw Beal = 20 Dulte. 

500 " =1 Tali = % " = 40 " 

1000 •• = 1 Soekoe = % " = 80 •' 

2000 " =1 DJampel = % " = 160 " 

In a paper contributed by B. C. Temple 
to The Indian Aniiqvury, 1913 (pp. 85 et 
seq.), the relative values of the coins of 
the Malay Peninsula are given as follows : 



[183] 



PHta 



Plaquette 



A. Dutch popular method of reckoning : 

4 Pttjes (PiUs, Pese, Cash) = 1 Duit. 
2% Dult (Cent) = 1 Dubbeltje, Wang Baharu 
(copper). 

2^ Dubbeltje = 1 Kenderl perak (silver). 
2 Kenderl (candareen) = 1 Suku (quarter). 
4 Suku — 1 Ringglt (Real. Spanish Dollar). 

B. Modern British popular method of 
reckoning : 

4 Pities, Keping, Duit (Cash) = 1 Tengah Sen 
(half cent). 
2 Tengah Sen == 1 Sen (cent). 
2% Sen = 1 Wang Baharu (copper). 
2 Wang Baharu = 1 Bnaj'a. 
2 Buaya = 1 Kupang. 
2^ Kupang = 1 Suku (quarter). 
2 Suku = 1 Jampal, or DJampel. 
2 Jampal = 1 Ringgit (dollar). 

Pitta. See Pite. 

Pitt Token. The popular name for a 
copper token probably issued to commemo- 
rate the efforts of William Pitt, Earl of 
Chatham, to secure the repeal of the Stamp 
Act. It has on the obverse the bust of Pitt 
and the words : the restorer of commerce, 
and on the reverse a ship and the inscrip- 
tion: THANKS TO THE FRIENDS OF LIBERTY 
AND TRADE. 

Atkins (p. .264) says: **The history of 
this piece is better known than most Ameri- 
can tokens. The Stamp Act was passed 
March 22, 1765, and repealed, principally 
by the agency of Mr. Pitt, March 18, 1766. 
This coin, or rather medalet, was struck to 
commemorate this event by Mr. Smithers, 
of Philadelphia, from the designs of Colonel 
Revere of Boston. Although doubtless 
originally intended for this purpose only, 
it soon became, in consequence of the dearth 
of small change, converted into currency. ' ' 

Placaattchelling. See Statenschelling. 

Plack. A Scotch billon coin first issued 
by James III (1460-1488) and continued 
almost uninterruptedly to the reign of 
James VI. It was originally valued at 
three Pence, but later at two Pence. A 
variety struck under James VI was current 
for four Pence and was known as the 
Saltire Plack, from the design on one side 
of two sceptres in saltire (i.6., crossed), 
united by a thistle. 

The name Plack is derived from the 
French plaque, a thin plate of metal. See 
Achesoun, and Bodle. 

Plagauner. The name given to certain 
varieties of necessity coins struck by Pope 
Clement VII while he took refuge in Castel 



san Angelo in 1527. The issue consisted 
of Scudi, Ducati, and fractions of the 
same. 

PlaisanL A silver coin struck by Wil- 
liam III, Count of Hainaut (1336-1389), in 
1387. Its value was fifteen Deniers and 
it was subdivided into three Tiercelins. 

Plak (plural Plakken). The French 
equivalent is Plaque. There are various 
meanings for this term, e.g., a flat sur- 
face, a plate, a shield, a piece of tin, etc. 
To one of these definitions can probably 
be traced the name of the small coins is- 
sued in Brabant, Lorraine, and the neigh- 
boring districts from the fourteenth cen- 
tury to the seventeenth. They were usu- 
ally of the size of a Groschen, and of in- 
ferior silver. 

Double Plakken occur for Groningen, 
etc., from 1579 to about 1620, and a twelve 
Plakken piece was struck by Philip II for 
Overysel in 1560. 

The diminutive, called Plaquette, was 
applied to small silver coins issued about 
the same time in Burgundy, Liege, etc. 
One variety remained current in Belgium 
to the Revolution in 1830. See Qros 
Blanque au Lis. 

Plakette. See Plaquette. 

Planchet. The disc of metal on which 
the die of the coin or medal is impressed. 
Also called Blank, Disc, and Flan. 

Plancus Thaler. The name given to a 
medallic Thaler of Basle, struck in 1571. 
It has on the reverse a figure of Lucius 
Munatius Plancus, the conqueror of the 
Rhaetians or Rauraci, and the founder of 
Augusta Rauricorum. There are half and 
quarter Thaler of the same design. 

Planetto. See Pianetto. 

Plappart. See Blaffert. 

Plaque. See Plak. 

Plaquette, also called Plakette, is the 
name given to a variety of uniface medal, 
usually of a quadrilateral, hexagonal, or 
octagonal form. 

They exist from the time of the Renais- 
sance and there are examples by Enzola 
(1456-1475) and Peter Flotner of the same 
period. In recent times the Plaquette has 
been brought to a high degree of artistic 
perfection by Roty, Scharflf, Chaplain, Mar- 
schall, etc. 



[184] 



Plat 



Plate Money 



Plat (plural Platar). A general term 
used in Sweden to designate any copper 
coin. 

Plata. See Vellon. 

Plated Cfmu* The issue of plated coins 
was sometimes practised by the ancient 
Greeks, as is known from some extremely 
rare examples in electrum of the earliest 
period of coinage, and from the not un- 
common occurrence of plated silver money. 
A famous example in silver is the Stater of 
Themistocles, the Athenian, issued at Mag- 
nesia, Ionia, circa B.C. 465-449 (Brit. Mu- 
seum). This is not regarded as an official 
issue, but a private forgery, for the Paris 
specimen is not plated and is from different 
dies. The practice was not general, and 
as a state measure was rare. However, one 
finds plated silver coins among Greek is- 
sues, and sometimes from identical dies 
with the official pure specimens, so that 
they can scarcely be regarded as of pri- 
vate origin. The Romans, on the contrary, 
struck plated silver coins as legal state is- 
sues for profit. The earliest are said to 
be those struck in B.C. 91 during the war 
with Hannibal. In B.C. 84 these plated 
pieces were recalled. But Sulla cancelled 
this measure, and plated coins were issued 
in certain quantities until Augustus' re- 
form in B.C. 15. Plated coins continued 
to be issued under the Empire for exporta- 



tion. One must distinguish between the 
Roman silver pieces of careful style and 
those of barbarous execution, the latter 
being doubtless the product of false mon- 
eyers. Plated coins were designated by 
the Romans Nummi mixti, Suhaerati, or 
Pelliculati, terms which refer only to such 
pieces as had a core of base metal, e.g., 
copper, lead, etc., covered with a thin plate, 
usually of silver, though plated gold coins 
are found among the Roman imperial 
issues. 

The French equivalent is Monnaies 
Pourrees, and the German is Subaerati, or 
Gefiitterte Miinzen, but these terms never 
refer to coins of debased metal. 

Plate M<meyy also known as Eoppar- 
platmynt. The name given to large flat 
rectangular and square pieces of copper, 
with a stamp of value in each corner and 
one in the centre. They were issued in 
Sweden during the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries, and may perhaps be con- 
sidered as weights for the purchase of 
goods, rather than coins, though some au- 
thorities state that they were accepted at 
the value of one third of the Riksdaler 
{q.v.). 

As no complete list of them has ever 
been published in tabular form, the fol- 
lowing arrangement will be of assistance 
to the student and collector. 



10 Daler 
8 Daler 



5 Daler 
4 Daler 



3 Daler 
2 Daler 



1 Daler 



^ Daler 



Avesta. 



1644 

1652. 1653, 1656, 1657, 1668, 

1659, 1660, 1661, 1662, 1663, 

1671, 1681, 1682 
1674 

1649, 1652. 1663, 1656, 1657, 

1658, 1716 to 1746 (Inc.), 
1753 to 1758 (Inc.) 

1674 

1649, 1651, 1653, 1654, 1668, 

1659, 1660, 1664, 1668, 1669, 

1672, 1673. 1674, 1675, 1676, 
1677, 1678, 1680, 1681, 1682, 
1683, 1684, 1685, 1686, 1691, 
1693, 1710 to 1759 (inc.) 
1649, 1650, 1652, 1653, 1654, 
1655, 1656, 1657, 1658, 1659, 

1660, 1661, 1662, 1663, 1664, 
1667, 1668, 1669, 1672, 1678, 
1674, 1675, 1676, 1677, 1678, 
1679, 1680, 1681, 1682, 1683, 
1685, 1686, 1689, 1690, 1710 
to 1759 (inc.) 

1681, 1682, 1683, 1685, 1686, 
1689, 1710 to 1759 (inc.) 



O 

M 

o 



1663 



O 



08 
U 

08 

> 

Of 

>• 

OS 





M) 








u 


• 




• 


M 


73 




9 
to 

a 


OD 


1 

p 


1 


W4 


■^ 


oa 


r^ 


00 


OB 


a 


U 


M8 


P 




ea 


CQ 


O 


M 


CJ 



1674, 


1693, 


1711, 




1746, 


1710, 


1700, 


1712, 






1711, 


1701, 


1713, 






1712. 










1713, 










1714 










1710 




1711, 


1748, 
1752 


1746, 
1748, 
1753 



1752 



1714 



1748, 
1762, 



[185] 



1746, 
1748, 
1763 



1752 



Platmum 



Points Secrets 



Platinum was used for a seriea of coins 
consisting of pieces of three, six, and 
twelve Rubles, issued in Russia on May 6, 
1828. 

The coins are all of the same type and 
they were struck uninterruptedly to the 
year 1845. At first, their novelty ap- 
pealed to the people and the three Rouble 
piece was accepted universally by both the 
bankers and the general public, the latter 
promptly nicknaming them serinkie, Le.f 
**the little gray coins.'* It was the favor 
with which they were at first received that 
encouraged the government to continue 
their issue. 

In June, 1843, the Russian government 
decided to abandon this form of coinage. 
The general populace were tired of them, 
and for a number of years previously they 
were sent to Bokhara, China, etc., in pay- 
ment of accounts. These countries prompt- 
ly returned them and the Imperial treas- 
ury discovered that they began to accumu- 
late. Two years later the edict above 
mentioned was published and the govern- 
ment redeemed all the platinum coins, pay- 
ing for them in gold or silver as demanded 
by the holders. 

At times when this metal was of less 
value than at present, it was used in a 
plated condition for fabrications of gold 
coins. 

Pledges of Value. See Tokens. 

Plinthos (icXivOo?). A Greek term for 
Flan (g.v.)- 

Plough Alms. This is stated by Whar- 
ton, in his Law Lexicon, 1864, to be **the 
ancient payment of a penny to the church 
for every plough land. ' ' It is referred to 
as early as the eleventh century. 



Plough Silver. W. Jones, in his Reports, 
1675 (280), says: *'In some places they 
have Plough silver and Reap silver, which 
is Socage Tenure now turned into Money." 

Tomlins, Law Dictionary, 1809, has 
**Plow silver in former times, was money 
paid by some tenants, in lieu of service to 
plough the lord's lands." 

Reap Silver, or Rep Silver, was a sum 
of money formerly paid by a tenant to a 
lord or other superior in commutation of 
his services in harvest time. It is referred 
to as early as 1299 in the Monuments of 



Magdalen College, Oxford (145), under 
the name of Ripsulwer. 

Plugged Money. A general name for 
gold coins used in the West Indies in which 
a gold plug was inserted to rectify any 
deficiency in weight. For a detailed ac- 
count of the practice, see Wood (p. 4 c^ 
seq.). 

Plum. A popular name for the sum of 
£100,000 Sterling. Steele, in The Tatler, 
1710 (No. 244) speaks of '*an honest Gen- 
tleman who . . . was worth half a Plumb." 

Plunk. A slang term in the United 
States for a Dollar. George Vere Hobart, 
writing under the pseudonym H. McHiigh, 
in his novel John Henry, 1901 (12), has a 
description of a theatrical performance 
with ** Sarah Bernhardt at five plunks a 
chair." 

Poen. A popular name in various parts 
of Holland for money in general. 

A Dutch proverb is: **0m de poen is het 
te doen," i.e., ** money is the vehicle to 
accomplish everything." 

Pogesia, or Pougeoite. A base silver 
coin current in the thirteenth century and 
later which takes its name from Le Puy 
in the Haute-Loire. .Its value was half of 
the Obole or Maille. 

Du Cange cites an ordinance of Philip 
IV of France of 1294 in which the Pogesia 
is stated to be the same as the Pite (g.v.), 
and also asserts that the term pogesata is 
used to indicate anything of the value of 
one Pogesia. 

Pogh. An Armenian copper coin. 
Langlois (p. 14) states that it had the 
value of an Obolus, and that it corresponds 
to the Fels or FoUis. 

Poid. The French word for weight. 

Poillevillain. A nickname given to a 
variety of the Gros Blanc struck by John 
II of France (1350-1364). It was so called 
from the name of the master of the royal 
mint. See Hoffman (xx. 35, 36). 

The type was copied by Amedeo VI of 
Savoy, and known as Pelavillano. 

Poin^on. The French word for a punch. 

Points Secrets. A term used by French 
numismatists to indicate the place of mint- 
age. The custom was introduced in 
France about 1415 by putting a period or 
similar mark under certain letters of the 



[186] 



Poitevin 



Poney 



inscription. Thus a dot under the fourth 
letter showed that the coin was struck at 
Montpellier, under the ninth letter at La 
Rochelle, etc. 

On the 18th of April, 1420, an ordi- 
nance was issued, directed to the wardens 
of the mint of St. Lo, commanding them 
**to coin Groats, of the same kind as those 
which were ordered to be struck at Rouen, 
by the writ bearing date on the twelfth 
of January, with this distinction only, that 
a single point was to be placed under the 
second letter from the beginning of the 
inscription on each side of the coin.'' 

Poitevin. The name given to the Denier 
of Poictiers in Aquitaine to distinguish it 
from the Denier Parisis. The former was 
valued at one fourth of the latter. 

Rich silver mines were discovered in this 
locality in the tenth century, and a mint 
was established under William IV, Count 
of Poictiers, and Duke of Aquitaine (963- 
990). The old name of the town was Pic- 
tavi, and frequent references to Pictavinas, 
evidently the same coin, can be found. 

Poldenga. An early Russian silver 
coin ; the half of the Denga. See Novgor- 
odka. 

Pollard, probably a corruption of **poll 
head,'* was a clipped coin which made its 
appearance in large numbers in England 
toward the close of the thirteenth century. 
For a short time these coins were allowed 
to pass at the rate of two for a Penny, 
but were prohibited A.D. 1310. They were 
decried in Ireland by a proclamation of 
Edward I. See Brabant and Crocard. 

Polleten, sometimes called Augslups 
Polleten, were a series of copper, brass, and 
zinc pieces, used in the city of Stockholm, 
Sweden, and in the surrounding neighbor- 
hood. These tokens were accepted on vari- 
ous lines of transportation, e.g., ferries and 
stage-lines, the latter receiving the nick- 
name Omnibuses. 

Poloi (z(i)Xot). See Pegasi and Colts. 

Polonaise, or Polonete. Another name 
for the August d'Or, issued by August III, 
Elector of Saxony, and King of Poland 
(1752-1756). 

Polos. See Pegasi. 

Polpoltin. Another name for the Rus- 
sian coin of twenty-five Kopecks or one 
quarter Ruble. 



Poltina, or Poltinink. A silver coin of 
Russia of the value of one half Ruble or 
fifty Kopecks. It was introduced at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century by 
Peter the Great. 

Poltora, or Poltorak, from the Polish 
pol, meaning half, and twory, the other, 
i.e., one and a half, was the common desig- 
nation for the Polish piece of one and a 
half Groschen. It occurs extensively in 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
and was copied in Germany under the 
name of Dreipolker, and in Sweden was 
called Trepolcher. 

Poltura. The Hungarian equivalent of 
the Poltora (q.v.). It had a value of one 
and one half Kreuzer, and was largely 
coined during the eighteenth century for 
Hungary and Transylvania. 

Poluschka* A former Russian coin, the 
quarter of the Denga (q.v.). Originally 
it was struck in silver, but the later issues 
are of copper. The Poluschki first ap- 
peared under Peter the Great from about 
the year 170Q, and continued in use during 
the eighteenth century. Catherine II 
struck varieties for special use in Siberia. 

The name is traceable to the early Rus- 
sian custom of using skins as money, and 
is derived from potu, the half of any 
article, and schkura, a skin. Two Po- 
luschki represented the value of one hare 
skin. 

Pon. A Tamil name for the Pagoda or 
Varaha (q.v.). 

Pond. A gold coin of the South African 
Republic, agreeing in weight and value with 
the English Sovereign. There is a cor- 
responding half. The ordinary issues have 
the bust of President Paul Kriiger, but 
obsidional varieties were struck in 1902 at 
the headquarters of the commanding gen- 
eral, with the inscription z. a. r. (Zuid 
Afrikaansche Republiek) in monogram. 

Pondoy i.e., a pound. The synonym of 
the As on account of its weight; hence 
Dupondius, etc. See Stevenson (p. 135). 

Pone. See Poon. 

Poney. A slang English expression for 
the sum of twenty-five Guineas or Pounds. 
Mrs. M. Robinson, in Walsi7igkam, 1797 
(ii. 97), has the following, ** There is no 
touching her even for a poney.'' 



[187] 



Poni 



Portugaloser 



PonL A money of account formerly 
used at Bengal. Stavorninus, in his Voy- 
ages to the East Indies y 1798 (i. 460), says: 
**Por change they make use of the small 
sea-shells called cowries, eighty of which 
make a poni, and sixty or sixty-five ponis, 
according as there are few or many cowries 
in the countrj', make a Rupee/' See Poon. 

PontL A Sicilian money of account. By 
a regulation of 1823 the Tari were com- 
puted at any of the following rates: two 
Carlini, twenty Grani, fifteen Ponti, or one 
hundred and twenty Piccoli. 

Poon, or Pone. A money of account in 
the Maldive Islands, and equal to eighty 
Cowries (g.v.). 

Poot. See Putta. 

Pop. A nickname given to the silver 
coins of one Gulden, issued by the Nether- 
lands. The word is probably a corruption 
of the German Puppe, or French poupee, 
i.6., a doll, and is used principally to desig- 
nate the coins struck with a youthful por- 
trait of the ruler. 

Popolano. The name given in Milan to 
the piece of twenty Centesimi struck in 
1863. 

Popolino. A silver coin of Florence, a 
variety of the Fiorino d'Argento. It was 
struck early in the fourteenth century of 
the value of two Soldi, and continued in 
use until the period of the Medici family. 
The Popolino is notable for its great vari- 
ety of mint-marks, among which are stars, 
keys, antlers, fish, etc. In one of the tales 
in Boccaccio's Decameron, a juggling trick 
is narrated where gilt Popolini appeared as 
gold coins. 

Popone* See Poupon. 

Porcelain Coins are known to have been 
issued as pieces of necessity in Egypt 
during Ptolemaic times. Two specimens 
are in the Paris collection. See Revista 
Numismatica, 1891 (p. 233). 

Porcelaine. See Wampum. 

Porcelain Tokens. These Siamese pieces 
were in use from the middle of the 
eighteenth century until 1871, when they 
were forbidden. The majority were issued 
by companies and traders at Bangkok. 
They occur in a great variety of shapes, 
colors, and values, from one quarter to one 
sixty-fourth of a Tical. The values are on 



the reverses and are generally written in 
blue. The native name is Pi. 

Two of the old English potteries adopted 
china or porcelain tokens. At Worcester 
W. Davis issued them for the value of one 
and two Shillings; and John Coke put 
forth tokens for five and seven Shillings 
at Pinxton, in 1801. See Chany. 

Marco Polo, in his Travels (ii. 39), re- 
fers to the use of porcelain shells. 

Pore-epic. See Ecu au Pore-epic. 

Porpyne. On July 8, 1525, a proclama- 
tion was made that ** Crowns named Por- 
pynes be valued at four Shillings and four 
pence sterling." See Ruding (i. 303), and 
Ecu au Pore-epic {supra). 

Portcullis Money was the currency 
struck by Queen Elizabeth in 1600-1601, 
for the use of the East India Company, 
and it was so called from its having the 
Westminster Arms, Le,, a large portcullis, 
on the reverse. The issue consisted of 
Crowns, half Crowns, Shillings, and Six- 
pences. They were of different weights 
from the current English Crown and its 
divisions, being struck to agree with the 
weight of the Spanish Piastre or piece of 
eight Reales. 

The Portcullis Groat and Farthing 
struck in the reign of Henry VIII were 
never intended for the Indian trade, and, 
concerning the Groat, the late Sir John 
Evans has suggested that **from the care- 
ful manner in which this piece has been 
struck and from the extreme rarity of this 
variety of the groat, it appears doubtful 
whether it should not be regarded as a 
pattern-piece rather than as a coin in- 
tended for actual currency." 

Porto Novo Pagoda* A name given to 
one of the varieties of the Pagoda (g.v.)> 
probably because it was first coined by the 
Portuguese at Porto Novo or Feringhipet. 
It has a figure of Vishnu on the obverse, 
and the reverse presents a granulated sur- 
face. It is sometimes referred to as the 
Scott Pagoda. 

P<Mrtiigal6ser. The Portuguez was cop- 
ied in various parts of Germany, Transyl- 
vania, Poland, etc., with a value of ten 
Ducats or Kronen, and received the above 
name. These coins are semi-medallic in 
character and were struck for presentation 
purposes and not for general circulation. 



[188] 



Portiiguez 



Pramienthaler 



When the Bank of Hamburg was 
founded in 1667, a number of these pieces 
were issued, called Bankportugaloser, and 
the custom has been kept up in that city 
to comparatively recent times, to commem- 
orate any important historical event. 
These beautiful gold coins generally have 
views of the city-towers, etc., and the in- 
scription MONETA . NOVA AVBEA . CIVITATIS . 
HAMBVRGENS . NACH . PORTVGALIS . SCHROT . 
VND . KORN. 

Portuguez, also called Lisbonino. A 
large gold coin of Portugal, originally of 
three thousand nine hundred Reis and ad- 
vanced in 1517 to the value of ten Cru- 
zados or four thousand Reis. It was issued 
by Manuel I (1495-1521), and referring to 
the great discoveries by Portuguese naviga- 
tors, styles him as r: portvgalie: al: c: 

VL : IN : A : D GVINE : I.C.N. ETHIOPIE : ARABIE : 

PERSIE: INDE: i.e., Rex Portugalie, Al- 
garves, Citra Ultra in Africa, Dominus 
Guinee. In Commercii, Navigacione, 
Ethiopie, Arable, Persie, Inde. The ob- 
verse has the armorial shield, and the re- 
verse a large cross; it was also struck by 
John III (1521-1557) and then discon- 
tinued. See Fernandes (pp. 113, 115), 
who mentions a silver Portuguez, not 
known to exist at the present time. 

Pottage, or Postal Currency. The first 
series of fractional currency issued by the 
United States in August, 1862, and so 
called from the fact that representations 
of postage stamps were a part of the de- 
sign. The credit for this issue is due to 
General F. E. Spinner, the Treasurer of 
the United States, who adopted the idea 
from the postage stamps being used by the 
people in lieu of small change during the 
Civil War. 

Postal Currency. The encased postage 
stamps in circulation as currency during 
the early part of the Civil War in the 
United States in 1861 and later. 

Posthumous Coins are such as were 
struck after the death of the individual 
whose name they bear. 

Postulatsgulden. The name given to cer- 
tain gold coins struck by Count Rudolph 
von Diepholt, Bishop of Utrecht, in 1440, 
to confirm his claim to the bishopric, which 
was disputed. The practice was copied by 

[ 



other prelates to the middle of the six- 
teenth century. 

Potin. A brittle base metal; an alloy 
of lead, copper, tin, zinc, and twenty per 
cent of silver. This composition occurs in 
the Denarii of Valerianus, Gallienus, etc., 
and the large series of base Tetradrachms 
struck at Alexandria in Egypt from the 
first to the third century A.D. The term 
is usually applied to ancient coins, but the 
mixture is of the character of Billon {q.v,). 

Pougeoise. See Pogesia. 
Poul. See Pul. 

Pound. Silver Pounds and Half Pounds 
occur only in the Declaration Type coinage 
of Charles I, and were struck at Oxford 
and Shrewsbury. They are marked re- 
spectively with the figures XX and X. 

The Half Pound struck at Exeter was 
from the die of a Crown and is a Half 
Pound only as regards weight. 

Pound Sovereign. See Sovereign. 

Pound Sterling. See Sterling. 

Pound Turkish. Also called Lira, or 
Yslik. A gold coin of Turkey divided 
into one hundred Piastres, and of a 
weight of 111.37 grains. In Egypt a 
gold standard was introduced since 1885, 
and the Pound Egyptian is divided simi- 
larly to the Turkish, but weighs 131.175 
grains, and is of the same fineness. 

PoupoUy or Popone. A nickname given 
to the silver Ecus of Louis XV of France 
bearing the youthful portrait, because the 
same was supposed to resemble a doll. 

Poy. A coin mentioned in The Nego- 
ciator's Magazine y by Richard Hayes, 1740 
(p. 247). In referring to the money of 
Brabant and Flanders he says that **they 
had also among them the Bohemia Grosses 
of 3 Cruitzers, each Cruitzer 2 Pence or 
Poy, the Poy at 2 Helliers, and one Hellier 
at two Urchins. *' 

Pramienthaler. A silver coin of the 
Albertinian Line of Saxony. It was issued 
by Xavier as administrator of Frederick 
Christian (1763-1768), and the Elector 
Frederick August III (1763-1806) struck 
many varieties. See Madai (No. 5266). 

All of these coins have on the reverse 
the inscription zur belohnung des pleises, 
indicating that they were awarded as 
prizes. 

189] 



IVovttiiio 



She Gro«z. 

Pk»k Pe, or Pe. A Cambodian term 
signifyinj^ money; the term is used for 
certain base coins of Battambang valued 
at the Siamese Att. 



A gold coin of ancient India, 
of the value of one half the Pagoda. See 
Pana. 

Prestatioii Money. Cowell, The Inter- 
preter, 1607, s.v. Commissarie, has: *'The 
Bishop taking prestation money of his 
archdeacons yearely." 

In the same work occurs: "Spiritualties 
of a Bishop. Prestation money, that sub- 
sidium charitatinum^ which vppon reason- 
able cause he may require of his Clergie.'* 

Priedcen. A base silver coin of Brabant 
issued in 1429-1430, and of the value of 
one fourth of a Oroot. It obtains its name 
from a small bread of the same name which 
could be purchased for this coin. See Ver- 
achter, Documens pour servir a Vhistoire 
monetaire den Pays-Bas, 1840 (p. 71). 

Pringle. An obsolete name for the silver 
coin of twenty Pence, struck in 1636 for 
Scotland. G. Merton, in his Glossary of 
the Yorkshire Dialect, 1697, has: ''Pringle, 
a little silver Scotch Coin about the big- 
ness of a penny, with two XX on it." 

Prnrate GoM Corns, and Proprietary 
Gold Coins. The terms are used indis- 
criminately to designate certain gold coins 
issued in Georgia in 1830; North Carolina 
in 1831 ; and in California from 1849 to 
1855. See also Territorial Gold. 

Probemiinzen. See Essays. 

Prodamaticm M<mey. The name given 
to coins valued, according to a table pre- 
scribed in a proclamation of Queen Anne, 
on June 18, 1704, in which the Spanish 
Dollar of seventeen and one half penny- 
weights was to be rated at six Shillings 
in all of the North American Colonies. 

Horace White, in Money and Banking, 
1896 (p. 15), says that **six shillings was 
considered by the home government a fair 
average of the various C-olonial valuations 
of the Spanish Dollar. This valuation 
came to be known by the term Proclama- 
tion Money.*' 

In the Archives of the State of New Jer- 
sey, 1735 (xi. 432), occurs a statement: 
**I do hereby promise to Pay to the said 



Discoverer the Sum of Thirty Pounds, 
Proclamation Monev." 

Similarly, in the Sew Hampshire Pro- 
vincial Papers of 1748 (reprinted 1871, v. 
905), an official says that ''His Majesty 
has recommended that my salar>' should be 
fixed and Paid in Sterling or Proclamation 
Money." 

Fkodamation Pieces are, as their name 
indicates, such coins or medals as bear on 
their face a ruler's proclamation for his 
authority for striking the same. There is 
an extensive series of them issued for 
Spain, Central America, and South Am- 
erica. 

PkronicdaaMer. A large silver coin, 
sometimes known as a double Ducaton, 
struck by Philip II of Spain for Gueldres 
in the latter part of the sixteenth century. 
It has on the reverse eighteen crowned 
shields surrounding a central and larger 
shield of Spain. The name signifies osten- 
tatious or splendid. 

Proof Cmnt are those struck from pol- 
ished or specially prepared dies. They 
have a mirror-like or frosted surface. 
Many recent proof coins, however, have a 
mat surface produced artificially after 
striking. 

Proprietary GoM Coins. See Private 
Gold Coins. 

Provinois. A name applied to the De- 
nier struck at Provins, a mint of the 
Counts of Champagne, early in the twelfth 
century. See Blanchet (i. 407). The 
earlier types bore poorly executed por- 
traits and under Thibaut IV (1201-1253) 
was issued the Nouveaux Provinois, which 
bore a peigne, i.e., a head surmounted by 
three towers and resembling a comb. This 
rude portraiture was due to the careless- 
ness of the engraver, though some writers 
claim that the hair was worn in this fashion 
in Champagne at this period. 

Du Cange refers to an ordinance of 
Philip IV of Prance dated 1301, in which 
Pruvinienses, evidently the same coins, are 
mentioned. 

Provisino. The name given to a variety 
of the Denaro struck at Rome under the 
rule of the Senate {circa 1188-1303), and 
copied from the Provinois {q.v.). In 1347 
Cola da Rienzo, Tribune of Rome, issued 
Provisini with the inscription n.tribun. 

AUGUST . OWERO . ALMUS . TRIBUNAT . URBS. 



[190] 



Provisional 



Pustulatum 



In the Papal series a Provisino of Boni- been made current in Ireland for a shil- 



face VIII is described at length in the 
Rivista Italiana (xviii. 89-95), and Boni- 
face IX struck Provisini with the figure 
of a comb on them on the occasion of his 
jubilee in the year 1400. 

Provisional. See Moneta Provisional. 

Pnivinienses. See Provinois. 

Psephos (tp^90?). The Greek name for 
Tessera (g.v.). 

Psothia (tpcSOioe). See Kikkabos. 

PtolomaicL A general name for the 
coins struck by the Ptolemies in Egypt, 
which extend from circa B.C. 323 to B.C. 
30, and cover fifteen rulers. Those issued 
by Ptolemy I in honor of his wife Berenice 
are generally known as Berenicii. 

Pu. A Chinese word meaning '* cloth," 
though probably the original sense of the 
word was **to spread,'' or better, **to cir- 
culate." The term Pu or Ku Pu is ap- 
plied to certain ancient Chinese bronze 
coins derived from the Spade {q.v.) and 
Weight money {q.v.), though sometimes 
used to include all of these forms. The 
Pus were in use from the sixth to the third 
centuries B.C. and were confined, for the 
most part, to western, northern, and cen- 
tral China. There are a number of minor 
forms of Pus, but they can roughly be 
divided into square and pointed-toed class- 
es. The shape was copied later by the 
Usurper Wang Mang (A.D. 7-22) who is- 
sued them with a value from one hundred 
to one thousand Li. These latter pieces 
are known as New Pus. 

Publica, also called Pubblica. A copper 
coin of the Two Sicilies, first struck by 
Philip IV about 1622, and issued by his 
successors until the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. Its value varied from 
three to four Tornesi, and it obtains its 
name from the inscription publica com- 
MODiTAS, found on the coins. 

Pu Ch'uan. A Chinese word, meaning 
** currency." See Ch'uan. 

Pudsey Sixpence. The name given to 
a variety of an Elizabethan Sixpence, upon 
which a large escallop shell has been 
stamped. Hawkins contends that '*they 
are nothing more than the caprice prob- 
ably of some -silversmith," but Ruding in 
a note states that they were **said to have 



ling, to pay the army in the time of the 
Rebellion there, by the advice of one Pud- 
sey, who was afterwards executed for giv- 
ing it." 

In another note Ruding quotes Browne 
Willis, who says **this was called the Pud- 
sey sixpence from the place where the sil- 
ver was dug in Yorkshire." 

PuL A Russian copper coin, issued as 
early as the reign of Vasili Vasilievitch 
(1425-1462). It is quite common up to 
the period of Ivan III (1682-1689), and 
was struck for Twer, Kaschin, Kiev, etc. 
The name is sometimes written Poul, and 
the plural is Pouli or Puli. In the Geor- 
gian series ten Phouli were equal to one 
Kopeck. The coinage of these pieces ceased 
in 1810. See Abbasi, and Kasbegi. 

In the modern Persian series the Pul is 
an insignificant copper coin, the fortieth 
part of a Kran. 

Pullus. See Pegasi. 

Puma. See Kesme. 

Pumphosen Krone. A silver coin of 
Denmark, struck in 1665. It receives its 
name from the figure of the King, Freder- 
ick III, who is represented attired in very 
wide trousers or slops. 

Pung. A coin of Turkestan. See Yam- 
ba. 

Punsad-Dinar. A silver coin of Persia. 
See Nadiri. 

Parana. A silver coin of ancient India 
of the ** punch-marked " type, and usually 
assigned to the second century B.C. See 
Pana. 

The Puranas, or Dharamis, as they are 
sometimes called, were struck to the scale 
of 32 rati seeds, and their normal weight 
was fifty-eight grains, or three and three 
quarters grammes. At Taxila they varied 
in value from one to four of the copper 
Panas. See Cunningham (p. 3). 

Pumsra. The name given to the copper 
twenty Cash piece of Mysore, struck at 
Salemabad from circa 1800 to 1845. 

Pustulatum, or Pusulatum Argentum. 

The Latin term for pure or refined silver, 
and corresponding to Obryzum in the gold. 
The letters pv or PS on Roman silver coins 
therefore signify that such coins are of 
good metal. 



[191] 



PuUchanel 

PuttchSneL A term found in Adam 
Berg*s New Muntzhuch, 1597, and used to 
describe small Bohemian silver coins, of 
which three are equal to a Kreuzer and 
one hundred and eighty to a Gulden. The 
term is probably a nickname. 

Putta, or Foot, meaning a fragment, is 
a name given to lumps of tin used as money 
in the island of Junkseylon in the Malay 
Peninsula. See R. C. Temple, in the In- 
dian Antiquary, 1902 (p. 51). 

Piittan* A silver coin of Cochin, struck 
during the Dutch occupancy (1782-1791), 
and continued until 1858. The word means 



Pysa 

**new,*' and the ordinary Puttan weighs 
from five to eight grains; the double six- 
teen grains. See Elliot (pp. 141-142). 

Pjrranuden ThaTer. The name usually 
given to a coin on which the reverse in- 
scription is in the form of a pyramid. 
They are generally struck to commemorate 
a death. A notable example is the Thaler 
of Frederick William II of Sachsen-Alten- 
burg issued in 1668, on the death of his 
second wife, Magdalena Sibylla. See Ma- 
dai (No. 1471). 

PyMu See Paisd. 



[192] 



Quarantano 



Q 



Q. An obsolete English dialect symbol, 
meaning a Farthing, and probably an ab- 
breviation of Quadrans. 

In a work entitled Eecorde of the Greate 
Artes, 1575 (p. 29), occurs the passage: 
*'q a farthing the iiij part of a penny." 

Qas. See Kasbegi. 

Quadransy or Tenmcia. The fourth 
part of the As. It bears on the obverse 
the head of Hercules and on the reverse 
the prow of a galley. On each side are 
three bosses, indicating its weight of three 
ounces. See Acs Grave, and Vierer. 

QuadranL The same as Quadrans, but 
the name is also given to the copper Farth- 
ing struck by Edward IV for Ireland. 

Quadrigati. A name given in ancient 
times to such varieties of the Roman De- 
narii as have a four-horse chariot on the 
reverse. 

Quadrilateral Pieces. A general name 
given to the so-called Roman Quadrussis 
and Quincussis, on account of their rec- 
tangular shape. 

These curious coins bear on them repre- 
sentations of objects of exchange or sym- 
bols and allusions to the victories of the 
Roman armies. One of the animals de- 
picted on a variety of these coins is an 
elephant in connection with the battle of 
Asculum, B.C. 279, which circumstance 
would fix the approximate date of these 
pieces, as the elephant was unknown to the 
Romans before that time. 

The Quadrussis and Quincussis weighed 
respectively four and five Roman pounds. 

Quadruble. A term used on a coin 
struck in 1786 for the French possessions 
in Africa. See Zay (pp. 241-242). 

Quadrupbu A large Italian gold coin 
which obtains its name from being four 
times the size of some other current gold 
denomination. 

It occurs in the Papal series *of four 
times the value and weight of the Scudo di 
Oro; the Emperor Charles V struck it for 
Naples and Sicily in 1547; Alberico Cibo 
for Massa di Lunigiana; Ferdinand Gon- 
zaga (1612-1626) for Mantua, etc. 

[ 193 ] 



It is common to Savoy where its original 
value was four Scudi di Oro and later 
eighty Lira. In the Milan coinage it is 
found during the seventeenth century, and 
is known as the Doppia da Due. 

Quadruple. See Ecu Pistolet. 

Quadrussis. A piece of four Asses. 
Some of the large, cast, rectangular Roman 
bronze bars are, from their weights, sup- 
posed to represent Quadrusses. See Quad- 
rilateral pieces. 

Quakers' Money. A name given to 
those crowns of Queen Anne which bear 
plumes in the angles of the cross formed 
by the shields. The plumes indicate that 
the silver was obtained from Welsh mines, 
and the Company by which the mines were 
operated comprised among its members 
many persons of the Society of Friends. 

Quaiiy or Qwan. The unit of value of 
the empire of Annam, and which was in- 
troduced during the reign of the Emperor 
Minh-mang (1820-1842). It is a base silver 
coin with a sixteen or twenty-rayed sun on 
one side and a dragon on the reverse. See 
Fonrobert (2112-2114, 2123-2124). Under 
the Emperor Tu-Duk (1847-1883) a silver 
rectangular bar of three Quan was issued. 
Fonrobert (2133). 

The Quan represented a value of half 
a Piastre or Tambac-tron (^.v.), and was 
divided into six hundred Sepeks. Ten 
Quans in a single block formed a Chuc'; 
the French soldiers and sailors called this 
block **a sow,'* from its resemblance to 
the metal pigs used for ballast in vessels. 

The string of cash is also known as a 
Quan and has superseded the older word 
Man. 

The silver coin of four Francs, struck 
by Norodom I, King of Cambodia in 1860, 
is also called a Qwan. See also Kwan. 

Quan Hen. The Annamese name for a 
string of 600 Cash. See Tien. 

Quarantano. A silver coin of Parma, 
of the value of forty Soldi, struck by 
Ranuccio II (1646-1694). In Modena, un- 
der Francesco III (1737-1780), it was is- 
sued at the same value but of a debased 
silver. Conf, Carantano, supra. 



Quart 



Quattrino 



Qqart. A silver coin of Oeneva and 
other Swiss cantons, issued during the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. Its 
value was three Deniers and multiples of 
two, three, and six Quarts were struck. 

Qqart. See Quarto. 

QmurtariL Lampridius 8ev, Alex. (39), 
states that the Emperor Severus Alexander 
caused fourths of the Aureus, or Quartarii, 
to be struck. None until the reign of Gal- 
lienus, however, have come down to us. 

Quartaro. A copper coin of Genoa, is- 
sued under Republican rule (1252-1339). 
It bears on one side a griffin rampant, and 
on the reverse a cross. 

QoartanJa. A gold coin of Genoa, the 
one fourth of the Genovino (q.v.). It was 
issued in the twelfth century and remained 
in use until the termination of the Sforza 
dynasty. 

Quartarolo. A copper coin of Venice, 
issued by the Doge Pietro Ziani (1205- 
1229), and continued by some of his suc- 
cessors. It does not, however, appear to 
have been struck after the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The general type has a cross with 
lilies in the angles. It was copied at 
Verona by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti 
(1387-1402). 

Quart d'Ecu* A silver coin of France, 
first issued in the reign of Henri III (1574- 
1589), with a corresponding Huitieme 
d'Ecu. The name of the former coin was 
corrupted into Cardecu, and it was a legal 
tender in England in 1625 for nineteen 
Pence half Penny, during the suspension 
of the Tower mint at London, on account 
of the plague. There were varieties for 
Beam, Navarre, Dauphiny, etc. See End- 
ing (i. 382). 

Quarter. The popular name for the sil- 
ver coin of twenty-five cents of the United 
States, it being the one fourth part of the 
Dollar. 

Quartemariae Formae were certain gold 
medallions, equal to four Aurei in weight, 
said by Lampridius, Sev, Alex, (39), to 
have been struck by the Emperor Elaga- 
balus. None have come down to us. 

Quartmho. A gold coih of Portugal is- 
sued in the reign of Joseph (1750-1777). 
It succeeded the Moidore (retired in the 
previous reign), and obtains its name on 



account of it being one fourth in value 
of the latter coin, i.e., one thousand Beis. 
Quartinhos of twelve hundred Beis were, 
however, occasionally issued. It was abol- 
ished about 1792. See Cuartino. 

Quartnio. A Papal gold coin, the one 
fourth of the Scudo di Oro. It was issued 
during the sede vacante of 1740, and under 
Benedict XFV. 

Quarto, sometimes called Cuarto, a cop- 
per coin of Spain, of the value of one 
quarter of a Real. It dates from the time 
of Ferdinand and Isabella. During the 
French occupation of Barcelona and Cata- 
lonia from 1808 to 1814, pieces of one 
half {i.e., Ochavos), one, two, and four 
Quartos were issued, and after the Span- 
ish rule was resumed multiples as high as 
six Quartos appeared. 

In 1802 private firms at Gibraltar issued 
tokens of one and two Quartos valued re- 
spectively at a half Penny and a Penny. 
A regal coinage was introduced by Great 
Britain in 1842, consisting of a half Quart, 
Quart, and two Quarts, the Quart being 
equal to a half Penny. 

Quateme, or Quern. Poey d'Avant (ii. 
210), states that the Counts of Barcelona 
in the eleventh century issued gold coins 
of this name which were computed at one 
fourth of the Soldo d'Oro. See Tern. 

Quatemioy Quartemionesy or Quadru- 
ple Aurei were struck by certain of the 
Roman emperors, notably Augustus, Dom- 
itian, Gallienus, and others. 

Quatrine. The same as Quattrino. See 
also Sequin. 

Quattie. The nickname given in the 
island of Jamaica to the silver coin of 
three half Pence issued by William IV 
and Victoria from 1834 to 1862. It is also 
known as the half Bit. See Chalmers (p. 
110). 

Quattrinello. The diminutive of Quat- 
trino. The term was used in Bologna in 
or about 1508 for the small Papal coins 
of Julius II. 

Quattrino. An Italian coin which oc- 
curs both in copper and billon and which 
originally was the fourth part of the 
Grosso (q-v.). It was issued at Ferrara, 
Milan, Bologna, Venice, and other Italian 
states. A reference to this coin is found 



[194] 



Queen Anne Farthing 



Qwan 



in a ballad circulated in Florence shortly 
after Martin V had been elected Pope in 
1415 ; he is thus referred to : 

Papa Martlno 

Non vale an quattrino. 

The Quattrino was later made the fifth 
part {sic) of the Baioccho (q.v.). Multi- 
ples exist of three Quattrini in copper, and 
five and ten Quattrini in silver. 

The one in the Papal series is generally 
known as the Quattrino Romano, and one 
struck for Lucca from 1684 to 1733 on 
which there is a figure of a panther sup- 
porting the municipal arms is called the 
Quattrino Panterino. It was of silver and 
of the value of one eighth of the Bolognino. 
See Ducato. 

The Quattrino is in all probability the 
coin referred to by Andrew Boorde, in his 
Introduction to Knowledge, 1547 (179), 
who says ''In bras they haue Kateryns and 
byokes and denares." 

Queen Anne 



ing. See Farthing. 

Gold. This obsolete form of 
English revenue is described as follows by 
Wharton, in his Law Lexicon, 1864. 

*'It is a royal revenue which belonged 
to every queen consort during her mar- 
riage with the King, and was due from 
every person who had made a voluntary 
offer or fine to the King amounting to ten 
marks or upwards." 

It is mentioned by Blount, in his An- 
cient Tenures, 1679 (36), and Blackstone 
in his Commentaries (i. 221) says that 
''The queen ... is entitled to an antient 
perquisite called queen-gold or aurum re- 
ginae.*' 

Qiienthi, or Quentchen. The one sixty- 
fourth of the Mark {q,v.). 

Qnem. See Quateme. 

Quicl. A slang English term for a 
Guinea or a Sovereign. Thomas Shadwell, 
in his play. The Squire of Alsatia, 1688 
(iii. 1), makes use of the expression, "Let 
me equip thee with a Quid," and Bret 
Harte, in his tale. The Ohosts of Stukeley 
Castle, introduces a stable boy who wishes 
to sell a three-legged stool for "five quid." 



Quinariiis. A Roman silver coin of one 
half the weight and value of the Denarius. 
It bears on the obverse the head of Minerva 
and the figure V, i.e., five Asses; the re- 
verse is the same as J:he Denarius. 

After B.C. 217, in which year the value 
of the Denarius was altered, the Quinarius 
was only issued at intervals. 

The gold Quinarius was half the Aureus 
and was coined during the first three cen- 
turies. 

Quincunx, Quicunx, or Cingus. One of 

the divisions of the As of the weight of 
five ounces. See Acs Grave. 

Quincussis. A name given to one of the 
large Roman rectangular copper coins, its 
weight being about five Roman pounds. 
See Quadrilateral Pieces. 

Quindidno. A small silver coin struck 
by the Emperor Charles V for the Duchy 
of Milan (1535-1556). It has a crowned 
vase on one side, and a wreath on the re- 
verse. 

Quiniones. The name given to certain 
large Roman gold or silver medallions, 
equal in weight to Quintuple Aurei or 
Denarii. 

QuinL See Nova Constellatio. 

Quinto. The common designation for 
the one fifth of the silver Piorino of Flor- 
ence. 

But the same name was applied to the 
fifth of the Ducato at an earlier period, as 
in a monetary decree of 1531 it was or- 
dered that the Quinto di Ducato, that is, 
the money of four Qrossi, should be valued 
at one Lira and ten Soldi. 

Quintuplo. A name given to the Nea- 
politan gold coin of five Ducati. See Du- 
cato. 

Quirate. See Kirate. 

Quirino. A silver coin of the value of 
eight Soldi struck in Correggio during the 
sixteenth century. It takes its name from 
the figure of St. Quirinus on one side of 
the coin. 

Quran. The half Rupee in the coinage 
of Afghanistan is so called. See Sanar. 

Qwan. See Quan. 



[196] 



Raal LAkria 



Rap 



R 



Raal Lakria. Sta^rninus, in his Voy- 
ages to the East Indies, 1798 (iii. 8), in 
writing of the coinage of Surat, says: '*A11 
foreign coins are taken according to their 
weight and assay; but the Mexican dol- 
lars, or Pieces of Eight, known among the 
natives by the appellation of raal lakria, 
must, if weighed, contain seventy-three 
waals. ' ' 

Rabayeasee. See Bebia. 

Rabenpfennige. See Denarii Corvorum. 

Raderalbus, frequently abbreviated into 
Rader, is the name given to a variety of 
the Albus issued by the Archbishops of 
Mainz, Trier, and Cologne, and by the 
Dukes of Juliers, Berg, etc., during the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

The armorial bearings on these coins 
were copied from the Electorate of Mainz, 
which include a double cross within a cir- 
cle; this design was easily mistaken for a 
wheel by the common people, hence the 
name. 

A larger coin of the same type has re- 
ceived the name of Raderschilling. 

Rag. An obsolete English slang term 
for a Farthing, 

Beaumont and Fletcher in their play 
The Captain, 1613 (iv. 2), use the phrase, 
'*Not a rag. Not a Deniere,'' and in A 
Dictionary of the Canting Crew, printed 
circa 1700, occurs the definition, **Bag, a 
Farthing. ' ' 

Rag Money. A nickname given to the 
paper money introduced during the Civil 
War in the United States. 

During the Greenback agitation the ad- 
vocates of unlimited paper money were 
often depicted by the cartoonists as nursing 
a rag doll, in allusion to the fact that the 
paper on which the Greenbacks were 
printed was made almost entirely from 
linen rags. 

Ragno. The name given to the Lira 
Tron in Bologna. 

Ragusino. See Vislino. 

Raha. A gold coin of Akbar, Emperor 
of Hindustan, and of half the value of the 
Sihansah {q.v.). 



Raha. The word for money in the lan- 
guage of the Esthonians, who inhabited a 
district to the south of the Gulf of Fin- 
land. See Skins of Animals {infra). 

Raij. See Tankah. 

Raimondine, or Rajmioiicline. The 

name given to the Denar struck by the 
Counts of Toulouse, whose principal mint 
was at Albi, in the Department of Tarn. 
The Counts of Toulouse from 1088 to 1249 
all bore the name of Baimond, and this 
name occurs on all the coins. See Blan- 
chet (i. 339). 

Raining Flowers. See Hana Furi Kin. 

Raitpfennige. See Bechenpfennige. 

Raku Sen, or Fancy Sen. The Japanese 
name for those coins made in imitation gen- 
erally of regular pieces but larger or more 
elaborate. 

Rama-tanka. The name given to gold 
cup-shaped medals of varying sizes issued 
in Southern India, especially by the kings 
of Vijayanagara. They were originally in- 
troduced to commemorate the enthrone- 
ment of the king. They bear the design of 
the durbar, or inauguration ceremony of 
Bama, with his consort Siva, in the ancient 
city of Ayodhya. The other side has Hanu- 
man standing holding a club. 

Ramtinkis. An incorrect spelling of 
Bama-tanka. 

Rana Shahi Kori. See Eori. 

Randschrift. A term used by German 
numismatic writers to indicate an inscrip- 
tion on the edge of a coin or medal. 

Rap was a counterfeit coin in circulation 
in Ireland after the regular coinage had 
ceased in 1696. The nominal value of the 
Bap was a half -penny, but intrinsically it 
was not worth even a farthing. 

Swift, in his Drapier's Letters, 1724 
(i.), says "Copper halfpence or farthings 
. . . have been for some time very scarce, 
and many counterfeits passed about under 
the name of raps." 

The expressions **not worth a rap," **I 
care not a rap,** etc., can be traced to the 
insignificant value of this coin. 



[196] 



Happen 



Ready 



R. Twiss, in his Tour in Ireland, 1776 
(73), has: **The beggers . . . offering a 
bad halfpenny, which they call a rap ; ' ' and 
John Wilson, in Nodes Ambrosianae (i. 
282), mentions **Ane o' the bawbees o* an 
obsolete sort . . . what they ca' an Eerish 
rap." 

Byron, in Don Juan (canto xi. 84), says: 
**I have seen the Landholders without a 
rap.'' 

Rappen, or more correctly Eappe, is a 
corruption of Rahe, a raven, and was be- 
stowed originally on small silver coins 
struck at Freiburg in Breisgau in the 
fourteenth century. See Denarii Corvo- 
rum. 

The name was afterwards applied to all 
coins having the figure of this bird and 
consequently we find the expressions Rap- 
penheller, Rappenschillinge, etc. 

In the Swiss cantons the Rappen was for- 
merly the tenth part of the Batzen, but 
since the introduction of the Latin Union 
system, the Rappen was made equal to the 
Centime, and is struck in copper as the one 
hundredth part of the Franc. Multiples 
exist in nickel. 

RasL A gold coin of Travancore com- 
puted at ten Chakrams. Elliot, Coins of 
Southern India (iii. 3), states that it dates 
from a period anterior to the seventh or 
eighth century, and adds, ** though seldom 
seen in circulation, it is still the denomina- 
tion used in Northern Malabar for record- 
ing the value of lands and the ancient rev- 
enue assessed on them ; but for all ordinary 
transactions, it has long been superseded by 
the Kali Fanam, five of which are equal to 
one Rasi." 

Rathautthaler. The name given to a 
silver coin of Zurich struck to conunemo- 
rate the foundation of the City Hall in 
1698. It is from designs by H. J. Bullin- 
ger and has on one side a picture of the 
building, and on the reverse a view of the 
city of Zurich. 

The same title is given to an undated 
silver coin of Nuremberg from designs by 
P. H. Miiller^ This has a view of the town- 
hall on the obverse, and an illustration of 
the city on the reverse. See Madai (No. 
2313). 

Rathspraesentger. A silver coin of Aix- 
la-Chapelle struck for the value of 16 



Marks in 1711, and the same design was 
employed in 1752 for pieces of 8 Marks and 
32 Marks. The value is given in figures on 
a shield which is placed on the breast of 
the eagle on the obverse. The reverse has 
the coronation insignia on an altar and the 
inscription locvs . cobonationis . c-fflSABEiB. 

Rath Zeichen. The name used by Oer- 
man numismatists to describe tokens issued 
by a municipality or by civic authorities. 

Rati Seed. The unit of weight of the 
early monetary system of India and equal 
to 1.75 grains troy. It was the seed of 
the Ahrus precatorius, or wild licorice. 

One hundred Ratis, i.e., 175 grains, 
formed the Sata-raktika, a weight of fine 
metal, and this was used as the basis of the 
Rupee in 1542 and of the gold Mohur 
about a century earlier. The latter coin 
was, however, for a brief period raised to 
200 grains, but reverted to the Sata-rak- 
tika. See Pana. 

Ratitus. See Nummus Ratitus. 

Rautengroschen, Rautenheller. These 
terms are applied to various issues of Sax- 
ony from the fifteenth century to compara- 
tively modern times. The word Raute, 
means rue, and the bar composed of rue 
leaves is conspicuous on the armorial shield 
of Saxony. 

RawanL See Tankah. 

Rawranoke. A corruption of Roanoake 
(q.v.). 

Raymondine. See Raimondine. 

Razor Money. See Knife Money. 

Reaal. The name given to the Real in 
the Low Countries where it was not only 
extensively copied but also struck in gold, 
receiving the name of Gouden Reaal, or 
Real d'Or. The latter coin was issued 
under Maximilian and Philip (1482-1494) 
in Brabant and Holland, and the coinage 
continued until 1580. See Van der Chijs, 
(p. 267). 

The silver Reaal was also common in the 
latter part of the fifteenth century and 
dated specimens appeared as early as 1487 
(Frey, Nos. 285, 288). 

In 1821 a small silver coin, bearing the 
inscription i reaal was struck for the 
Dutch settlement in Curasao. 

Ready, usually found as **the ready." 
An elliptical expression for money imme- 



[197] 



Real 



Rebel Money 



diately available and used in this sense 
as early as the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. Other forms are ready money, 
ready gold, ready penny, ready sterling, 
etc. 

Shadwell, in his play The Squire of Al- 
satian 1688 (i. 1), mentions **the ready"; 
and Ooldsmith in the Eton Latin Orammar 
saySf Aes in presenti perfectum format, i.e., 
Ready money makes a man perfect." 



It 



Real. A silver coin current in such 
parts of Spain as were not conquered by 
the Moors. It was first struck at Seville 
and Burgos by Pedro III, king of Castile 
(1350-1368), and was called Nummus 
Realis, ** money of the king," from which 
the name Real was abbreviated. It was 
one eighth of the Peso, and was divided 
into 34 Maravedis or eight and one half 
Cuartos, and there are multiples as high 
as fifty Reales in silver and one hundred 
Reales in gold. See Cinquantina and Rial. 

The coin continued in use in Spain up to 
the time of the Revolution of 1869-1870, 
and was succeeded by the Peseta. It was 
extensively struck in Mexico, the Central 
American Republics, and in many coun- 
tries in South America. 

When the East India Company was char- 
tered in 1600, it struck a silver Crown, 
Half-Crown, Shilling, and Sixpence for use 
in India, and these pieces were also known 
as eight Reales, four Reales, two Reales, 
and Real. A one twenty-fourth Real was 
issued by James II for the plantations in 
North America, which has a reverse inscrip- 
tion VAL 24 PART REAL HISPAN. 

For a detailed account of this coin and its 
numerous varieties, etc., see Heiss, and for 
the Portuguese equivalents see Milreis. 

Real Branco. A silver coin of Goa, 
mentioned in the Lendas da India (circa. 
1550), and computed at seven hundred and 
twentv Reaes. There is a corresponding 
half. 

Real d'Or. See Reaal. 

Realito or RealHlo. A Spanish word 
meaning a small Real. It is applied to a 
series of silver Reales struck by Philip II 
and Philip III as Counts of Barcelona. 
The type usually reads barging civitas, 
1613, etc. 



Realone* A silver coin of the value of 
.eight Reals struck in (3enoa by the Banco 
di San Oeorgio in 1666. Its purpose was 
for trading with Spain and the Levant. 

Real Portugiies. A silver coin of Por- 
tugal which first appeared in the reign of 
Fernando I (1367-1383) and was equal to 
ten Dinheiros. A somewhat smaller va- 
riety was issued under Joao I (1383-1433) ; 
it was called the Real Cruzado and had 
a value of only nine Dinheiros. Still an- 
other variety, known as the Real Orosso, 
was struck in the reign of Alfonso V (1438- 
1481) and was valued at eleven Dinheiros. 
Some later issues show a value of ten 
Soldos, and others of forty Reis on the 
face of the coins, and when the Real was 
struck in copper in the reign of Sebastian 
(1557-1578) its value declined to one tenth 
of its silver predecessors. The half Real 
was commonly known as Chimfram. 

Real Ptreto. See Ceitil. . 

Reap SQver. See Plough Silver. 

Reaoz. The French equivalent for 
Reales. Pieces of five Reaux were struck 
at Barcelona in 1641 and 1642, and for 
Oran there were issued copper four and 
eight Reaux in 1691. 

Rebalu An early Jewish weight stand- 
ard; it was equal to one fourth of the 
Shekel. See 1 Samuel (ix. 8). 

RebeUenthaler The name given to a 
Thaler struck by Henry Julius, Duke of 
Brunswick-Liineburg in 1595. It was is- 
sued to commemorate his victory over 
certain rebellious vassals, and the reverse 
refers to the sedition of Korah, as described 
in Numbers (xvi.). See also Madai (No. 
1110). 

Rebellion Token* The name given to a 
variety of the Sou tokens issued by La 
Banque du Peuple of Montreal, Canada, 
which bears a wreath of five maple leaves, 
among which was surreptitiously inserted 
a star of hope and a Phrygian cap of 
liberty. 

Rebel Money. A name given to a series 
of Crowns and half Crowns which were is- 
sued in 1643, probably by the "Confeder- 
ated Catholics*' at Kilkenny, Ireland. They 
are to some extent imitations of the Or- 
mond Money (g.v.). See also British Nu- 
mismatic Journal (ii. 348). 



[198] 



Rebia 



Regensburger 



Rebia, also variously called Babayeasee 
and Rabayiahsee, is a gold coin of the Ot- 
toman Empire and the fourth part of the 
Funduk, though it also passes in circula- 
tion for the third part of a Zer-mahbub. 
Its weight is about thirteen and a half 
grains, and its name is derived from reba, 
a fourth part. 

The silver Rebia, also known as the On- 
lik, is of the value of ten Paras or the 
fourth part of a Piastre. It weighs from 
fifty to seventy grains. Since the readjust- 
ment of the Turkish currency, the Onlik of 
the modem coinage is equal to nine and one 
one quarter Piastres. 

Rebia Budschu. See Budschu. 

Recdienpfennige, or Raitpfennige. The 

name given to certain jetons originally in- 
tended for purposes of computation, the 
earliest specimens of which can be traced to 
France in the thirteenth century. They 
appeared in Brabant under Philip the 
Good (1430-1467) and in Germany about a 
hundred years later. Large quantities 
were issued at Nuremberg, and in the Low 
Countries they were circulated under the 
name of Legpenninge. 

Later they were employed as counters 
at games, and are consequently now chiefly 
known as Spielpfennige or Spielmarken. 
For an exhaustive paper on the subject see 
Forrer, in Spink (i. 5). 

Rechnungsinunzen. See Money of Ac- 
count. 

Red, A. This term is sometimes applied 
to a copper coin in allusion to its color, but 
it is more • generally found in conjunction 
with a substantive and used in a negative 
sense, e,g,, * * I am without a red cent. ' ' 

Obsolete forms occur in which the combi- 
nation was employed for gold coins on 
account of their ruddy appearance. Thus 
T. Howell, in his Poems, 1568 (i. 91), has 
the line : * * Ich shall not mis of red ones to 
haue store, * ' and John Fletcher in his play 
The Mad Lover, 1625 (v. 4), says: 
** There's a red rogue to buy thee hand- 
kerchiefs.'* 

Reddite Crovm. A pattern by Thomas 
Simon. It is of the same type and bears 
the same legends as the Petition Crown 
{q.v.), and is from the same dies, but the 
edge is inscribed reddite. QViE.ciESARis. 
c.£SARi, etc. See Ruding (xxxiv. 7). 



Red Harp. A nickname given to the 
Groats and half Groats of Henry VIII and 
Edward VI, struck for Ireland, probably 
on account of the baseness of the metal, the 
copper in the composition coming to the 
surface soon after they were put in circu- 
lation. See Harp. 

Red Money. By an Act of the Assem- 
bly of the State of Maryland, of May 10, 
1781, there was an issue of bills to which 
was given the name of Red Money. This 
differed from previous issues in having the 
border of the notes printed in red. About 
£200,000 in face value was issued, and it 
was based upon the confiscated lands of 
British subjects in Maryland of an esti- 
mated value of £500,000. Most of this con- 
fiscated property was in lands, for which 
there was not a ready market, and the 
greater portion was disposed of on credit, 
and final settlement was not effected until 
long after the war was over. 

Redotatot. Du Cange cites an ordi- 
nance of 1342 in which coins of this name 
are mentioned as being base silver pieces 
of Dauphiny of the value of two and four 
Deniers. 

Reeding. The milling on the edge of a 
coin. The corrugations on the rim are 
parallel and run either transversely or ob- 
liquely. 

Referendum Dollar. The name given 
to a series of octagonal silver tokens issued 
by Joseph Lesher at Victor, Colorado, in 
the year 1900. There are five varieties, 
each one of which contains an ounce of 
coin silver. Lesher called them Referen- 
dum Dollars because they are to be referred 
to the people for acceptance or rejection. 

The United States government officials 
stopped all coinage of the pieces and 
seized the dies. 

Refrappe. A term used by French nu- 
mismatic writers to indicate a restrike. 

Regalis Aureus. See Royal d'Or. 

Regenbogenschiissel, also called Iriden. 
The name given to Keltic concave gold 
coins issued in Southwestern Germany and 
the Rhine Provinces by the Boii. 

Regensburger. The name of a former 
Bavarian money of account extensively 
used at Munich, Ratisbon, etc. Four hun- 
dred and ninety-two Regensburger went 



[199] 



Regiments Thaler 



RhemgoU Dukat 



to the s6-called Regensburger Pfund. See 
Noback (p. 692). 

Regiments Thaler. A silver coin struck 
at the city of Ulm in 1622. The obverse 
has a view of the town and on the reverse 
are eight armorial shields of the magis- 
trates or town councillors and the inscrip- 
tion : • PRO • PATRIA • CVNCTA • ET * PACEBE 

• ET • FEBBE * PABATi • A f cw Specimens 
were struck in gold. 

Reichsalbus* A name given to a variety 
of the Albus which was adapted to the cur- 
rencies of the Palatinate, Mainz, Frankfort 
a. M., and Hanau. It was the equivalent 
of eight Pfennige, or two Kreuzer, or one 
half Batzen, and occurs also in multiples of 
doubles and triples. 

Reichsgulden. A general name for a 
denomination representing two thirds of 
the Thaler (q.v.). It was formerly exten- 
sively used in the South German states. 

Reichsmiinzen. This term was estab- 
lished in the German Empire pursuant to 
an ordinance of July 9, 1873. The desig- 
nation Beichsmark is consequently the offi- 
cial one, but the name Mark is retained on 
the coinage. 

Reichsort* See Ort. 

Reichsthaler. The name given to the 
Speciesthaler by an ordinance of 1623. See 
Thaler. 

Reine. An ordinance of 1310 mentions 
*' Denier 8 d'or, que Von appelle Denier s d 
la Reine," but no such coins are in exist- 
ence. Some authorities think that it was a 
gold Denier struck by Louis IX of France 
in honor of his mother, Queen Blanche. 
Others identify it with a small Masse d'Or 
generally attributed to Philip III of France 
(1270-1285), on which the king is repre- 
sented in the act of receiving the royal 
mantle from the queen. See Blanchet, 
(i. 146). 

Reinoldigroschen. The name given to a 
silver coin of the city of Dortmund, issued 
during the fifteenth century, and which re- 
ceives its title from the figure of Renaldus, 
the patron saint of the city, which is found 
on one side of the coin. Half and quarter 
Groschen of the same design were also 
struck. 

Reis, plural of Real. See Milreis. 



The name given to a silver 
coin issued by Frederick V of Denmark in 
1749, and specially struck for Norway. It 
had a value of six Marks and appears to 
have been made of native silver. 

Reisethaler. See Schiffsthaler. 

Rektorsthaler. See Vislino. 

Rempd Heller. The nickname given to 
certain Heller struck in Breslau in 1422 in 
large quantities. Xbey bear on one side 
the head of St. John the Baptist, which was 
supposed to resemble that of Nikolaus Rem- 
pel, a justice of Breslau. 

Renavsance Medals. A general name 
for the Italian medals of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries which exhibit beautiful 
workmanship compared with their prede- 
cessors. There are a large number of trea- 
tises on the subject, e.g,, by Friedlander, 
Armand, and Lenormant in the Tresor de 
Numismatique et de Olyptique, 1834-1850. 

Repentigny Tokens. The name given to 
a series of pattern pieces which were in- 
tended to be used as passes over the bridge 
near Montreal, Canada, similar to the Bout 
de L'Isle Tokens (g.v.). They are de- 
described in detail by Breton (p. 55). 

Rep SQver. See Plough Silver. 

Resellado. A Spanish term for re- 
coined or re-stamped money. A piece of 
ten Reales, also called Duro Resellado, was 
issued by Ferdinand VII in 1821 with the 
word Resellado upon it, thus indicating a 
re-coinage. 

Restitution Coins. A term applied to 
such pieces as were re-coined at some time 
after their original emission. Such coins 
frequently occur in the Roman series and 
usually bear the word restituit or the ab- 
breviated form REST. 

The Restitution Coins first appear under 
Titus and end under Trajan. The latter is- 
sued a large number of them commemo- 
rative of some of his predecessors. 

Restrike. A later impression from an 
original die. 

Reverse, from the Latin revertere, to 
turn over, is the opposite of Obverse (q.v.). 
The inscriptions on the reverse of a coin 
are usually considered of lesser import than 
those on the obverse. 

Rheingold Dukat. See Ausbeutemiin- 
zen. 



[200] 



Rkeinischer Albus 



Ryksdaalder 



Rlieiiiitcher Albiit. Rhemitcher Schfl- 
ling. The name given to the Oros and its 
corresponding half struck in the Ehenish 
Provinces during the sixteenth century. 
They frequently bear an inscription read- 
ing MONETA.NOVA.RENENS^ 

Rhino. A slang term for money. John 
G. Saxe in his poem Polyphemus and Ulys- 
ses (ii.), has the following rhjnne: 

Drunker than any one you or I know. 
Who buys his "Rhenish" with ready rhino. 

Rial, or RyaL A silver coin of Morocco 
which occurs in both round and rectan- 
gular form. It corresponded to the Span- 
ish Real and was divided into thirteen and 
a half Ukkias. For a detailed account of 
its comparative weight and fineness see 
Noback (p. 243). 

The Eial of the modem Morocco coinage 
is sometimes known as the Piastre, and is 
subdivided into one hundred Centimos. II 
corresponds in value to the quarter Franc 
or quarter Peseta, and must consequently 
not be confused with the Turkish Piastre. 
See Abbasi. 

For Zanzibar, the Rial has been issued 
since A.H. 1299 with Arabic inscriptions, 
and is the size of a dollar. 

Rial Budschu. See Budschu. 



An Italian word meaning cur- 
ly. It was applied to the silver Testone of 
forty Soldi made by Benvenuto Cellini for 
Alessandro de Medici, of Florence (1533- 
1536), on account of the curly head on the 
obverse. See Symonds, Life of Cellini 
(i. Ixxx.). 

Rice was a current medium of exchange 
during the later prehistoric age of Japan. 
See Munro (pp. 19-20). It was extensively 
used in the payment of taxes and govern- 
ment officials readily accepted it. 

Riddock. See Ruddock. 

Rider. A Scotch gold coin issued by 
James III in 1475, in his second coinage. 
It receives its name from the figure of the 
king on a galloping horse, and its weight 
was eighty grains. 

There are divisions of one quarter, one 
third, one half, and two thirds, some of 
which are assigned to this monarch and 
others to his successor, James IV. See 
Rijder. 



Ridit i.e., Silver. A name used in Sin- 
halese literature to designate the hook- 
money. This term, however, was probably 
applied to other silver money before the in- 
troduction of the Larins. The term Ridi 
pahayi, i.e., five Ridis, is still used in re- 
mote districts in the sense of a Rix Dollar. 

Rhys Davids (sec. 73) states that no 
specimens of the Ridis have survived. 

Riding Money. See Pi Tch^eng Ma. 

Rigmarie. An obsolete dialect term used 
both in England and Scotland for a coin of 
small value. The name is supposed to have 
originated from one of the base silver coins 
struck during the reign of Mary (1553- 
1558) which had the words reg. mabia. as 
part of the inscription. 

Rigsdaler. The Danish equivalent of 
the Reichsthaler. It was divided into six 
Marks of sixteen Skillings. The double 
Rigsdaler was called the Speciesdaler, or 
Rigsbankdaler. 

Rijder. A coin of the United Provinces, 
Friesland, etc. It obtains its name from 
the armored knight on horseback figured 
on the obverse, and the term was applied 
to any coin bearing this device irrespective 
of the metal. The issues in gold, called 
Gouden Rijder were synonymous with the 
Scottish Rider of James III, and the 
French Cavalier. The gold Rijder of 
Gueldres was first issued in 1581 and that 
of Friesland in 1583. The Nederlandsche 
Rijder was ordered to be struck early in 
the year 1606 according to the Muntplacaat 
of that year. 

The silver Rijder, or Rijderdaalder was 
also originally issued in 1581 according to 
the Ordonnantie. It was copied in Fries- 
land, etc. This coin is sometimes referred 
to as the Ducaton, and it was usually com- 
puted at forty Stuivers. 



A silver denomination in the 
modern Persian series equal to one Kran 
and five Shahi. 

Rijksdaalder, or Rix Daler. The Dutch 
equivalent of the Reichsthaler. It was is- 
sued early in the sixteenth century and was 
retained in the currency as late as the 
reign of Louis Napoleon (1806-1810). 

The designation is retained as a popular 
name for the current silver coin of two and 
one half Gulden of the Netherlands. 



[201] 



Riludaler 



Rogati 



Riksdaler. The Scandinavian equiva- 
lent of Beichsthaler. It was introduced by 
Gufitav I of Sweden (1521-1560) and di- 
vided into twelve Marks. . Since the mone- 
tary convention of 1875 it represents forty- 
eight Skillings, or one hundred Ore. See 
Daler. 

Riktort See Ort. 

Rio. A small Japanese copper coin, the 
one tenth of the Sen {q.v.). The Chinese 
equivalent is the Li (q.v.). 

Ring Dollar. See Holey Dollar. 

Ringgit The name given to the Real or 
Spanish Dollar in the Malay Peninsula. 
See Pitje. 

Ring Money. One of the earliest forms 
of a circulating medium, and whicb appears 
to be generally adjusted to a graduated 
system founded upon a certain weight. 

Its antiquity is demonstrated by its 
occurrence in ancient Egyptian paintings, 
showing merchants weighing rings in scales, 
and there is a reference to it in Genesis 
(xxiv. 22). When the Romans invaded 
England they found ring money in use ; in 
Ireland it was utilized until the Danish in- 
vasion, and in Scandinavia until the thir- 
teenth century. In the museum at Stock- 
holm specimens are exhibited of large spiral 
rings of gold, which could be opened, closed, 
and linked into a chain. Some of these 
specimens weigh from eight hundred to one 
thousand grammes. A primitive money in 
Japan consisted of copper rings coated with 
silver and gold and called Kin Kwan and 
Gin Kwan according to their composition. 
See Munro (p. 5), and conf. Manilla. 

Rix Dal^r. See Rijksdaalder. 

Rix Dolkur. A silver coin struck by the 
English government for Ceylon from 1803 
to 1821. 

Roanoake. An inferior kind of Wam- 
pum made and used by the natives of Vir- 
ginia. 

Captain Smith in his work on Virginia, 
1624 (iii. 418), mentions **Rawranoke or 
white beads that occasion as much dissen- 
tion among the Salvages (sic), as gold and 
siluer amongst Christians. ' ' 

In the Statutes of Virginia for 1656 
(repr. 1823, i. 397) it was ordered that 
* * Peeces of eight that are good and of silver 
shall pass for five shillings, and Roanoake 

[ 202 



and Wompompeeke to keep their wonted 
value." 

Sir W. Talbot in describing the Discov- 
eries of J. Lederer, 1672 (27), says, ''Their 
currant Coyn of small shells, whieh they 
call Roanoaek or Peaek." 

Robciliuo, or Robertone. The common 
name for the Liard struck by Robert, 
Count of Anjou and Duke of Calabria 
(1309-1343). 

Robotnuurkcn. A term used by German 
numismatists for such tokens or jetons as 
are struck to indicate some compelled ser- 
vice done in socage. See Neumann 
(28482-28491). 

Robustus Daalder. The name given to 
a silver coin of Brabant issued in 1584. The 
reverse has the armorial shields of Brus- 
sels, Antwerp, Louvain, and Bois-le-Due, 
and the motto confortare.et.esto.robvs- 
Tvs,t.c.,**Be of courage and be strong,'' or 
**Have a bold heart and a strong arm." 
There is a half and a quarter of the same 
type. 

Roda, meaning a wheel, is the name 
given to a leaden or tin coin of the value of 
three, ten, or fifteen Bazaruccos, issued by 
the Portuguese for their possessions in In- 
dia, at the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. 

These coins were struck at Damao, Bas- 
sein, and Goa, and receive their name from 
the fanciful resemblance of the cross on 
the reverse to a St. Catherine's wheel. The 
second capture of Goa by Alfonso de Al- 
buquerque occurred on November 25, 1510, 
the anniversary of the martyrdom of St. 
Catherine, and the wheel, the instrument of 
her martyrdom, was made a part of the 
Arms of (Joa. 

RodiotL The name generally used to 
describe the Zecchini struck by the Grand 
Masters of Rhodes and which were copied 
from the Venetian types. 

Riissler. The name given to the half 
Dick Thaler of the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, 
and Unterwalden, from the figure of St. 
Martin riding a horse which occurs on 
these coins. 

Rogati. A money current in Padua in 
the thirteenth century. A document of 
1294 mentions a payment of viginti Rogatos 
parvos, 

] 



Rolabasso 



Rote Crown 



Rolabasso. See Bollbatzen. 

RoKno. A variety of the Ducato of 
Savoy current in the sixteenth century and 
valued at 64 Grossi. See Promis (ii. 54). 

RoUbatzen. A name given to a variety 
of Batzen issued by Bishop Hugo of Con- 
stance at the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, on account of the figure of three rings 
or rolling circular lines, which were part 
of his armorial bearings and which were 
copied on these coins. 

The type was imitated in Italy at Mes- 
serano, at Carmagnola, at Casale in Monte- 
ferrato, and by Francesco Trivulzio at Ro- 
goredo (1518-1523) and the original name 
was transformed into Rolabasso, or Arla- 
baso. The Italian coin was current for 
two Grossi. 

RomanatL A popular name in ancient 
times for certain Solidi struck by such By- 
zantine emperors as bore the name Roma- 
nus. 

Romanino. See Grosso Romanino. 

Romano. Another name for the By- 
zantine Solidus. Du Cange cites a number 
of ordinances, documents, etc., of the 
twelfth century in which this form occurs. 

Romefeoh, or Romescot. See Peter's 
Pence. 

Romesine. In the year 1140 Roger II, 
King of Sicily, called an assembly of the 
barons and the clergy at Ariano di Puglia, 
in Campania, to discuss among other mat- 
ters certain monetary reforms. At this 
meeting the king abolished the pieces 
known as Romesines, which had enjoyed an 
extensive circulation, and introduced in 
their stead three types of the Follari in 
copper, and also established a new silver 
coin which received the name of Ducato 
d'Argento. See Bngel and Serrure (ii. 
810). 

Rond. A French nickname for a Sou. 
The allusion is to its shape. 

Roob or Rnb. The quarter of the Abys- 
sinian Talari. See Ber. 

Roosebeker. A silver coin of Brabant, 
a variety of the double Groot, struck in 
1387 and later. It obtains its name from 
a group of five roses which surmount the 
double shields of Brabant and Burgundy. 
Philip, Count of Flanders, issued them at 
Ghent, and by an agreement with Johanna 



of Brabant they were struck later at Mech- 
lin and Lou vain. See Blanchet (i. 443, 
ii. 4) and Engel and Serrure (iii. 1094). 

Roosscbelling. A variety of the Schel- 
ling of the Low Countries having on the 
obverse a floriated cross surmounted by a 
rose. It is consequently also known as the 
Escalin k la Rose. 

This piece was first struck in 1601 and 
the coinage extended to the middle of the 
eighteenth century. 

Roosstuiver. A base silver coin of the 
same design as the preceding and of half 
the value. 

Ropaka. An early Indian coin, the one 
seventieth of the Suvarna. See Cunning- 
ham (p. 22). 

Rosa Americana. A coinage consisting 
of an alloy of brass, zinc, and silver (com- 
monly known as Bath Metal), and issued in 
1772-24 by William Wood, for the use of 
the colonists in North America. The de- 
nominations were Twopence, Penny, and 
Halfpenny, and a pattern Twopence issued 
in 1733, after Wood's death. 

For a detailed account of this coinage see 
a paper contributed by Philip Nelson to the 
British Numismatic Journal (i, 265-285). 

Rosalino. The popular name for the 
Pezza of. eight Reali struck in Florence 
in 1665 which bore the figure of a rose 
plant. 

RQsario. Du Cange cites an ordinance 
of 1300 in which Rosarios are mentioned 
as coins prohibited in France. 

Rosary. A base or counterfeit coin of 
foreign origin, current in England during 
the thirteenth century at the value of the 
silver penny. It was declared illegal by a 
statute of Edward I. 

It is referred to in Fabyan's Chronicle, 
1513 (vii. 401), and Grafton's Chronicle, 
1568 (ii. 182). 

J. Simon, in his Essay on Irish Coins, 
1749 (p. 15), says: ** These . . . foreign 
coins, called Mitres, Lionines, Rosaries, etc. 
from the stamp or figures impressed on 
them, were privately brought from... be- 
yond the seas and uttered here for pen- 
nies." 

Rose Crown* A name given to the first 
milled Crown of the reign of Charles II 
from the fact that it had the figure of a 



[208] 



Rote Farthing 



Ruba 



rose under the bust, said to indicate that 
it was struck from silver derived from 
mines in the western part of England. 
These coins were issued in 1662. 
Rote Farthing. See Farthing. 

Rosen Groschen. A silver coin of the 
Duchy of Juliers issued under William II 
(1361-1393). It receives its name from 
the figures of eleven roses, five on the ducal 
crown and six on the reverse design. 

Rose Noble. See Noble. 

Rose Pennies and half Pence were 
coined in London during the reigns of Ed- 
ward VI and Mary. They were of base 
silver and intended for use in Ireland, but 
were withdrawn from circulation in 1556. 
They receive their name from the design of 
a full-blown rose on the obverse. 

Rose Rywl. Another name for the 
Double-Ryal, a gold coin of the value of 
thirty Shillings, issued by James I of Eng- 
land. See Noble. 

Rosina. See Pezza. 

Rossgulden. A silver denomination of 
Brunswick and Liineburg from the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. It takes 
the name from the figure of the running 
horse on the reverse. 

Rodischild Love Dollar. See Janau- 
schek Thaler. 

Rouble. See Ruble. 

Roue, i.e., a wheel. The terms Roue de 
devant and Roue de derriere, meaning the 
front and hind wheel, are used in French 
slang to denote respectively the two and 
five Franc pieces. 

Rouleau (plural Rouleaux.) A French 
term meaning literally a roll of coins, but 
also applied to a set of coins making a fixed 
unit. Thus Zay (p. 107) states that, by 
an ordinance of 1819, a rouleaux of thirty 
pieces of the billon ten Centime pieces of 
French Guiana, also called Marques Blancs, 
were computed at three Francs. 

Roupie. The French equivalent of the 
Rupee (q.v.). 

Roverino. A name given to the Papal 
Fiorino of Sixtus IV (1471-1484) and Ju- 
lius II (1503-1513). They have the ar- 
morial bearings of the family della Rovere. 

Rovetti. Promis (ii. 34) states that 
these were coins of the Dukes of Savoy 
and valued at eight Orossi. 



RojraL An obsolete form of the Spanish 
Real and frequently cited as the "Piece of 
Eight'' (g.v.). 

In Sir Robert Cotton's Privy Council Re- 
port of Sept. 2, 1626, occurs a passage: 
**The said Royal of Eight runs in account 
of trade at 5s. of his Majesties now Eng- 
lish Mony." 

Ro3ral Cormiat. A silver coin of Mar- 
seilles said to have been originally struck 
circa 1186 by Ildefonso, Marquis of Pro- 
vence. See Blancard, Le MUlares, 1876 
(p. 11). 

Ro3ral d'Or, or Regalis Aureus. A 

French gold coin of the fourteenth cen- 
tury which bears on the obverse a full- 
length figure of the king in his royal robes, 
and he is usually represented standing un- 
der a Gk)thic canopy. 

A petit Royal d'Or was issued in the 
reign of Philip III called Mantelet d'Or. 

In the time of Edward IV the English 
applied the name Royal to the Noble 
iq.v.) ; and in the reign of Henry VII the 
double Ryal was called the Royal or Sov- 
ereign. 

Ro3ral Farthing. See Farthing. 

Royalin. A silver coin issued in Den- 
mark from about 1755 to 1807 for its pos- 
sessions in Tranquebar. The obverse bears 
the ruler's monogram crowned, and on the 
reverse is the Danish Arms with the in- 
scription I BOTALiN or 2 ROTALiNER, and the 
date. France issued similar silver coins of 
one, two, four, and eight Royalins for Pon- 
dichery. See Bergsoe, Trankehar-Monter, 
and Zay. 

Royal Parisis Double. A name given to 
a variety of the double Gros, or Oros Par- 
isis, which bears the inscription moneta 
DVPLEX REGALIS. See also Parisis. 

Rozenobel, also called Gouden Nobel 

A gold coin of the Low Countries, copied 
from the English Noble. The type issued 
by Johanna of Brabant was of the value 
and fineness of the English prototype. 

Rscb. The name given to the Piastre in 
the Egyptian coinage. 

Rub. See Roob. 

Ruba. A base silver coin of the modem 
Egyptian series of the value of five Pias- 
tres. It was introduced A.H. 1255 or A.D- 
1839. 



[204] 



Ruble 



Rupie 



Rnble, or Rouble. A Bussian silver coin 
originally subdivided into one hundred 
Denga but later into one hundred Kopecks. 
The only exception to this rule is an issue 
of Rubles, halves, and quarters, respective- 
ly, of ninety-six, forty-eight, and twenty- 
four Kopecks struck by Elizabeth in 1757 
for Livonia. 

This coin was originally a piece of silver 
cut from a bar, and the name is derived 
from the Eussian ruhitj, i.e., to chop off 
or to cut off. The earliest attempt to give 
it a distinct circular form was about 1652 
when Alexei Michailowitsch took Thaler of 
West Friesland, Overysel, Hungary, Tyrol, 
etc., and struck over them the portrait of 
the Czar on one side and the Russian 
double-headed eagle and legends on the 
other. 

The regular issue began under Peter the 
Great in 1704, and in 1707 appeared a new 
type with the value expressed, and the date 
in Arabic numerals. Catharine I in 1725 
issued a Klippe or square Ruble and cor- 
responding half and quarter. These have 
the double eagle in each comer and the 
value and date in the centre. 

Ruddock, also, but rarely, written Rid- 
dock. An obsolete slang name for a gold 
coin in allusion to its ruddy color. 

John Lyly, in his play Midas, 1592 (iLl), 
has the line: **If . . .he haue golden rud- 
docks in his bagges, he must be wise and 
honourable." 

Mabbe, in a translation of Aleman's 
Ouzman d'Alfarache, 1622 (ii, 147), says: 
'* Three thousand crownes, in good, dainty 
braue ruddocks, all good double pistolets." 

Riibener, or Riiben Batzen. A nick- 
name given to small silver coins of Salz- 
burg, struck by the Archbishop Leonhard 
von Keutschach (1495-1519), from the tur- 
nip in the armorial shield. A so-called 
Riiben Thaler and Riiben Gulden (Frey 
No. 520) were struck by the same prelate. 

Rimdstiicke, or Rundstycken, meaning 
** round pieces," is the popular name for 
the Swedish Ore of copper. They occur as 
singles, doubles, and quadruples under 
Charles XI (1660-1697), struck for Reval, 
Narva, etc. 

Richard Hayes, in The Negociator's 
Magazine, 1740 (p. 337), has the following 
passage: 



'*In Stockholm they keep their accounts 
in Rixdollars, Copper Dollars, and Run- 
sticks, reckoning 32 Runsticks to a Copper 
Dollar, and 6 Copper Dollars to a Rixdol- 
lar valued at 3 Polish Florins, or about 4s. 
6d. Sterling. 

**They have no such coin as a Runstick, 
but [it] is only used in their reckoning; 
yet they have copper Farthings, of which 
they reckon 2 to a Runstick, 3 Runsticks 
to a Whitton, 10^ Whittons to a Copper 
Dollar, and 6 Copper Dollars, or 64 Whit- 
tons to a RixdoUar." 

Rupee, also called Rupih and Roupie. A 

silver coin of India, dating back to the 
reign of Sher Shah (A.H. 946-952), and 
copied in Assam, Ceylon, Mombasa, etc. 
The name is probably derived from the 
Sanscrit word Rupa, meaning cattle. See 
Sihansah. 

In 1676 the Bombay mint was authorized 
by Charles II **to coin rupees, pice, and 
budgrooks,*' which were to be current in 
all the dependencies of the East India Com- 
pany; and in 1758 the coinage rights in 
Bengal were granted to the Company and 
Rupees were issued in the name of Alam- 
gir II, with the regnal year 5 A.H. 

The ancient silver standard of India was 
superseded in 1899 by the gold standard, 
with an arbitrary rating of the Rupee at 
sixteen Pence, which is maintained by 
means of a gold redemption fund. The 
present Rupee weighs one hundred and 
eighty grains, or 11.66 grammes, and is 
nine hundred and sixteen one thousandths 
to nine hundred and twenty-five one thou- 
sandths fine. 

The divisions consist of sixteen Annas, 
each of four Pice, each of three Pies. 
There are also half, quarter, and eighth 
Rupees. In Ceylon the Rupee is divided 
into one hundred Cents. See Mahbubia 
and Sicca, and cow/. Zay (p. 306). 

RupL A silver coin of Persia. See 
Nadiri. 

Rupia. A silver coin of Goa and Diu, 
first issued in 1725, with a value of six 
hundred Reis. A corresponding half was 
struck in 1729. The present Portuguese 
Indian Rupia corresponds with the British 
Indian Rupee. 

Rupie. A silver coin of German East 
Africa, introduced in 1890, and divided 



[ 205 ] 



Ruspone 



Ryiihei Eilio 



into one hundred Heller. There is a double 
Rupie of the same type. 

Rutpone* A gold coin of the value of 
three Zecchini, introduced at Florence un- 
der Giovanni Qastone (1723-1737) of the 
Medici family, and continued to the time 
of the provisional government of 1859. 

The Italian word ruspa, when used to 
describe a coin, means in mint condition, 
and the name was probably applied to 
these pieces on account of their being uni- 
formly bright and well preserved. 

Ruasino. The name given to a variety 
of Grosso struck by Theodore I of Monte- 
ferrato (1306-1338) at the mint of Ghi- 
vasso. 

RyaL A Scottish gold coin, of which 
there is a pattern in the second coinage 
of James V (1525), but which did not 
appear as a regular issue until the reign 
of Mary I and dated 1555. It had a value 
of sixty Shillings and is consequently some- 
times referred to as the Three-pound Piece. 
It is twenty-two carats fine and weighs one 
hundred and eighteen grains. 

The silver Ryal, with its divisions of one 
third and two thirds, was first issued in 
1565. The second type bears on the re- 
verse a tortoise or **schell padocke'' creep- 
ing up the trunk of a yew tree which is 
supposed to intimate the ascent of Henry 
Darnley, son of the Earl of Lennox by his 



marriage to Mary. These Ryals are also 
called Cruickston Dollars (q.v.). They are 
eleven parts fine to one part alloy, and 
weigh four hundred and seventy-two and 
one half grains. 

The Ryal, or Thirty Shilling Piece, of 
James VI is commonly known as the 
Sword Dollar (g.v.). 

Rytl. A name given to the Rose Noble 
in the time of Edward IV. In 1543 the 
half Sovereign of the value of ten Shillings 
wa^ substituted for the Ryal. See Noble. 

RjraL See Rial. 

Ryder. See Rider and Rijder. 

Ryksdaalder. See Rijksdaalder. 

RyksorL See Ort. 

Rynsgulden. The name given to the 
gold Florin struck at Arnheim by William, 
Duke of Juliers and Gueldres (1383-1402). 

Ryo* A Japanese standard of value 
equal to ten Momme. It was used in deter- 
mining the weight of gold in dust or grains, 
when this form of the metal was used for 
payment, and when the Oban (g.v.) was 
issued it was stamped with the Ryo value. 

The Ryo ordinarily was computed at 
twenty Kwan, or twenty thousand Mon of 
copper coin. It was equal to four Bu or 
sixteen Shu. See Munro (pp. 186, 189). 

Ryiihei Eiho. See Jiu Ni Zene. 



[206] 



Sabi 



Salding 



s 



SabL The patination or rust on a Jap- 
anese coin. For a detailed account see 
Munro, Introduction (p. x.). 

Sacramental Tokens* See Communion 
Tokens. 

Sad-Dinar. See Mahmudi, and Sanar. 

Saddle Money. See Eiu Ma. 

SadOd. See Siddiki. 

SagittariL A name given, on account of 
their type, to Persian Darics and Sigloi. 
See Archers. 

Sahebqiran. A Persian silver coin, cor- 
responding in size to the Real. It was 
struck for Tabriz, Ardebil, Kermanscha- 
han, etc. See Fonrobert (No. 4670-4714). 

Saiga. A small thick silver coin of the 
Merovingians. Charles Martel struck them 
at Aries, Marseilles, etc. Their value 
varied; some authorities claim that they 
represent the fourth part of the Tremissis, 
while others think that they were equal to 
the Denarius of that period. See Blanchet 
(i. 24, 27, 102). 

Saime. According to Kelly (p. 5) this 
was a former money of account in Algiers 
and computed at fifty to the Aspre. 

SL Afra Dukaten. The general desig- 
nation for a series of gold coins issued by 
the city of Augsburg in 1635, 1636, etc., 
which have on the obverse a figure of St. 
Afra, the patron saint of the city. 

Saint Andrew. A gold coin of Scotland, 
first struck in the reign of Eobert II (1371- 
1390), and continued almost uninterrupt- 
edly to the second coinage of James V in 
1525. It derives its name from the figure 
of St. Andrew with extended arms which 
occurs on one side. Its weight varied from 
thirty-eight to eighty-one grains, and the 
half in proportion. See Lion. 

SL Andriet Gulden. A gold coin of the 
Counts of Holland and the Dukes of Bur- 
^ndy, struck during the fourteenth cen- 
tury and later. It receives its name from 
the standing figure of St. Andrew on the 
reverse. See under Andreas, supra. 

[207 



St. Blatius Thaler. See Vislino. 

St. Jans Rijksdaalder. The name given 
to a silver coin issued by the Emperor 
Rudolf II for Groningen in 1598 and con- 
tinued until about 1602. It has on the 
obverse a full length figure of St. John the 
Baptist holding a lamb. 

An essay of this piece, called the St. 
Jans Daalder, appeared as early as 1561, 
and was struck on both round and square 
planchets. On it the Emperor's name is 
of course omitted. 

St. Matthew'sgroschen. See Matthias- 
groschen. 

Saint Patrick's Money. Half Pence and 
Farthings bearing upon the obverse a 
figure of King David kneeling and playing 
on the harp. On the reverse is the stand- 
ing figure of St. Patrick with a cross or 
crozier in his hand. 

Simon classed these coppers as Irish 
siege-money, and states that they were 
struck in Dublin in 1643. Philip Nelson, 
however, in a paper contributed to the 
British Numismatix^ Journal (i. 184), 
proves without a doubt that they were not 
issued prior to 1678. They are sometimes 
called **Newby Coppers,'* because Mark 
Newby brought a quantity of them from 
Ireland to New Jersey in 1681, and they 
were used for a time as currency in that 
State. See also British Numismatic Journal 
(iii. 219-222). 

St. Victor Daalder, or Ecu au St. Victor. 

The name gives to a silver coin of William 
de Bronckhorst, Seigneur de Batenbourg 
(1556-1575), which has on one side the 
figure of St. Victor armed with a sword. 
The inscription reads sanctus victor mar- 
Tm. 

Salding, or Scalding. A base English 
silver coin of the period of Edward I. In 
the Calendar of Documents relating to Ire- 
land, circa 1285 (iii. 8), there is a refer- 
ence stating that the Bishop of Waterford, 
Stephen de Fulborn, caused new money to 
be made. It was called Scalding, Bishop's 



Sek 



Sampietrino 



money, or Stephening, from the name of 
the Bishop. See Brabant. 

Sak was used by the Venetians during 
the thirteenth century as an equivalent for 
money, and the Abyssinians have employed 
bars of rock-salt. See Amoles. Marco Polo 
in his Travels (Bk. ii. 38), in describing 
the Chinese province of Eain-du, remark 
as follows: 

'*In this country there are salt-springs, 
from which they manufacture salt by boil- 
ing it in small pans. When the water has 
boiled for an hour, it becomes a kind of 
paste, which is formed into cakes of the 
value of twopence each. These, which are 
flat on the lower, and convex on the upper 
side, are placed upon hot tiles, near a fire, 
in order to dry and harden. On this latter 
species of money the stamp of the grand 
Khan is impressed, and it cannot be pre- 
pared by any other than his own officers. 
Eighty of the cakes are made to pass for 
a saggio of gold. But when these are car- 
ried by the traders amongst the inhabitants 
of the mountains and other parts little fre- 
quented, they obtain a saggio of gold for 
sixty, fifty, or even forty of the salt cakes, 
in proportion as they find the natives less 
civilized, further removed from the towns, 
and more accustomed to remain on the same 
spot; inasmuch as people so circumstanced 
cannot always have a market for their gold, 
musk, and other commodities. And yet 
even at this rate it answers well to them 
who collect the gold-dust from the beds of 
the rivers. The same merchants travel in 
like manner through the mountainous and 
other parts of Thebeth (Tibet), where the 
money of salt has equal currency. Their 
profits are considerable, because these 
country people consume the salt with their 
food, and regard it as an indispensable 
necessary; whereas the inhabitants of the 
cities use for the same purpose only the 
broken fragments of the cakes, putting the 
whole cakes into circulation as money.*' 

In a note to the foregoing passage the 
translator adds: **The saggio of Venice 
was the sixth part of an ounce, and conse- 
quently the cake of salt was in value the 
four hundred and eightieth part of an 
ounce of gold, which, at the price of four 
pounds sterling, is exactly two pence for 
the value of each cake; a coincidence that 
could hardly have been expected. Its pre- 

* 

[ 



cision, however, must depend on a com- 
parison between the English pence and 
Venetian denari of that day." 

Up to modem times salt cakes have been 
used as money on the borders of Yunnan. 

Saltire Plack. See Plack. 

Sttk Silver. Kennett, in Parochial An- 
tiquities of the year 1363, has the following : 

''Salt-Sylver is One penny paid at the 
Feast of St. Martin, by the servile Tenants 
to their Lord, as a commutation for the ser- 
vice of carrying their Lord's Salt from the 
Market to his Lardar." 

Sahmg, or Mayon. A Siamese silver 
coin, the one fourth part of the Tical 
(g.v.). 

Salute, called by the French Salut d'Or. 
A gold coin issued by Henry V of England 
in 1422, by virtue of his power as Regent 
of France by the treaty of Troyes. The 
obverse shows the Annunciation, or the 
angel's Salutation of the Virgin Mary, and 
the two shields of England and France. 
Between the figures is the word ave on a 
scroll, above which are celestial rays. The 
surrounding inscription reads: henricvs : 

DEI : GRA : PBACOBV ' : Z : ANGLIE : REX. 

The Salutes of Henry V are very rare, 
but those of Henry VI are quite common. 
The mint marks indicate that they were 
struck for Calais, Paris, Amiens, Dijon, etc. 

The above coins were copied from the 
Salut d'or, originally issued by Charles VI 
of France (1380-1422). See Hoffmann (7, 
8). 

Saluto d'Oro and Salute d'Argento. 
Names given to gold and silver coins issued 
in Naples and Sicily by Charles 1 of Anjou 
(1266-1285), and by his successor, Charles 
II (1285-1309). 

They bear on the obverse a representa- 
tion of the Salutation of the Vii^in and are 
the prototypes of the Anglo-Gallic Salute 
(g.v.). 

Salvator Thaler. The name given to a 
Swedish Thaler with the effigy of the Sav- 
ior on one side, and the inscription sal- 
vator MVNDi. It was introduced by Gus- 
tavus I Wasa in 1542, and continued until 
the reign of Christina. 

Sampietrino. A Papal copper coin of 
the value of two and a half Baiocci, issued 
by Pius VI (1775-1798). See Madonnina. 



208] 



Samson d'Or 



Santo Thome 



Samson d^Or. See Fort. 

Sanar. The unit of the coinage of 
Afghanistan, which is computed as follows : 

10 Dinar = i Palga or Taka. 

5 Palsa =r 1 ShAhl. 

2 ShAbi = 1 Sanar, Saddlnar, or Mlaquall. 

2 Sanar =r 1 Abbasi. 

1^ Abbasi = 1 Quran. 

2 Quran = 1 Rupee. 

20 Rupees = 1 Tuman. 

Conf. for the analogy to the modern Per- 
sian coinage, Senar, Abbasi, etc. 

Sanar-Kasu. The name given by the 
former natives of Portuguese India to the 
Venetian Zecchino, which was at one time 
current in Goa and vicinity. 

San Carlo. A silver coin of Charles 
Emanuel I, Duke of Savoy, struck in 1614, 
and equal to nine Fiorini. 

San€hetL A general name for coins is- 
sued by such rulers of Navarre as bore the 
name of Sancho, of which there were sev- 
eral. 

Sancto Zoanne* A coin of Florence, al- 
luded to in an ordinance of 1494 as being 
equal to twenty Quattrini. 

Sand Dollar or Sand Cast Dollar. The 

name given to a Mexican Peso cast in Chi- 
huahua by Ferdinand VII during the Rev- 
olutionary period (1812-1821). These 
pieces are generally counterstamped. 

Sanese d'Oro. A gold coin of Siena, 
struck by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti 
(1390-1404). It has a large S on one side 
and a cross on the reverse. 

San Felipe. A silver coin issued by 
PhUip III of Portugal (1621-1640) for 
Goa. It receives its name from the letters 
8. F., i.e., Sao Felipe, which are found on 
the obverse, one on each side of the figure 
of a saint. See Ponrobert (3878). 

San Giovannino. A silver coin of Gtenoa 
issued in 1671, and of the value of one 
sixteenth of the Scudo. It obtains its name 
from the standing figure of St. John the 
Baptist, represented on one side of the coin. 

The same name is given to a billon coin 
of the value of three Soldi struck at Cor- 
reggio circa 1615 to 1630, on which was a 
seated figure of St. John the Abbot. 

San Joao. A silver coin issued by John 
IV of Portugal (1640-1656) for Damao and 
QosL. It receives its name from the letters 
s. I., i.e., Sao Joao, which occur on the 
obverse, one on each side of the figure of 



[209 



a saint holding a banner. See Fonrobert 

(3881-3887, 3965). 

San Martino. A silver coin of Lucca 
issued under Republican rule from about 
1660 to 1750, and of a value of fifteen 
Soldi. The reverse has a figure of St. Mar- 
tin and the beggar. See Settler Thaler. 

San Mauricio. A silver coin struck by 
Charles II, Duke of Savoy (1504-1553), 
which received this name from the figure 
of St. Maurice on horseback. It was issued 
in two values, i.e., sixteen Grossi and nine 
Grossi, and there are corresponding halves 
and quarters. See Promis (41). 

Sannar. The name given to a billon 
Soldo of Perpignan struck in 1528 by order 
of Charles V. 

San Paolo. A silver coin of Guastalla 
issued in the reign of Ferdinand Gonzaga 
(1595-1630). Its value was twenty-one 
Soldi. Conf. also Paolo. 

Sanpetronio. A Papal coin of Bologna 
referred to in an ordinance of Francesco 
Maria, Governor of Siena, in 1686. 

Sanpierino. Another name for the 
Grosso d'Argento struck in Home by the 
Senate, circa 1297, to commemorate the ap- 
proaching jubilee year 1300. It bears a 
figure of St. Peter. See also Sampietrino. 

San Pietro. See Albulo del San Pietro. 

San Rupee. A type of the Rupee struck 
by the East India Company at Farukhabad 
A.H. 1203. It has the inscription yb 45, 
and is consequently usually referred to as 
the forty-five San Lucknow Rupee. 

Santa Croce. A silver coin of Lucca, is- 
sued in 1564 and later, and of the value 
of twenty-five Soldi. The usual reverse has 
a cross and the inscription salvatob mvndi. 

Sant' Anselmo. Another name for the 
Anselmino (g.v.). 

Santo Thome. A gold coin of the Por- 
tuguese Indies, struck as early as the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century, principally at 
Goa. Its value originally was fifteen hun- 
dred Reis, and there was a corresponding 
half. The earlier types represent on one 
side a figure of Saint Thomas standing 
dividing the date, and on the reverse the 
armorial shield of Portugal with an in- 
scription. 

At the beginning of the reign of John V 
(1706-1750) there was a readjustment of 

] 



San Vicente 



Scalding 



the monetary system and the Santo Thom6 
was struck in various sizes, based on the 
Xeraphin. We find in consequence a San 
Thome of two, four, eight, ten, twelve, and 
fifteen Xeraphins. The design on these 
coins is usually a cross, the lower bar of 
which divides the date, and the upper one 
the figures 12 X, 10 X, etc. 

The San Thome was issued at Goa until 
the year 1841. 

San Vicente, or Santo Vicente. A gold 
coin of Portugal, first issued by John III 
(1521-1557). It had a value of one thou- 
sand Reis, and bears the full length figure 
of St: Vincent and the inscription zelator 
proEi, a title conferred on John by Pope 
Paul III for his efforts to establish the 
Inquisition in Portugal. The coin was re- 
tained by Sebastian (1557-1578). 

Sao. A variety of paper money issued 
in Annam during the twelfth century. It 
was of two kinds, the smaller being valued 
from one hundred to seven hundred Sa- 
p^ques, and the larger sort represented 
higher values. See Schroeder (p. 48). 

Sao Felipe. See San Felipe. 

Sao Joao. See San Joao. 

Sapeque, also written Sepelc, is used 
chiefly by French numismatic writers as an 
equivalent for the Annamese Cash, of 
which six hundred are equal to one Qwan. 

Yule and Bumell, in HobsorirJobson, 
A Glossary of Anglo-Indian Colloquial 
Words, 1886 {s. v. Sapeca), have the fol- 
lowing : 

*'This word is used at Macao for what 
we call cash in Chinese currency; and it 
is the word generally used by French writ- 
ers for that coin. It is very probably from 
the Malay sa, i.e., one, and pahu, a string 
or file of the smallest coins called pichis. 
Sapaku would then properly be a string of 
one hundred cash, but it is not difficult to 
perceive that it might through some mis- 
understanding have been transferred to a 
single coin." 

Crawfurd, Malay Dictionary, 1852, has: 
'*Paku, a string or file of the small coins 
called pichis." See also Indian Antiquary 
(xxvi. 222) and Zay (pp. 118-122). 

Siir. A coin of Turkestan. See Yamba. 

Saracenato, or Sanrazino. Another 
name for the gold Denarius struck at St. 



Jean d'Acre from 1251 to 1257. See Engel 
and Serrure (iii. 947). 

Saraceno. A coin of Ubertino of Car- 
rara, Signor of Padua (1338-1345), of the 
value of a Quattrino. It bore the figure of 
a Saracen with wings and horns. 

Sargpfennig. The nickname given to 
small silver coins of the bishopric of Hal- 
berstadt, issued in the early part of the 
sixteenth century. They have on the ob- 
verse the figure of St. Stephen, the patron 
saint, who is supposed to bear some re- 
semblance to a body in a coffin. 

Sata. An obsolete coin of the Malay 
Peninsula. See Caixa. 

Safamana. The name given to both a 
gold and silver denomination of ancient 
India. See Pana. 

Satang. A bronze coin of Siam issued 
pursuant to an order of King Chulalong- 
korn, dated November 11, 1908. There are 
multiples of five and ten Satang pieces in 
nickel. One hundred Satangs equal a Tical. 

Sateleer. The derivation is the same as 
Sap^que (q.v.), and it meant originally the 
same thing, i.e., a string of cash. It comes 
from the Malay sa, i.e., one, and tali, a 
string. 

Stevens, in his Chiide to the East India 
Trade, 1775 (p. 124), says: ''In Batavia 
3 Cash are one Satallie; 6 Cash are 1 
Sooka; 9 Cash are one Sooka SataUie." 

The name Setale is still retained in Java 
and the Malay Peninsula to designate the 
current twenty-five cent silver piece of the 
Netherlands. 

Satrapal Coins is the generic name given 
to the many varieties of coins issued by 
Persian Satraps during the sixth to the 
fourth centuries B.C. in various cities of 
Asia Minor and Syria. 

Siiulen Piastre. The German name for 
the Colonato. 

Sawbiick. A nickname given to the ten 
and twenty Dollar bills of the United 
States with the figures X or XX, which 
bear a fanciful resemblance to a saw-buck. 

Scaggia. The popular name in Piedmont 
for the piece of two Soldi, introduced pur- 
suant to an ordinance of October 26, 1826. 
See Promis (ii. 202). 

Scalding. See Salding. 



[210] 



Scherf 



Sceal, or Skeat (plural Sceattae). Small 
thick silver coins, varying in weight from 
about seven to twenty grains, and the earli- 
est productions of the Anglo-Saxon mint, 
dating from the fifth to the eighth century. 
They occur with both Runic and Roman 
inscriptions and on some the name of Lon- 
don may be read. 

The word means "a portion," and it is 
usually supposed that they were a portion 
of some .merely nominal sum by which 
large amounts were calculated. 

It is difficult to ascertain their exact 
value. In the laws of Aethelstan, King 
of the West Saxons from 925 to 941, it is 
stated that 30,000 Sceattae were equal to 
one hundred and twenty pounds, and 
Ruding says that ''whatever might have 
been the price value of the sceatta, it was 
undoubtedly the smallest coin known 
among the Saxons." 

Schaap* A money of account formerly 
used at Emden. Noback (p. 235) gives the 
following equivalents: 

1 Oulden = 10 Schaap. 
1 Schaap = 20 Witten. 

Scfaadgy. An early silver coin of Bra- 
bant issued by Wenceslaus and Johanna 
(1355-1405). Three Schaelgy were equal 
to two Grooten plus four Placken. See 
Heylen, Antwoord op het Vraeg-Stuk, etc., 
1787 (p. 26). 

ScfaaurL See Abbasi. 

Scfaanthalcr. The name given to a var- 
iety of Thaler which is of a semi-medallic 
character, and which is struck as com- 
memorative of some anniversary or as a 
memorial rather than for general circula- 
tion. 

Such pieces, also called Schaustiicke, are 
frequently found in the series of the Holy 
Roman Empire at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. 

SckeepjescheUing, also known as the 
F.«#^lm aa Navire* A variety of the Schel- 
ling of the United Provinces which receives 
this name from a ship under full sail on 
the obverse. It was current for six Stui- 
vers. 

This coin was issued by the Province of 
Holland in 1670, by West Friesland in 
1673, by Utrecht in 1702, by Gueldres in 
1716, and by Zeeland in 1750. 

ScheepmobeL The Dutch name for the 
Noble (g.v.), so called on account of the 



prominent ship on the obverse. It was ex- 
tensively copied in Brabant, etc. 

The half of the same type was known 
as the Schuitken or Schuytien, this word 
meaning a small ship. There are dated 
specimens as early as 1488, issued by Maxi- 
milian during the minority of Philip the 
Good. See Frey (No. 295). 

Scheidemiinzen. Coins whose- actual 
value is considerably less than their de- 
clared value by reason of their mixed com- 
position. They are either silver with a 
large proportion of copper and tin, or, as 
is more frequently the case, copper washed 
over with a thin coating of silver. The 
latter soon wears off, leaving the base metal 
exposed. There are many modern exam- 
ples of this money. In Germany it was 
common to the middle of the nineteenth 
century, and specimens are found in Eng- 
land during the reigns of Henry VIII and 
Edward VI. The base Shillings of the 
former monarch had a full-face portrait 
of the king, but the end of the nose by 
reason of its prominence suffered the great- 
est amount of abrasion. The base metal 
was soon exposed, and from this circum- 
stance this ruler received the sobriquet of 

copper-nose." See Billon. 



II 



ScheUingy also called Eiculin ,{q.v,). 
Probably the best known coin associated 
with the history of the Low Countries. It 
was of silver though occasionally of billon, 
and varied somewhat in value according to 
the locality, ranging from five to eight 
Stuivers, or one fourth of the Daalder. 

The term Schelling is generally applied 
to the issues for the provinces proper, and 
is frequently used in combinations, e,g,, 
Roosschelling, Gehelmdeschelling, etc., all 
of which are described passim. The name 
Escalin, on the other hand, was used to 
designate pieces struck for the Oriental 
possessions, etc. See Snaphaan. 

Scherf (plural Scherf e). A name given 
to very small silver coins which were valued 
at the half of a Pfennig. The word means 
a fraction or fragment, and the designation 
is most frequently applied to the early and 
poorly executed coins of Northern Ger- 
many, and especially Pommerania and 
Brandenburg. ** Scherf penige " are men- 
tioned as early as 1369r 



[211] 



Scherif 



Schnabelthaler 



Scherif. This may be a corruption of 
Ashrafi or Sherify. Conf. also Sequin. 

Schietsthaler. See Schiitzenthaler. 

SchifFs Dukaten. The name given to a 
series of gold coins issued from 1682 to 
1696 by the German African Company. 
They obtain their name from a ship on the 
reverse. In the State Papers of 1686 they 
are referred to as Af rikanische Pf ennige. 

SchifFsthaler. A memorial silver Thaler 
without date, and issued by August, Duke 
of Brunswick- Wolf enbiittel (1636-1666). 
It has on the reverse a picture of several 
vessels, and in the foreground the jBgure 
of a man in a contemplative attitude, un- 
determined whether to embark on a voyage 
or not. The motto, alles mft bedacht^ 
confirms this unsettled condition, and the 
coin is consequently also known as the 
Reisethaler. 

SchOd. The Dutch equivalent for the 
Crown or Ecu. The Gouden Schild (or 
golden shield) is the same as the Ecu d'Or. 

According to v.d. Chijs, this coin was in- 
troduced in Brabant under Philip of Valois 
(1327-1350) ; in HoUand under William V 
(1345-1359) ; and in Gueldres under Rein- 
oud III (1343-1361). A new type, called 
the Brabandsch Schild (g.v.), was struck 
pursuant to an ordinance of May 10, 1430. 

Schild Groschen, also called Schildige 
Groschen. The name given to silver coins 
issued by the Margraves of Meissen during 
the fifteenth century, which have a promi- 
nent shield on both obverse and reverse. 

Schilling. The etymology of the term is 
in doubt. Some authorities consider it a 
corruption of Solidus, and it is thus trans- 
lated in mediaeval archives. The old Ger- 
man scellan, to ring, and the sdld, or 
shield, have also been suggested as possible 
roots. 

Originally it was a money of account, 
the pound of silver being divided into 
twenty Schillinge of twelve Denarii. As 
a coin, bearing this name, it occurs in the 
fifteenth century, and originally appears in 
the Baltic Provinces. It was extensively 
used in the currency of the Teutonic Order, 
and was retained in the monetary systems 
of Hamburg, Liibeck, Holstein, Mecklen- 
burg, etc., and in several of the Swiss can- 
tons until comparatively modern times. 
See Shilling and Skilling. 



[212] 



Schilling Ltthsk. A base silver coin com- 
mon to Riga, Stade, Stralsund, etc., in the 
latter part of the seventeenth century. It 
wa^ equal to one forty-eighth of the Riks- 
daler. 

Schinderling. The nickname given to a 
base silver Pfennig issued in Austria from 
1457 to 1460, and later in Salzburg and 
Bavaria. The word schinden means to 
fleece or extort, and these pieces were 
forced on the people at a fictitious value. 
About 1461 they were withdrawn from cir- 
culation at their actual value, i,e., one sixth 
of a pure silver Pfennig. 

Schlagelpfennige. See Slegelpenninge. 

Schlafrock Thaler. The nickname given 
to the Convention Thaler struck by Fred- 
erick August I, King of Saxony, in 1816, 
because the badly engraved uniform of the 
King resembles a dressing-gown. 

Schlecht Thaler. According to Kelly 
(p. 2) this was a former money of account 
at Aix-la-Chapelle of the value of twenty- 
six Marks, and at Emden it was computed 
at one and one half Guilders. The word 
means a Dollar of low grade. 

Schlickthaler. See Thaler. 

Schmalkaldischer Bimdetlhaler. A sil- 
ver coin of Saxony and Hessen, struck from 
1536 to 1546 during the existence of the 
League. These coins have on one side the 
portrait of the elector Johann Frederick of 
Saxony, and on the reverse that of the 
Landgrave Philip of Hessen. 

When the city of Brunswick joined the 
League, Thaler were struck dated 1538, 
1545, and 1546. These have on the obverse 
the emblematic lion of Brunswick and on 
the reverse a figure of Christ rising from 
the grave and Death at his feet. From this 
design the names Triumph Thaler, Jesus 
Thaler, and Auferstehungs Thaler have 
also been given to this coin. 

Schmetterlings Thaler. A silver coin of 
Poland without date, but struck by August 
II (1697-1733). It had a value of thirty- 
two Groschen, and received its name from 
the butterfly on the reverse. There are 
halves, quarters, eighths, and Groschen of 
the same type. 

Schnabelthaler. A silver coin of Zurich, 
struck in 1559 from designs by Stampfer. 



Schnepfenpfennige 



Scflling 



Scfanepfenpfeiiiiige* The Pfennige of 
Ludwig von Solms, prince of the Houise of 
Lieh, who succeeded in 1824, are so named, 
on account of a snipe on the obverse. 

Schock Grotchen. See Groschen. 

Schoter. See Skoter. 

Schraubthaler. A variety of Thaler, the 
sides of which unscrew like a box, and the 
interior was used for holding portraits, 
erotic objects, etc. 

The earliest of these coins date from, the 
middle of the sixteenth century. Augsburg 
and Nuremberg were the principal places 
of their manufacture. 

For an extensive descriptive series of the 
Schraubthaler, see Mittheilungen der Bay- 
erischen Numismatischen Oesellschafi, 1913 

(p. 1). 

Schreckenberger. See Engelsgroschen. 

Schrift Bracteaten. See Bracteates. 

Schrot The term **Das Schrof is used 
by German numismatic writers to indicate 
the weight of the alloy used for coining 
any particular denomination, irrespective 
of its fineness or purity. See Korn. 

Schu. See Ghu. 

Schubbe. A base silver coin of East 
Priesland, struck from the twelfth to the 
fourteenth centuries. They appear to be 
rude imitations of the Deniers and usually 
bear small figures, e.g., a hand, a cross, etc. 

Schiisselpfeiiiiige and SchiisselheUer, 

meaning ** saucer shaped'' or concave, was 
a name given to small base silver coins 
which were struck extensively in the Pala- 
tinate during the sixteenth century, and 
imitated in Brabant. They are unif tee and 
usually bear a device or figure in a beaded 
circle. Dated specimens occasionally occur, 
e.g., a Schiisselheller of Johann von Schon- 
burg. Bishop of Trier, has the year 1589. 

Schiitzen Thaler, or Schiestthaler. This 
is not, strictly speaking, a coin, but a com- 
memorative medal, and common to Ger- 
many, Austria, and Switzerland. In for- 
mer times when citizens were frequently 
called upon to defend their homes and 
property, these pieces had considerable 
significance, but at present they only com- 
memorate a shooting festival held under 
government auspices, or are issued as re- 
wards to such persons as are successful in 
the shooting contests. See Tir Federal. 



Schiiitfceiiy meaning a small boat, was 
the name given by the Dutch to the Sycee 
silver (g.v.), conf. also Scheepsnobel. 

Schulpfennige. See Brabeon. 

Schuppen. A nickname given to certain 
very small silver coins of thin fabric, 
struck by the bishops of Munster for Em- 
den during the fifteenth century. The 
designation was applied on account of their 
resemblance to fish scales. 

Schunnaiin. A coin of Brabant, with a 
corresponding half, said to have been 
struck under Wenceslaus and Johanna 
(1355-1405). No specimens appear to be 
in existence. See v.d. Chijs (p. 93). 

Schusterthaler. The nickname given to 
the Austro-Hungarian copper coin of four 
Kreuzer which was abolished about 1890. 

SchuyL See Sycee Silver. 

Schuytken. See Scheepsnobel. 

Schwanz Dukat. See Zopf Dukat. 

Schwaren. The name given to former 
base silver and copper coins of Oldenburg 
and Bremen, equal to one fifth of the Grote. 
In Oldenburg they appeared in the latter 
part of the fourteenth century and usually 
had a figure of St. Lambert. Those for 
Bremen were originally issued about the 
same time and were struck as late as 1866. 
The name is probably from schwer, i.e., 
heavy, and denoted a heavy or thick Pfen- 
nig. See Flinderke. 

According to Jungk (p. 338), the 
Schwaren of 1676 were ^the earliest bearing 
a date. . 

Schwarse Pfepinige. See Black Money. 

Schweizer Bimdettfaaler. See Bundes- 
thaler. « 

Schwertgroschen. A silver coin struck 
by Frederick II of Saxony {obit. 1464), 
which receives this name from the crossed 
swords over a shield on the reverse. The 
type was copied by several of his successors 
during the fifteenth century. 

Scilling, or ScilL An Anglo-Saxon money 
of account which appears at an early 
period in the laws, some fines being regu- 
lated by it in the reign of Ethelbert, King 
of Kent (568-616). For a detailed account 
of the etymology of the name see Buding 
(i. 112-113). 



[213] 



Sdmminger 



Scute 



Schnminger, According to Parish and 
Shaw, A Dictionary of The Kentish Dialect, 
1887, this is an obsolete term for **a piece 
of counterfeit money made of base metal 
and coated with silver." 

SdsseL See Sizel. 

Scorrick. See Scriddiek. 

Scott Pagoda. See Porto Novo Pagoda. 

ScraL An English dialect term for a 
coin of very small denomination. Ross, 
Stead, and Holdemess, in A Glossary of 
Words used in the East Riding of York- 
shire, 1877, cite the following: **He deed 
and didn't leeave a scrat behint. He's not 
worth a scrat." 

Scriddiek. An English dialect term 
meaning a coin of very small value. It is 
common to a number of counties and is va- 
riously written, e.g., Scuddick, Scuddock, 
Scuttick, Skiddick, Scurrick, etc. 

Grose, Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, 
1823, has: ** Scurrick, a half -penny." 

Elworthy, The West Somerset Word- 
Book, 1886, quotes: **I au't a-got nothin, 
not a scriddiek about me. ' ' 

Cope, A Olossary of Hampshire Words, 
1883, has **not worth a scuddick;" and 
Long, in A Dictionary of The Isle of Wight 
Dialect, 1886, cites, **I can't lend ee tup- 
pence, vor I hain't got a scuddick about 



me. 



»» 



Scripulum* A name given to the earliest 
Roman gold coin, issued about B.C. 206. 

It was originally a silver weight of 
eighteen grains in the Roman computation, 
and later was admitted to the monetary 
system. There are three values worth re- 
spectively twenty, forty, and sixty Ses- 
terces. It was succeeded by the Aureus. 

Scuddick. Scuddock. See Scriddiek. 

Scudmo. A gold coin of Modena of the 
value of one hundred and three Soldi. It 
was introduced by Francesco I- d'Este 
(1629-1658) and continued until the end 
of the seventeenth century. The name was 
used to distinguish it from the Scudo di 
Oro of one hundred and sixty Soldi. 

Scudo means a shield, and the coin re- 
ceives its name from the figure of a shield 
found upon it. 

The silver Scudo, or Scudo di Argento, 
of the Papal States was introduced in the 
latter part of the sixteenth century. It 



was usually divided into ten Paoli or one 
hundred Baiocchi, and multiples exist. In 
the Neapolitan coinage in the eighteenth 
century the Scudo was equal to one hun- 
dred and twenty Qrani, and at Mantua to 
one hundred and ten Soldi. See Ecu. 

Scudo della Groce. A variety of the 
silver Scudo first issued in Venice under 
the Doge Nicolo da Ponte (1578-1585). It 
receives its name from the floriated cross 
on the obverse, and had a value of one hun- 
dred and forty Soldi. 

Scudo di Leone. See Leone. 

Scudo di Oro. The gold Scudo is com- 
mon to the Italian series. It was issued 
by Charles VIII of France as King of 
Naples and Sicily, in 1495. There was also 
a variety called tiie Scudo di Oro del Sole 
struck by the same ruler, which had a sun 
over the armorial shield. This was copied 
by Louis XII of Prance for Genoa (1499- 
1512). 

Lucca as a republic issued the Scudo di 
Oro in the fifteenth century, and in the 
Venetian series it occurs under Andrea 
Gritti and Pietro Lando (1523-1545). In 
the coinage of Mantua it is found under 
Frederick II (1519-1540), and Maria and 
Charles II (1637-1665) struck the large 
twelve Scudi di Oro. 

The Popes introduced it early in the six- 
teenth century and retained it almost con- 
tinuously to the time of Pius IX. Its 
value in the Papal series was one hundred 
Baiocchi; in other parts of Italy it was 
the equivalent of one hundred and sixty 
Soldi. 

Scuferut. Du Cange cites this as being 
the name of an early coin of Laon and also 
current in Namur. 

Scurrick* See Scriddiek. 

Scute. An obsolete English name for 
the French Ecu (g.v.). 

Caxton, in his Dialogues, 1483 (17), men- 
tions * * Scutes of the Kyng, ' ' and John Skel- 
ton in his tract Why come ye nat to Courte, 
1522 (167), has: **With scutes and crownes 
of gold I drede we are bought and solde.'* 

At a somewhat later period the word was 
vaguely used for a coin of small value. 
Thus, Thomas Nashe, in his Christ's Teares 
over Jerusalem, 1594 (introd.), says: 
** Therein I imitate rich men who hauing 
gathered store of white single money to- 



[214] 



Scuttick 



Senumm 



gether, conuert a number of those small 
little scutes into great peeces of gold, such 
as double Pistols and Portugues." 

In Have vdth you to Saffron-Walden, 
1596, another tract by Nashe, he says : "The 
diuell a scute had he to pay the reckoning. ' ' 

Scuttick. See Scriddick. This form of 
the word is common to Northamptonshire, 
Hampshire, and the Isle of Wight. It is 
also written Scuttuck. 

Scyphati NununL See Concave Coins. 

Seawant See Wampum. 

Sebalduft Thaler. The popular name for 
a Guldenthaler of Nuremberg struck in 
1634 and 1635, which has on the obverse 
the figure of St. Sebaldus holding a church 
in his arm. See Madai (5065). 

Sechter. A name usually given to pieces 
of six Kreuzer or Pfennige. It is applied 
to the Prussian half Silber Groschen ' of 
the value of six Pfennige, and to the Gros- 
chen of six Kreuzer issued by the Archduke 
Sigismund of Tyrol in the latter part of 
the fifteenth century. See Dreier. 

Sechsgroscher. See Dreigroscher. 

SechsKng. The double of the Dreiling 
(q.v.)f and like Sechser applied to the half 
of the Silber Groschen. 

This coin is of common occurrence in the 
issues for Hamburg from circa 1553 to 
1855, and during the French occupation of 
the city in 1809 a billon piece was issued 
with the inscription i. sechsling. See 
Soesling. 

Sechstd. A name generally applied in 
the southern parts of Germany to coins 
having a value of one sixth of a Thaler. 

Sede Vacante Coiilage. A term used to 
define such coins as' were struck by those 
in temporary authority during an interreg- 
num in the regal succession. They occur 
not only in the Papal series but also in 
various archbishoprics, bishoprics, etc. See 
Vikariats Thaler. 

Sedidna. A silver coin of Urbino and 
Pesaro issued under the Duke Francesco 
Maria II (1605-1606), for the Levant trade. 
Its value was sixteen Quattrini. 



A slang name for a counter or 
chip used in various games of cards. Its 
origin may be due to its flat circular shape, 
resembling, in an enlarged form, certain 



seeds. The term appears to be confined to 
the United States. 
Seed Sen. See Tane. 

Segeloh. A Javanese term used to desig- 
nate the silver Gulden of the Nethei-lands. 

Sehini. A paper currency issued in Con- 
stantinople in February, 1840. The larg- 
est denomination was two hundred Piastres, 
and the paper money bore an annual in- 
terest of twelve and a half per cent. See 
Noback (p. 434). 

Seignorage. A certain deduction from 
all the bullion which was coined, and which 
was used to defray the expenses of refining, 
etc. See Brassage. 

Seisino. A copper coin of the value. of 
half a Real, struck by Philip IV of Spain, 
during the French occupation of Barcelona, 
1640-1652. It must not be confused with 
the Sixain {q.v.) struck by the French 
during the same period. A similar piece 
was issued for Villa Franca in 1642. See 
Mailliet (cxxiii. 4). 

Sekel. See Shekel. 

Seligkeitsthaler. A silver medallic Tha- 
ler issued by Ernst, Duke of Sachsen Gotha 
in 1672. It has rhymed quatrains on both 
obverse and reverse, embodying the beati- 
tudes, a creed of belief, etc. See Madai 
(1514). 

Sebnino. The popular name for a silver 
coin of Guastalla struck in imitation of the 
Anselmino of Mantua. It was issued prin- 
cipally in the seventeenth century and bore 
a figure of St. Peter. 



The Greek fftjixa, 9Y][jLe(ov. See 
Type. 

Sembella. A small Roman copper coin 
equal to the Sextans, and the half of the 
Libella (g.v.). Also a silver weight equal 
to the bronze Semis of the libral series. 

Semis, or Sexcmiz. The half of the As, 
of a weight of six ounces. It bears on the 
obverse the head of Jupiter and on the 
reverse the prow of a galley and the letter 
S. See Aes Grave. Also used for the half 
Aureus (q,v,) struck in Imperial times, in 
place of the old name Quinarius Aureus. 
The half Solidus (q.v,) was also called 
Semis. 



(ffe[jLiQrtov). The Greek name 
for the Semissis or half Solidus. 



[215] 



Semitis 



Serrated Coins 



Another name for the Semis 
{q.v.) when used to designate a half Au- 
reus or a half Solidus. 

Semissis. A base silver coin of Stras- 
burg, the half of the Assis {q.v,). 

Seimstertiiit. Another name for the Ses- 
tertius {q.v.). See Varro, De Ling Lat, 
(iv. 36). 

Semprevivo. A silver coin of Milan, 
varying of the value of five and ten Soldi, 
and issued only by the Duke Francisco II, 
Sforza (1522-1535). It obtains its name 
from the plant sempre-viva, or house leek, 
and this little emblem is usually repre- 
sented sprouting from three hillocks. 

Semuncia. The half of the Uncia of 
bronze {q,v.). 

Sen. A word meaning a fountain, was 
applied to certain Japanese coins as early 
as the eighth century. Copper was discov- 
ered in Japan A.D. 707-708, and a metallic 
currency was at once introduced. The Sen 
was cast in copper. Conf, Munro {pas- 
sim). This coinage, with fluctuating val- 
ues, was in use until A.D. 958, and then 
for over six hundred years no coins were 
made in Japan. In 1587 the manufacture 
of copper Sen was resumed, and was contin- 
ued until 1863, when this coinage ceased. 
Occasional iron specimens occur. 

The Sen of the present Japanese coinage 
is the one hundredth part of the Yen {q.v.). 
Multiples exist in nickel and silver. Conf. 
Chien. See Jiu Ni Zene, and Ewan Bi Sen. 

The same designation is used in the 
coinage of the Malay Peninsula as an equiv- 
alent for Cent. See Pitje. 

Senage, or Synagef is money paid for 
synodals, a tribute due to the bishop or 
archdeacon at Easter. 

John Wyclif refers to the custom, in a 
tract written circa 1380, and reprinted in 
his Works (edit. 1880, p. 249), thus: **And 
whanne bischopis & here officeris comen & 
feynen to visite . . .wrecchid curatis ben 
nedid to festen him richely & geue procu- 
racie & synage." 

Senar. A silver coin of the modern Per- 
sian series; it is the tenth part of a Kran 
and equal to two Shahi or four Puli, or 
Abassi. See Sanar. 

Senatorial Coins are such Roman coins 
as were issued by the authority of the 



Senate. They can alwa3rs be easily distin- 
guished by the letters S. C, i.e., Senatus 
Consulto. 

SenesellL A popular name for the silver 
Grossi of Siena. 

iL A variety of spelling of Sen {q.v.). 

lio. The multiple of six Denarii. 
Medallions of this weight were from time 
to time coined by Roman emperors to 
commemorate important events. 

Seniorats-DukaL The name given to a 
gold coin of Anhalt-Cothen, issued by 
Prince August Ludwig in 1747. It has on 
the reverse a bear holding a shield on which 
SENIOR DOMVS is inscribed. See Eohler 
(No. 1707). 

See Pice. 
[. See Sap^ue. 
Septim l%illing. See Shilling. 
Septunx* One of the divisions of the As 
of the weight of seven ounces. It is of rare 
occurrence. See Aes Grave. 

Sequin* A colloquial form of Zecchino 
{q.v,). This name was extensively adopted 
in Turkey, Egypt, and the Barbary States 
in general, and it appears to bear a rela- 
tionship to the Arabic sikka, i.e., a coining 
die. 

Early writers of books of travel adopt 
this spelling in preference to the Italian 
form. Moryson, in his Itinerary, 1617 (i. 
292), says, **At Naples . . . ten quatrines 
make one sequin;" and in the translation 
of Tavernier's Grand Seignior's Seraglio, 
1677 (14), occurs this passage, **The 
Scherif, otherwise called Sequin, or Sul- 
tanine." 

The name of the coin was variously 
written, or rather corrupted, by the writers 
of the seventeenth century, and conse- 
quently we find Chequin, Chekin, Chickino, 
etc. 

Serafin. A silver coin of Goa. See Xer- 
aphin. 

Serinkie, i.e., ** little gray coins;" a nick- 
name given by the people to the platinum 
coins of Russia. 

Serrated Coins, called Nummi Serrati, 
from serra, a saw, are characterized by 
having their edges indented like the teeth 
of a saw. Examples occur among the 
Chalques in the Syrian coinage, and in 
certain Roman Consular Denarii. 



[216] 



Sheep Silver 



One of the divisions of the 
As, of the weight of one and one half 
ounces. It is rarely met with. See Aes 
Grave. 

Seien. The Swiss equivalent for the 
Sesino, and usually applied to the half 
Groschen. In the canton of Waadt, it oc- 
curs as early as the period of Guy de 
Prangius, Bishop of Lausanne (1375-1394). 



if also called Settino* An Italian 
coin in both copper and billon, and origin- 
ally the sixth part of the Grosso (g.v.)- 
It was struck in Milan, Venice, Mantua, 
Naples, and other principalities, and was 
in use until the eighteenth century. The 
Republic of Genoa issued a piece of eight 
Sesini in silver in 1653. 

in. See Negenmenneke. 



A Roman silver coin of one 
fourth the weight and value of the De- 
narius. It bears on the obverse the head 
of Minerva and the figures lis, i.e., two 
and one half Asses; the reverse was the 
same as on the Denarius. 

The Sestertius became the recognized 
money of account and is consequently fre- 
quently referred to as Nummus. Under the 
Empire it was struck in bronze. See 
Grand Bronze. 

Setlhalf* A Dutch silver coin of the 
value of five and one half Stuivers. It was 
abolished by an Act of September 28, 1816, 
and all outstanding pieces were redeemed 
at twenty-five Cents. 

Sestino. See Sesino. 

Setto. The name given to the one sixth 
of the Apuliense (q.v.). 

Setale. See Sateleer. 

Setin. The one thirty-second part of the 
Mark (g.v.). 

Settiino. A silver coin of the value of 
a Giulio and a half, struck by Pope Clement 
VII (1523-1534). 

Setde. SeeJettal. 



The word means both a sigh 
and a groan, and the nickname was given 
to certain very debased silver pieces issued 
in 1701 and 1702 by the Elector Frederick 
August to defray the expenses of the wars. 
They were valued at six Pfennige, and a 
sigh accompanied their acquisition. They 
were withdrawn from circulation in 1703, 



having nearly brought financial ruin to the 
country. 

Seven Shilling Piece. See Guinea. 

Sewwi. See Wampum. 

Sezagina. Du Cange cites this as a coin 
of sixty Soldi referred to in an ordinance 
of Casimir III, King of Poland, in 1335. 

Sezcunz. Another name for the Semis 
(q.v.). 

Sextans. The sixth part of the As. It 
bears on the obverse the head of Mercury 
and on the reverse the prow of a galley. 
On each side are two bosses indicative of 
its weight of two ounces. See Aes Grave. 

Shahi, or Shahy. A Persian silver coin 
of the Sufi o^ Safi dynasty. It was one 
quarter of the Abbasi and was equal to ten 
pieces of the copper money called Easbegi 
or Eazbegi. 

The Shahi of the coinage of modern Per- 
sia is a copper coin of the value of two 
Puli or fifty Dinar, and its multiples con- 
sist of two Sh&hi equal to one Senar and 
four Shahi equal to one Abbasi. 

The Shahi was also a silver coin for- 
merly current in the Deccan and other 
parts of India. There are many varieties, 
some of them, e.g., the Pistan Shahi, deriv- 
ing their names from the individuals who 
introduced them. 

Shan Baw. The name given to certain 
silver ingots used in the Lao States. These 
are of a different form and more solid than 
the As'ek (q.v.). 

Sharp-Shin. A nickname given, on ac- 
count of its resemblance, to a coinage cur- 
rent in Virginia and other colonies prior 
to 1773. The coins were made by dividing 
the Bit {q,v.) into four or eight parts. 

Sheedy. The name given in several of 
the islands of the West Indies to the Span- 
ish Pistareen where it was extensively used 
at an enhanced value. See Chalmers (pp. 

76-77). 

Sheep Sflver. Sir W. Jones, in his Re- 
ports, 1675 (280), states that this **is a ser- 
vice now turned into money, which is paid 
in respect that anciently the tenants used 
to wash their lord's sheep." 

Hibbert, in A Description of the Shet- 
land Islands, 1822 (p. 198), has the follow- 
ing : * * The compliment of an ox and twelve 
sheep from every parish had . . . been 



[217] 



Shekel 



Short CroM Type 



granted to the Earl of Bothwell. It was 
. . . converted into a perpetual tribute, un- 
der the name of ox and sheep silver. ' ' 

Shekel, or SekeL Originally a weight, 
this piece was incorporated into the mone- 
tary system of the Jews under Simon Mac- 
cabaeus (B.C. 143-135), who received the 
privilege of striking coins from Antiochus 
VII, King of Syria. Its value was fixed 
at four Drachmai, according to the stand- 
ard of Tyre, and Flavins Josephus states 
that it also was equal to four Denarii. See 
Siglos. 

The half Shekel was called Bekah; the 
quarter was named Bebah; and a further 
division of one twentieth, called Gerah was 
occasionally employed. 

Sheriff Geld. A rent formerly paid by 
a sheriff for the farm of his shire. The 
Rolls of Parliament for the year 1376 (ii. 
348) state that it was £13, 19 shillings, and 
one penny per annum. 

Sherify. A Persian gold coin. See Ash- 
rafi. 

Shiken, or Mihon Sen* The Japanese 
name for an experimental or trial coin 
either of governmental or private manufac- 
ture. A pattern coin. 

Shilling. This coin occurs as a money of 
account in the Anglo-Saxon laws, but it 
was first struck in 1504, as part of the third 
coinage of Henry VII. Its weight was 
twelve Pennies, or one hundred and forty- 
four grains. 

A variety with the legend henric' 
septim' di' gra . REX . angl' z . fra', is 
commonly known as the Septim Shilling 
and is very rare. 

In the English Colonies the Shilling cir- 
culating in Cyprus was replaced in 1901 
by the piece of nine Piastres. See Schil- 
ling, Testoon. 

The coinage of Scotland contains a large 
number of the multiples of this coin, there 
being two, three, four, five, six, eight, ten, 
twelve, sixteen, twenty, twenty-two, thirty, 
forty, forty-four, forty-eight, and sixty 
Shilling pieces. 

Shima Sen. The Japanese name for a 
large class of poorly made Sen or coins of 
private manufacture or counterfeits. Mun- 
ro aptly describes these as the gypsies of 
the race of Sen. See Bita Sen. 



i Mon Sen. See Nami Sen. 



Shiner. A slang term for a gold or sil- 
ver coin in allusion to its lustre. In the 
plural it is used for money in general. 

Samuel Poote, in his play, The Minor, 
1760 (ii.),has: **To let a lord of lands want 
shiners ; 'tis a shame. ' ' 

Dickens, in Oliver Twist (xix.), says: 
'*Is it worth fifty shiners extra, if it's safe- 
ly done from the outside t" and Mayne 
Beid, in his novel, The Scalp Hunters (ix.), 
makes one of his characters ^ay: **I will 
bring you a mule-load of Mexican shiners. ' ' 
See Half Shiner. 

Shin Koban. See Eoban. 

Shin Plaster. A popular name originally 
applied to the depreciated Continental 
Currency after the War of the Eevolution. 
It was revived about 1837 to designate the 
small notes for the fractional part of a 
Dollar issued by private bankers during 
the financial stress of that period. Finally, 
the same name was given to the Fractional 
Currency which appeared in 1862 when 
specie paj^nents were suspended. 

Ship Money was a former tax levied in 
time of war on the ports and maritime 
towns of England to provide ships for the 
royal service. It was revived by Charles 
I, but was finally abolished by statute in 
1640. 

In 1636 William Prynne issued a pamph- 
let entitled Remedy against Ship Money. 

Ship Nobles. See Noble. 

Ships, Col<Hiies, and Commerce Tokens. 

The name given to a series of copper tokens 
issued in the early part of the nineteenth 
century for use in Canada. They are so 
called from the inscription on one side, the 
reverse bearing a ship or a bust. 

There are about forty minor varieties. 
See Breton (997-1002). 

Shoe. See Sycee Silver. 

Sho-Kang. A Tibetan coin of the value 
of four Annas. See Tang-Ka. 

Shon. See Yang. 

Short Bit See Bit. 

Short Cross Type. The name used to 
describe a series of English silver Pennies 
issued from 1180 to 1247 inclusive, during 
the reigns of Henry II, Richard I, John, 
and Henry III. They have on the reverse 
a short double cross with a small cross in 
each angle. For a detailed classification 



[218] 



Shovel Board 



see Numismatic Chronicle (Ser. iv. xvi. 
356). 

As all the short cross Pennies bear the 
name henricvs it is difficult to assign them 
accurately among the four different rulers 
who struck them. See Long Cross Type. 

Shovel Board. A nickname given to the 
broad Shilling of Edward VI, which was 
used as a counter in the game of shovel- 
board or shuffle-board. See Shakespeare, 
Merry Wives of Windsor (i. 1). 

John Taylor, the Water Poet, in his 
Works, 1630 (i. 68), states that ** Edward 
Shillings for the most part are used at 
shouue-boord. ' ' 

Showa Shoho. See Jiu Ni Zene. 

Shroffed Money is such as has been sub- 
mitted to experts, called * * shroffs, "or * * sur- 
rafs," whose duty it was ta detect the coun- 
terfeits or pieces of inferior weight. 

The custom was resorted to in the Far 
East as early as the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, and Beveridge, in his His- 
tory of India, 1862 (i. 592), states that 
Lord Clive represented that **the money 
could not be divided till it was shroffed.'' 

T. Brooks, in Coins of the East Indies, 
1766 (49), cites an expense account: 
** Brokerage, one and one half per cent. 
Shroffage, one per thousand.'* See Sool- 
akie. 

Shu. A rectangular silver coin of Japan. 
The Shu was the fourth part of the Bu 
(g.v.), and the sixteenth part of the Byo 
(q.v,). The Ni Shu, meaning two Shu, 
exists both in gold and silver, the former 
being struck as early as 1697. Also see 
Chu. 

Shu. A denomination for the Lu Chu 
Islands, equal to the one sixteenth part of 
a Ryo, or sixty-two Mon. A half Shu in 
copper was struck in 1862 at Satsuma for 
these islands. Its value later declined one 
half. See Munro (pp. 164-165). 

SiahL See Pice. 

SianL A money of account formerly 
used at Aleppo. The Turkish Piastre is 
here subdivided into twenty-four Siani. 
See Noback (p. 6). 

Si BaL The same as Tamlung (q.v.). 

Sicca, diccapili, or XiqinpilL The native 
names for the so-called **Axe Money" of 
the Aztecs or native Indian tribes of Mex- 



[219 



ico from its fancied resemblance to an axe 
or chopper. 

Authorities differ as to whether these 
pieces were ever actually used as a cur- 
rency, or only for ceremonial purposes, al- 
though divisions did exist, to wit; 

20 Cacao Beans = 1 Cloth 
20 Olotl = 1 Zontle. 

20 Zontle = 1 Siccaplll. 

Bancroft, in Native Races of the Pacific 
States of North America, 1875 (ii. 381- 
382), states that Xiquipili is the Mexican 
equivalent for the number 8000, which in 
the preceding table is conjSrmed (i.e., 20 x 
20 X 20 « 8000). 

Conf, Biart, Les Azteques, 1885 (pp. 
199-200), and Joyce, Mexican Archaeology, 
1914 (p. 287). 

Sicca Rupee* A silver coin of Bengal, 
mention of which is made in the seven- 
teenth century. By the treaty of 1765, it 
was agreed that all of these Rupees, com- 
monly known as Siccas, be henceforth 
struck at Murshid&b&d. 

The Siri Sicca was the coin of the Hindu 
rajahs previous to the Muhammadan con- 
quest. Of many other varieties, the Chan- 
dor, Belapuri, Chulnee, and Moonkhee Sic- 
cas obtained their names from the towns 
in which they were coined. 

The name is derived from the Arabic 
sikka, meaning a coining die. 

A type of the gold Mohur struck by the 
East India Company A.H. 1202, and later, 
is known as the Sicca Mohur. 

Side. A term used by French numis- 
matists to denote the Siglos (q.v.). 

Siddiki, or SadikL The name given to 
the half Mohur of Mysore by Tipu Sultan, 
when he adopted his new system of reckon- 
ing, in 1786, based on the Muludi, dating 
from the birth of the Prophet. The name 
is taken from Abu Bakr Siddik, the first 
Khalifa. 

Side- View. A nickname given to certain 
varieties of the Pennies and half Pennies, 
issued by the Bank of Montreal in the 
years 1838 and 1839, to distinguish them 
from the ordinary types which depict only 
a front view of the bank. All these varie- 
ties are very rare. See Breton (523-525). 

Siebxehner. The popular name for the 
silver coin of seventeen Ereuzer, issued in 
Austria in 1753 and later. 

Siege Pieces* See Obsidional Coins. 

] 



Sieges Thaler 



Simons' Petitioii Croiim 



Sieges Thaler. A name given to such 
German medallic Thaler as were struck 
subsequent to and commemorative of some 
national victory. Notable examples are the 
Pehrbelliner Sieges Thaler, issued after the 
victory of the Great Elector over the 
Swedes in 1675 at Fehrbellin, and the com- 
memorative piece struck after the Franco- 
German war in 1870. See Giustina. 

Sigilluin. Stevenson states that this term 
was applied to a little image of something 
imprinted on a medal as a mark. 

Siglos. Another name for the early Per- 
sian Sekel or Shekel. It was the twentieth 
part of the gold Daric in value, and its 
weight was the one hundredth part of the 
Mina. 

Like the Daric, the Sigloi were also popu- 
larly known as Archers from the repre- 
sentation of a bowman on the obverse. 

The later Jewish Sekel or Shekel (q.v.) 
has only the name in common with this 
coin. 

Sihansah. A gold coin of Akbar, Em- 
peror of Hindustan A.H. 963-1014 (1556- 
1605). Thomas (pp. 418 et seq,) describes 
Akbar's coinage in detail, from which the 
following table is compiled : 

Gold. 

Sihansah = 100 L'al Jalftli Muhra. 

Sihansah = 1000 Rupees. 

Sihansah = 40,000 D&ms. 

Kffha = one half of the Sihansah. 

Atmah = one fourth of the Sihansah. 

Binsat = one fifth of the Sihansah. 

Chahftr 66shah, i.€., "square" = 30 Rupees. 

Chugul = 27 Rupees. . 

Ilahl = 12 Rupees. 

Aftflbl = 10 Rupees. 

L'al Jalftli = 10 Rupees. ... 

The Aftftbl, is lighter In weight, but of purer gold. 

Adl Gutkah = Rupees. This coin Is also called 
Mlhrftbl and Mufnl, and represents the ordinary round 
Muhr of 360 Dftms. 

Silver. 
Rupee (round). 
Jalfllah (square). 

Darb = one half of the Rupee. 

Charn = one fourth of the Rupee. 

Pandu = one fifth of the Rupee. . _ 

Asht = one eighth of the Rupee. 

Dasa = one tenth of the Rupee. 

Kalft = one sixteenth of the Jlupee. 

Sfllsl = one twentieth ot the Rupee. 

COPPBU. 

Dftm = 1 Tolah, 8 Mftshas and 7 Ratis or about 

328^ grains of copper. 

Adh^lah = one half of the Dftm. 
Pftulah = one fourth of the Dftm. 
Damrl = one eighth of the Dflm. 

Sik. One of the names for the Siamese 
one sixteenth Tical piece, known also as the 
Song Phai or Song Pai. 



sod. See Suka. 
Sikka. See Sicca. 

Sflbergroschen. A coin of Prussia, first 
issued in 1821, and the thirtieth part of 
a Thaler; it was subdivided into twelve 
Pfennige. 

This division of the Thaler was copied 
in Saxony and Hanover, the coins in tiiese 
states receiving the name of Neugroschen, 
but they were valued at ten Pfennige. 

Silfrergyllen. See Gyllen. 

SQiqua. A Roman silver coin first issued 
by Constantine the Great, and in use until 
the middle of the seventh century. It was 
equal to one twenty-fourth of the Solidus. 
From the time of Heraclius (610-641) the 
half Miliarensis was called Siliqua. 

There is a half Siliqua of similar type, 
introduced by Honorius, and called the 
Decargyrus. The half Siliquae are fre- 
quently referred to as Minutuli, on account 
of their diminutive size. Their weight is 
frequently under two grammes, and their 
coinage appears to have been confined to 
the mints of Rome, Trier, and later to 
Ravenna and Milan. 

Silly Head. The popular name f6r one 
of the varieties of the Cents of the United 
States issued in 1839. It has an idiotic 
looking head of Liberty on the obverse. 

Silyer. The metal which has played the 
greatest part in the world's monetary sys- 
tems. In ancient times it was used in a 
form much purer than that found in mod- 
em coins. It is generally supposed that it 
was first employed for coins in Aegina, 
about the seventh century B.C. Prom 
about the period of Alfred the Great to 
the middle of the fourteenth century it was 
the only metal used in England for coining 
purposes. 

Silyerliiig. This denomination referred 
to in Isaiah (vii. 23) is assumed to be an- 
other name for the Shekel. 

Simoleon. A slang term used in the 
United States for a Dollar. 

Simon. An English slang term for a 
Sixpence. The origin of the word is ob- 
scure but it may be a fanciful use of the 
personal name. The term is found in Eng- 
lish slang dictionaries as early as 1700. 

Simons' Petition Crown. See Petition 
Crown. 



[220] 



Singula 



Skins of Animak 



Singula* Another name for the Sembella 

(q.v.). 

Sirena. The popular name for the 
double Ducato d'Oro coined by Ferdinand 
I of Naples in 1488, from designs by Li- 
parolo. It bears the motto serenitati: 

AC PACI PER.' 

Sisad-Dinar. A silver coin of Persia, in- 
troduced by the Shah Nadir in 1738. Its 
value was six Shahis or three hundred 
Dinars. 

SiseL See Sizel. 

SisenL The Italian equivalent of Six- 
aines {q.v.). The term is specially applied 
to coins of the value of six Denari issued 
by Umberto II, Baron of Faucigni in Savoy 
(1333-1349). 

Sison. A copper coin of Valencia, equal 
to six Dineros. It was abolished by an 
ordinance of Charles III dated October 27, 
1772. See Noback (p. 1307). 

Suto. The popular name for a silver 
Grosso of Sixtus V (1585-1590) struck at 
Bologna. Its value was forty-four Quat- 
trini. 

Sitarion (jcxapiov). The name for the 
fourth of the Siliqua which was struck at 
intervals from the reign of Honorius. 

Siscain* A French billon coin which, as 
its name indicates, is the sixth part of the 
silver Franc or Ecu. 

It appears to have been originally struck 
by Louis XII (1498-1515) of the type of 
the Douzain (g.v.),' and under Francis I 
(1515-1547) there was issued a Sixain k 
la Salamandre, having this animal on the 
obverse, with a crown above. 

Mailliet (xlii. 9, xi. 14, and Suppl.) 
cites an obsidional Sixain struck during 
the French occupation of Barcelona, 1640- 
1652, and another for the similar occupa- 
tion of Gerona, in 1648. All of these 
pieces are of copper. 



ice. An English silver coin of the 
value of one half of a Shilling ; it was first 
struck in 1551 in the reign of Edward VI. 

Henry VIII issued Sixpence for Ireland 
with the inscription civitas dvblinie ; these 
coins, however, were struck in London. 

In Cyprus, the Sixpence was replaced in 
1901 by the piece of four and one half 
Piastres. 



Siiel. Also written Scissel and Sisel. 
The waste remains of a metal sheet or plate, 
after it has had blanks or planchets cut or 
stamped from it. Conf. Fr. cisaille, from 
ciseler, to cut. 

In a report of the mintmasters under 
Elizabeth, temp, 1572, mention is made of 
**sysser' in the making of Sixpences. See 
Numismatic Chronicle (ser. iv. vol. 16, p. 
75). 

Sizinia, also called Nizim. Schlumberger 
(182) cites this as the name of a base sil- 
ver coin issued by Janus, King of Gvprus 
(1398-1432). Its value was six Carci. 

Sjen, more properly spelled Hsien (q.v.). 
The Chinese name for the copper one Cent 
piece introduced at Hong Kong when under 
British rule. 

See Shu. 



SkeaL See Sceat. 

Skefy or Skefpennig. The popular name 
for the half of the Norwegian Pennig. See 
Blanchet (ii. 322). 

Skerrick. Skiddick. See Scrid!dick. 

Skilling. The Scandinavian equivalent 
of the Schilling. It occurs in Denmark un- 
der Christopher III (1440-1448) and was 
continued to comparatively modern times. 
Its value fluctuated but usually it was com- 
puted at ninety-six to the Bigsdaler. In 
Sweden the Riksdaler was equal to forty- 
eight Skilling, and in Norway the Species- 
daler equalled one hundred and twenty 
Skilling. 

All of these countries also struck the 
Skilling in copper, which greatly varied in 
size and value. 

Skilling Banco. See Banco. 

Skins of Animals were used as money 
in the primitive stage of man's existence. 
The passage in Job ii. 4 has been construed 
by some writers to indicate that skins were 
regarded as representatives of value. There 
was at one time a connection between skins 
and money, for in the language of the 
Esthonians the word for money is raha, 
and in the kindred language of the Lap- 
landers the same word means fur or a skin. 

Pelts were used in Scandinavia and when 
tied in packages of forty constituted a 
money of account called Zimmer. In west- 
ern Russia the fur and skin of the black 
marmot was used as late as the end of the 



[221] 



SlmtMr 



SnAphaan 



fourteenth century. This was called Euna, 
from the name of the animal. Blanchet (ii. 
191) states that the heads of squirrels, Ca- 
put aspergellis, were employed in Russia in 
the eleventh century as a medium of ex- 
change, and were later adopted in Poland. 

The Hudson's Bay Company made fur 
skins the common medium of exchange and 
measure of value in its dealings with the 
Indians. Conf. also Breton (Nos. 926- 
929) ; Noback (p. 895), and Leather Money 
(supra). 

Skoter, or Schoter. Originally a silver 
weight and the one twenty-fourth of the 
Mark. It was never used as a coin though 
Halbskoter were struck by the Grand Mas- 
ters of the Teutonic Orders as early as the 
fourteenth century, with the inscription 

MONETA DOMINORVM PBVSSIE. The half of 

this coin was known as the Vierchen. 

Skrufthaler* A term used by Scandi- 
navian numismatic writers to indicate the 
Schraubthaler (q.v.). 

Skutala (oxuxaXa, 9xuTaX(8c^). The name 
for ingots of metal, cast in bar form, often 
circulating as actual money in ancient 
times. 

SlanL The Swedish equivalent for cop- 
per coins of small value ; similarly Slantar 
means loose cash. 

Slantar. A general term in Swedish for 
coins ; it is, however, usually applied to the 
issues of copper which are known as Kop- 
par Slantar. 

Sleeping. A base silver coin in circula- 
tion in England during the thirteenth cen- 
tury. See Brabant. 

Slegdpenninge. An expression which 
occurs in the mediaeval records of Munster, 
and which is used to indicate the amount 
of coins to be retained by the mint oflS- 
cials as payment for striking. The modern 
form would be Schlagelpfennige, from 
schlagen, to strike. See Brassage. 

Sleng. A copper coin, plated with sil- 
ver, issued for the province of Battambang 
in Cambodia. 

SSp* An obsolete word used to indicate 
counterfeit money. 

Grosart, in his edition of the works of 
Robert Greene (x. 260), under the year 
1592, quotes: **He went and got him a 
certaine slips, which are counterf eyt peeces 



of mony being brasse, and couered ouer 
with siluer, which the common people call 
slips." 

Slip Weii^t Money. See Eia Tseh Ma. 

^ Slug. The common name for the gold 
coin of fifty Dollars issued by various pri- 
vate concerns in California from 1851 to 
1855. Both round and octagonal specimens 
exist. 

Smasher. A vulgar term for a counter- 
feit coin, and now rare. Mayhew, London 
Labour and London Poor, 1851 (ii. 488), 
has : * ' Every bit of it, every coin, . . . was 
bad, — all smashers. ' ' 

SmelL A nickname for a half Guinea. 
See Megg and Decus. 

Smoke Farthings were offerings made in 
England at Whitsuntide by the household- 
ers of a diocese to the cathedral church, 
and also a hearth-tax based on the number 
of chimneyTs in the district. Murray, in 
the Oxford English Diciipnary, cites its 
use in this sense by quotations of 1524 and 
later. 

Smoke silver were the silver coins used 
in pa3rment of the tax. 

It was the common name for Fumage, 
Puage, or Fouage, i.e., a tax paid to the 
sovereign for every house that had a chim- 
ney. 

Smulkyn. A Farthing introduced in 
Ireland during the reigns of Henry VIII 
and Edward VI. Moryson, in his Itiner- 
ary, 1617 (i. 284), in speaking of the Irish 
people, states that ''they had also brasse 
farthings, called Smulkins, whereof foure 
made a penny." 

In the Numismati'C Chronicle (4th series, 
XV. 192-229) Mr. Henry Symonds cites 
some contemporary manuscripts, and points 
out that three Smulk3rns were current as a 
**red harpe," and four Smulkyns were 
equal to a ** white groat.*' See Harp. 

Snaphaan, also called Etralin an Cava^ 
lier. A silver coin, a variety of. the Schel- 
ling {q.v.), issued in 1582 in the Provinces 
of Gueldres, Utrecht, and Friesland, and 
copied by Deventer and Zeeland. Its value 
appears to have varied from six to eight 
Stuivers. 

The obverse bears the figure of a gal- 
loping horseman and usually the date; on 
the reverse is the armorial shield of the 
province for which it is issued. 



[ 222 ] 



Soberano 



Soldo 



Soberano. The Portuguese equivalent 
of the Sovereign. It is a gold coin of 
forty-five hundred Reis. 



A Javanese money of account 
of the value of one quarter of a Real. See 
Pitje. 

SoetKng, or Sotling. A corruption of 
Sechsling (g.v.), and applied to tie coins 
struck by Christian IV of Denmark for 
Liibeck, at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. The inscription, soesling lubs, 
means six Pf ennige based on the standard 
of Liibeck. 

Sol, or Sou* The word is derived from 
Solidus and was later corrupted into Sou. 
It did not long retain its original name of 
Sol d 'Argent, as it was struck in copper 
during the sixteenth century, and during 
the first French Revolution pieces of one 
and two Sols appeared in bronze, a metal 
obtained from melted bells. 

Of other multiples there are pieces of 
one, six, and twelve Sols in copper for 
Gteneva, struck in 1590, for the pay of sol- 
diers ; billon three and six Sols were issued 
in Luxemburg in 1790; one, two, and five 
Sols were used during the siege of Mainz 
in 1793; there are also issues for the 
French colonies. The Sol was part of the 
following system : 

During the first Revolution the Sol was 
divided into five Centimes, and the two Sou 
piece was called a Decime. The name Sou 
is still used in France for the five Centime 
piece. 

SoL A silver coin of Peru of the value 
of ten Dineros or one hundred Centavos. 
It was adopted in 1855. There are multi- 
ples of five, ten, and twenty Soles in gold. 

Sola Coniage* A name given to the 
first coinage of Mary of England, issued in 
1553, the year before her marriage to 
Philip of Spain. The Groats and half 
Groats of this series bear the motto Veritas 
TEMPOBis PiLiA, i.e,, *' Truth is the Daughter 
of Time." This motto was suggested by 
the Romish priesthood, in allusion to her 
efforts to bring the country under Roman 
dominion, after this faith had been sup- 
pressed by her predecessors. 



4 LlardB = 1 Denier. 
12 Deniers = 1 Sol, or Sou. 
20 Sous = 1 Llyre. 



Solams. The name given to a silver 
coin of Mantua issued in 1624 to commem- 
orate the beatification of Luigi Gonzaga. It 
was also used as the designation of a silver 
Scudo of Ferdinand Gonzaga which bore 
the figure of a radiate sun, and the motto 

NGN MUTUATA LUCE. 

Sol am Balances* An imitation of the 
French Sol, issued in 1793 for Santo Do- 
mingo. It obtains its name from the pair 
of scales on the reverse. See Zay (p. 232). 

Sol CoronaL A silver coin introduced 

by the Kings of Spain for Naples and 
Sicily in the thirteenth century, and later 
copied by Charles V of France (1364- 
1380) for Dauphiny. It receives its name 
from the large crown on the obverse. See 
Heiss (PL 116, 2; 145, 12), etc. 

Soldatmo. Papadopoli (i. 160) states 
that this term occurs in an ordinance of 
1339 and is used for Soldino. 

Soldino. The diminutive of Soldo (g.i;.). 
A small Venetian base silver coin of the 
fourteenth century, which type was later 
copied in other parts of Italy. The Soldino 
Vessillifero receives its name from the 
standard held by the lion on the reverse 
of the coin. It was introduced about the 
time of Doge Giovanni Gradenigo (1355- 
1356) and continued in use for nearly a 
century. . 

Soldo. Probably derived from Solidus 
iq.v.). The name of a silver coin which 
circulated extensively during the thirteenth 
century and later in upper and middle 
Italy, especially in Venice, Milan, Parma, 
and Lucca. Its value varied, five to eight 
Soldi being the equivalent of a Grosso 
(q.v.), and its fineness gradually declined 
and later the name was given to issues in 
copper. 

On the establishment of the French mon- 
etary system in Italy under Bonaparte, the 
value of the copper Soldo was established 
at one twentieth of a Lira or five Centesi- 
mi, and at this value it was current in 
Austrian-Lombardy, Lucca, etc. The Ital- 
ian five Centesimi piece of today still re- 
tains the name of Soldo. 

There are multiples of from two to one 
hundred and sixty Soldi in silver and gold 
for Venice, Mantua, and Modena, an odd 
value of one hundred and three Soldi being 
peculiar to the latter province. The Soldo 



[223] 



Soldo Cenoglego 



Soolakie 



of Bagusa was a copper coin introduced in 
1680, with a value of five Pollari, or in 
the Venetian system of five Bagattini. It 
was abolished in 1797. See Gaixa. 

Soldo Cenos^ego. See Cenoglego. 

Soldo Mancoso. See Mancoso. 

Soldone; A Venetian coin of base silver 
of the value of twelve Soldi. The same 
name is given to a copper coin of Mantua ; 
there are specimens of the latter issued by 
Charles VI, Emperor of Germany, reading 

SOLDONE . DI . MANTOVA . 1732. ItS ValuC 

was two Soldi. 

Sol d'Qr. See Sou d'Or. 

Solidiis. A gold coin introduced by 
Constantine the Qreat. Its weight was 
fixed at seventy-two to the pound and the 
value is indicated by Lxxn or ob. The 
Qreek name for the same coin was Nomis- 
ma. This piece remained in circulation as 
long as the Empire existed, maintaining its 
full weight. 

The divisions of the Solidus were the 
half, called Semis or Semissis, and the 
third, called Triens or Tremissis. Medal- 
lions were often issued from the time of 
Constantine on, which in weight equalled 
one and a half, two, three, four, eight, etc., 
Solidi. 

The Solidus was also current at a later 
period in Western Europe and received the 
name of Bezant or Byzant, on account of 
having been previously used in the Eastern 

Empire. 

• 

Soliduft. This name is invariably trans- 
lated Schilling or Shilling in mediaeval 
records and archives. It was retained to 
some extent on silver coins of the Teutonic 
Order, Poland, and various Baltic Prov- 
inces as late as the sixteenth century. The 
same name is also given to a copper coin 
current in Livonia, Danzig, etc., from circa 
1550 to 1750. 

Solot, or LolL The one sixty-fourth of 
the Siamese Tical, and which is equal to the 
half Att. 

Sol-tanar. A coin of Perpignan struck 
in 1528, pursuant to an ordinance of 
Charles V. It bore a figure of St. John 
the Baptist. See Blanchet (333). 

SolthanL See Altun. 



Sohu This name was given to a variety 
of Fiorino copied from the Brabantine type 
and issued by Alexander Pico of Mirandola 
(1602-1637). 

Sommer Islands Money. See Hog 

Money. 

Song. A Siamese word meaning two or 
double. There is consequently in the coin- 
age a Song Bat, Song Pai, and Song Sa- 
lung. See Tical. 

Sonnenkrone. The German equivalent 
of the Ecu au Soleil. 

Sonnette, i.e., a bell, is a French slang 
expression for money that jingles in one's 
pocket. 

Sookoo. A silver coin of the value of 
half a Rupee. A piece of two Sookoos was 
struck at Port Marlborough, Sumatra, in 
1783 and 1784, with Malay and English in- 
scriptions. See Suku. 

Soolalde. The term Soolakie or Soo- 
lackie as applied to coins is explained by a 
letter to the Chief Secretary to the East 
Indian Government at Port St. Geoi^e, 
dated January 18th, 1813, wherein it is 
stated that '^ there are two modes of ren- 
dering coins Soolakie. . . . The one is 
adopted for the most part by the petty vil- 
lage surrafs in those territories (the Ni- 
zam's) who, being in general very inexpert 
in ascertaining the jSneness of the metal, in- 
variably punch a hole in the rupee to con- 
vince themselves that it is good silver; but 
as this expedient is not sufficient to guard 
against the frauds of coiners, who frequent- 
ly counterfeit rupees of copper covered 
with a coat of silver, with one or two such 
holes in them, it is usual for the surrafs, 
when they have the slightest suspicion that 
the metal is base, to punch a fresh hole in 
it. In consequence, it is by no means un- 
common to see Rupees with eight or ten 
such marks indented upon them. The other 
kind of Soolakie coins are made so by the 
surrafs of large towns who undertake to 
shroflf the money belonging to individuals 
for a certain percentage under an agree- 
ment to make good any coins that may 
afterwards turn out to be counterfeit. In 
order that the coins that have undergone 
such examination may be recognized, each 
principal surraf has a private stamp or 
mark of his own, which he affixes to the 
edge or some other part of the coin. The 



[224] 



Sophiendukat 



Sovereign 



existence of one or more such marks 
gives a sort of sanction to the currency, as 
the credit of those who have put their 
stamp to it is a pledge for its goodness. 
Hence many rupees have forty or fifty 
such impressions, and at last become com- 
pletely defaced. Neither of these modes of 
making the Rupee Soolakie diminishes at 
all the weight of it, but, according to long 
custom, its value in exchange becomes 
greatly reduced when it is imported into 
the Company's territories.'* See Shroffed 
Money. 

SophiendakaL A gold coin struck in 
1616 by the Electress Sophia of Saxony to 
commemorate the birth of her son Johann 
George. It has on the obverse the letters 
i.H.s. with an eye above and a dove below. 

Sortengulden. A silver coin issued by 
Ludwig VI of Hessen-Darmstadt in 1674 
and copied by the archbishops of Mainz 
until 1695. 

Soiling. See Soesling. 

Sou. French numismatic writers fre- 
quently employ this word to indicate the 
Stuiver. See Sol. 

Sou an Faiacean* See Bezemstuiver. 

Soudi Budschu. See Budschu. 

Sou d'Qr. The Solidus; but the name 
is more generally applied to the gold issues 
of Western Europe, e.g., the Carlovingian 
Kings, to distinguish them from the Byzan- 
tine types, which were contemporary. 

Sou Mark, or more properly Sou 
Marque. A name given to the billon 
Marque after its introduction in the British 
West Indies. See Marque. 

Sous. The erroneous inscription un sous 
occurs on two varieties of tokens issued by 
the Bank of Montreal from 1835 to 1838. 
The dies for these were engraved at Birm- 
ingham, England. See Breton (713-714). 

Sou Tokens* The name given to a series 
of copper tokens issued by the Bank of 
Montreal to overcome the want of change 
caused by the demonetizing of the private 
coppers and brass pieces current in Canada. 
See Breton (Nos. 670-716). 

Prom the design of a bunch of flowers 
on the obverse of these coins, they are fre- 
quently known as the Bouquet Series. 



Souveranitatsthaler. The name given to 
a silver Thaler struck in 1657 by the Elec- 
tor Frederick Wilhelm of Brandenburg, 
after the sovereignty of Prussia was as- 
sured him by the treaty of Wehlau. 

Souverain* A gold coin of Brabant and 
the Low Countries, issued early in the 
seventeenth century, and copied from the 
English types of Mary and Elizabeth. It 
was struck at Antwerp, Campen, etc., and 
was larger than the Clinkaert (g.v.). 

When the national Belgian coinage went 
into effect in 1832, the Souverain d'Or was 
discontinued. 

Sovereign. A large gold coin of the 
value of twenty Shillings, first issued by 
Henry VII of England in 1489. Being 
twice the weight and value of the Rose 
Noble it was frequently called the Double 
Ryal. This beautiful coin contained only 
one half grain of alloy, and weighed two 
hundred and forty grains. On the ob- 
verse was a representation of the King on 
a throne and on the reverse a rose charged 
with the English shield. 

In 1526 Henry VIII advanced the value 
to twenty-two Shillings, but in 1543 the 
old value was restored, and the fineness 
debased to twenty-three carats. In 1545 
the metal was still further debased to 20 
carats, the lowest state of degradation 
which it has ever reached in England. 

The fourth coinage of the reign of Ed- 
ward VI issued by virtue of an indenture 
of the year 1552, presents a new type with 
a half length figure of the King crowned 
and in armor, holding a sword and orb. 

Mary raised the value of this coin to 
thirty Shillings and the Sovereign of 1553 
is the first English coin bearing a date. 
In 1561 the value was again reduced to 
twenty Shillings and the fineness made 
twenty-two carats, and finally, in the first 
coinage of James I, there is a Pound Sover- 
eign, valued at thirty Shillings; with the 
second coinage the Sovereign ceases and 
the Unite (q.v,) takes its place. 



A modern English gold coin 
of the value of twenty Shillings or one 
Pound sterling, first struck in 1817, and 
which displays on the reverse the well- 
known design of St. George slaying the 
dragon. It bears the initials of the artist, 
Bernard Pistrucci. 



[225] 



Sovrano 



Spesmflo 



The jBrst half Sovereign is of the same 
date, but the reverse bears a plain shield 
of the Royal Arms, surmounted by the 
crown. 

The double Sovereign was issued from 
1823 to 1826, inclusive, and revived under 
Victoria, and the five Sovereign or five- 
Pound piece appeared originally in 1887. 

The Sovereign, the standard gold coin of 
India since 1899, is equal to fifteen Rupees, 
of sixteen Annas, each of four Pice, each 
of three Pies. 

Sovrano. A gold coin of the value of 
forty Lira struck by Francis I of Austria 
for the Dukedom of Milan and Lombardy- 
Venice, pursudnt to a regulation of Novem- 
ber 1, 1823. 

Spadacdno. The popular name for the 
Giulio struck in Massa Lombarda, and men- 
tioned in an ordinance if 1560. It bears 
the figure of St. Paul armed with a sword. 

Spade Guinea* The name given to a 
variety of the Guinea issued in the reign 
of George III from 1787 to 1799, inclusive, 
on account of the shovel-shaped shield on 
the reverse, which bears a resemblance to 
an old-fashioned spade, or to the spades in 
a pack of playing cards. The half spade 
Guineas are of similar design. 

Spade Money. The name given to cer- 
tain of the primitive and ancient coins of 
China, resembling spades or pitchforks, 
and which were probably derived from 
actual implements following the barter 
stage of that people. The Chinese name for 
this kind of coin is Ch'an Pi, Pi Ch'an, or 
Ch'an Pu. These pieces are sometimes 
called Pu coins (g.v.)» l>ut this name 
should be more correctly given to the 
smaller coins derived from the spades. 
The earliest were uninscribed and for the 
most part have hollow square handles filled 
with terra-cotta. Some later forms have a 
plain flat handle. They were made from 
prehistoric times to about B.C. 225. Closely 
related to these are the above-mentioned 
Pus and the Weight Money {q,v.). 

Spadin. A variety of Denier issued by 
Ferri IV, Duke of Lorraine (1312-1328). 
It has on the obverse the figure of a long 
sword between two birds. 

The type was copied bv Jean d'Arzi- 
lieres. Bishop of Toul (1309-1320), and by 
Renaud de Bar, Bishop of Metz (1302- 



1319), who attempted to harmonize his 
coins with those of his brother, the Count 
of Bar. 

Spadino. Another name for the silver 
Scudo of Charles Emanuel I of Savoy is- 
sued in 1630. It bears on the reverse an 
arm holding a long sword. 

SpagiirlL A base silver coin of the can- 
ton of Luzerne. It appears to be a nick- 
name for a half Kreuzer. 

Spanish Sixpence. A common designa- 
tion in Jamaica and other West India Is- 
lands during the eighteenth century for the 
Real of Spain, on account of its size and 
general appearance. See Chalmers (pp. 
6,8). 

Spanker. An obsolete slang term for a 
gold coin, and frequently used in the plural 
for money. 

Abraham Cowley, in his play. The Cutter 
of Coleman Street 1663 (ii. 5), says: **I'll 
go and provide the Spankers;" and Mot- 
teux, in his translation of Rabelais' Pan- 
tagruel (vi.), mentions **01d Gold, such as 
your Double Ducats, Rose-Nobles, Angels,. 
Spankers, Spur-Royals.'' 

Speciesdaler. See Rigsdaler. 

Speciesthaler. A name given to a Thaler 
of a fixed standard value proclaimed by 
an ordinance of 1566. In the monetary 
conference between Austria and Bavaria in 
1753, their value was specified at ten to 
the fine Mark of silver. See Thaler. 

Spesmilo. An Esperanto term for an 
international money unit proposed as a 
theoretical ''money of exchange," by M. 
Rene de Saussure, a well-known Swiss sci- 
entist. As the name indicates, the Spesmilo 
(abbreviated Sm.) consists of one thousand 
Speso (1 Speso equals about $.0005). The 
Spesmilo is subdivided into the Spescento 
(100 Speso) and the Spesdeko (10 Speso). 
Although proposed merely as a fictitious 
money of exchange, coins of the value of 
one Spesmilo and two Spesmilo have been 
struck. 

Theoretically, the Spesmilo represents 
the value of eight grammes of gold eleven 
twelfths pure. For practical purposes it 
is considered, approximately, to be the 
value of fifty Cents (U.S.), two and one 
half Francs, two Shillings, two Marks, one 
Rouble, one Mexican Peso, one Yen, one 
Sol, ten Piastres, etc. 



[226] 



Sphragis 



Stagnate 



In 1907, at its thirty-sixth sess^n, the 
'^ Association Fran^aise pour TAvancement 
des Sciences" adopted the Speso as tii^ 
basis for an international "fictitious'^ 
money. About that time the "Schweizer- 
ische Bankverein" introduced experiinent- 
ally international Spesmilo checks, the val- 
ues being indicated exclusively in the Spes- 
milo system and the text being printed in 
the international language, Esperanto. 

Sphragis (a^porxiq). See Type. 

Spie. A slang term for the current cop- 
per one Cent piece of the Netherlands. 

Spiebnarken, or Spielpfennige. See 

Rechenpfennige. 

Spintriae. A name given to certain 
tokens which occur in the Roman series, 
on which there are obscene representations. 
For a detailed account of their history and 
probable uses see Nadrowski, in the Ber- 
liner Milnzblaiter (No. 52), and Steven- 
son {s,v,), 

Spitzgrotchen. The name given to a 
series of silver coins struck by the Elector 
Ernst of Saxony, conjointly with his broth- 
ers, the Dukes Wilhelm and Albrecht, and 
to some extent with his mother, Margaret. 
The issue began about 1475 and continued 
to the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
and the type was copied by Gtebhard VII 
for Mansf eld about 1547. 

The word Spitze or Spitz means a point, 
or pointed, and the coins receive their 
name from the decorations of the armorial 
design on the reverse. 

Spondulix. A slang name for money 
formerly very common in the United 
States. The origin of the term is unknown. 

Sportnbu A word used by Martial {Lib. 
x. Epig. 75) to indicate a purse or sum of 
money presented at banquets by rich per- 
sons to their friends and clients. 

Spottmunzen, or Spottmedafllen. A 
term used by German numismatists to in- 
dicate pieces of a satirical character. 

Spousage Tokens. See Arrhes. 

SpraL An English slang term for a Six- 
pence. The word occurs in The Slang Dic- 
tionary, 1839 (p. 34). 

Sprenger. A silver coin of Li^g^, 
Homes, etc., issued during the sixteenth 
century and of the value of one fourth of 
the Ecu or Thaler. 



Sprinkle Dollar. A silver coin bearing 
this name is said to have been manufac- 
tured by an individual named Josiah 
Sprinkle, who lived in Lewis County, Ken- 
tucky. The pieces were claimed to have 
been coined circa 1830-1835, and their 
weight was heavier than the standard 
Dollars of the United States. Rudely out- 
lined on one side wajs an owl, and the re- 
verse bore a six-pointed star. We are in- 
clined to regard the entire story as a fabri- 
cation, but details can be found in the 
American Journal of Numismatics (xx:x. 
84). 

Spmchthalery and Spmchgroschen. The 

general name for coins bearing a quota- 
tion from Scripture. They are found in 
the series of Brunswick, Sachsen- Weimar, 
Mansf eld, etc. 

Spurred GroaL A name given to the 
Scottish Qroat, introduced by David II 
(1329-1371). 

Snelling, View of the Silver Coinage of 
Scotland, 1773, states that the expression 
arose from the mullet or spur in the quar- 
ters of the cross on the reverse of these 
coins. 

Spur Ryal. A term generally applied 
to the half of the Ryal which was first is- 
sued in the reign of Edward IV, but more 
particularly to the gold fifteen Shilling 
piece of the fifth coinage of James I 
(1619), the rays of the sun on this coin 
resembling the rowels of a spur. 

Squiddisk. An English dialect term for 
a very insignificant sum of money. In 
Northumberland it denotes the twentieth 
part of a Farthing. 

Sfojuznyia. The name given to early 
Russian convention money bearing the 
titles of two princes. See Blanchet (ii. 
193). 

Stabler. A nickname given to small sil- 
ver coins struck in Southern Germany 
during the fourteenth century from the 
bishop 's staff held in the hand of the figure 
on the obverse, which is a prominent fea- 
ture on many of these pieces. 

Stag. An English slang term for a Shil- 
ling. The word occurs in The Slang Dic- 
tionary, 1857 (p. 20). 

Stagnate. An Italian expression, usually 
applied to such of the Roman bronze coins 



[227] 



Stambul 



Sterbe Denkmttngen 



of the later Empire as were coated with 
tin to give them the appearance of silver. 

Stambul. See Zer-mahbub. 

Stunma. See Aboudjidid. 



5. A name given to the Cayenne 
Sous when punched or stamped by the 
Island governments or merchants of the 
British West Indies. Their value varied 
according to the locality, but on the island 
of Trinidad an English half Penny is 
known counterstamped 1 stampee. See 
Tampe. 

Star Pagoda. A name given to a variety 
of the Madras Pagoda, which bears on the 
obverse a large five-pointed star on a gran- 
ulated convex surface, and on the reverse 
a figure of Vishnu. See Pagoda. 

Statendaalder. A silver crown issued 
by Philip II in 1578 for general circula- 
tion in Gueldres, Utrecht, and Overys- 
el. The obverse bears a half-length por- 
trait of the king holding an uplifted 
sceptre. There are corresponding halves 
and quarters, as well as Statenschellinge 
(g.v.). 

StatenscheUingy also called Elopschel- 
ling and Placaatschelling. A variety of 
the Schelling of the Low Countries intro- 
duced in 1672 in the Province of Gronin- 
geuy and copied in 1675 at Utrecht. It 
was hammered or stamped {Kloppen, to 
beat, to hammer), and the obverse bore a 
figure of an armed rider, while on the re- 
verse was the shield of arms dividing the 
value, six Stuivers. See Zesthalven. 

Slater. The unit of the gold coinage of 
ancient Greece. Its usual diArision was the 
sixth, or Hecte (g.v.), but there are also 
halves, thirds, and even smaller parts; for 
Ionia there exists a one ninety-sixth Stater 
struck in electrum. Multiples of the Stater 
are unusual, but they are found occasion- 
ally. Thus Alexander the Great issued 
double Staters, and Eucratides, King of 
Bactria (B.C. 190-160) struck a twenty 
Stater piece, the largest gold coin of an- 
tiquity. 

The silver Stater varied in weight, ac- 
cording to locality. In general the term 
Stater was given to the principal silver 
coin of each city. Thus the Corinthian 
Tridrachm, equal in weight to two Attic 
Drachms, was known by the name Stater, 



while at Athens the Tetradrachm, being the 
principal coin issued, was there called a 
Stater. 

Steckenreiter. See Hobby Horse. 

Stoenie, sometimes also written Steinie. ' 
An obsolete Scotch and English dialect 
name for a gold coin or Guinea. Skinner, 
Poems, 1809 (71), has the line: 

A bag full of poor yellow stelnies. 

Sleinbock Pfennige. The name given to 
certain varieties of Deniers struck in Aus- 
tria at the beginning of the fifteenth cen- 
tury pursuant to an ordinance of Duke 
Albrecht IV. They have the head of the 
capricomus or ibex on the obverse. 

See Steenie. 



Stella. A experimental coin of the 
United States, the value of which, four 
Dollars, is based on the metric system, 
being intended to serve as an international 
coin. These coins were made on the re- 
quest of the United States Minister to Aus- 
tria, their exact value, three Dollars and 
eighty-eight Cents, being that of the for- 
mer Austrian eight Florin piece. The 
name is derived from the large five-pointed 
star on the reverse and they are the work 
of W. W. Hubbell, the patentee of the 
goloid metal. They were issued at the 
Philadelphia mint in 1879 and 1880, and 
were composed of six grammes of pure 
gold, three of silver, and one of copper. 

Stdlmo. A silver coin of Florence 
struck by Cosmo di Medici (1536-1574) 
and continued by his successor, Francesco 
(1574-1587). The obverse has a bust of 
the Duke and on the reverse is a seated 
figure of St. John the Baptist. The name 
of the coin is derived from the star used 
as a mint-mark, and the issue of these 
pieces it is claimed was made to repay a 
loan from the Genoese. 



Stephanentb, See Estevenante. 

Stephanusdaalder. A silver coin of 
Nim^gue issued pursuant to an ordinance 
of October 23, 1523. It bears a figure of 
St. Stephen on the obverse. There is a 
gold Florin, called Stephanusgulden, of 
similar type. 

Stephenmg. See Salding. 

Sterbe Denkmiinaen. See Mortuary 
Pieces. 



[228] 



Sterling 



Stone M<mey 



Sterling. This word, as applied to coins, 
appears to be derived from Esterlings, i.e., 
people from the east of Europe, some of 
whom were employed in the thirteenth 
century in regulating the coinage of Eng- 
land. The coins made by them were vari- 
ously called Esterlins, or Easterlings, a 
term later abbreviated into Sterlings. 

On August 16, 1257, a writ dated at 
Chester was issued, commanding the Mayor 
of London to proclaim in that city that 
"the gold money which the King had 
caused to be made should be immediately 
current there and elsewhere within the 
realm of England, in all transactions of 
buying and selling, at the rate of twenty 
pennies of sterlings for every gold penny." 
This refers to silver Pennies. 

In many transactions these coins were 
weighed, and the term Pound Sterling sur- 
vives to this date as a standard. See Es- 
terlin. 

Sterling. A name frequently given to 
the silver Penny of Scotland. This type 
was introduced by David I (1124-1153), 
and was similar in many respects to the 
contemporary English Penny of Stephen. 
The term was in use until the middle of 
the thirteenth century; in the reign of 
Alexander III (1249-1292) the silver 
coins are usually referred to as Pennies, a 
designation subsequently adhered to. 

Stem Grotchen. A peculiar type of 
Groschen common in the coinages of 
Cleve, Juliers, etc., during the fifteenth 
century and later. The reverse has four 
large stars, one in each angle of the cross. 

Stichttche Stuiver. The name given to 
a variety of Stuiver issued by the towns 
of Campen, Deventer, and Zwolle, in 1488, 
pursuant to an ordinance of the same year. 
See Prey (No. 308). The word means 
coins that will stand the test. 

Stickanutam. A Scottish and English 
dialect term for a coin of very small value. 
It is now obsolete but at one time was ap- 
plied to the Scottish half -penny. 

Stipt, whence the English word stipend. 
According to Livy, this name was applied 
to the Acs Grave when stored in quantity 
in chests or warehouses on account of its 
bulky nature. See Stevenson (p. 135). 



Stiver. The same as Stuiver (g.v.). The 
word in this form is used on the English 
issues for Ceylon, struck in copper and sil- 
ver from 1801 to 1815, and on tokens for 
Essequibo and Demerara from 1813 to 
1838. 

Stockfischthaler. The name given to a 
silver coin struck by Duke Henry Julius 
of Brunswick-Liineberg in 1612. The re- 
verse has the figure of a codfish lying on 
a block, which is being beaten by two hands 
holding hammers. There is also a satirical 
inscription implying that some persons, 
like the codfish, must be beaten to over- 
come their indolence. 

The type was copied in Hamburg in 
1620. 

Stone Money. Edmond Planchut, in a 
reference to the Caroline Islands, contrib- 
uted to the Scientific Review (Sept., 1885), 
states that ''in that mysterious archipelago 
. . . the money consists of circular stones, 
which have a hole in the centre, and vary 
in diameter from twenty centimetres to 
one metre. With this stone currency, the 
material of which is very hard, and which 
comes from the neighboring islands of 
Palaos, where it is also used for the same 
purpose, the natives pay their tribute to 
the chiefs of their villages.'' The native 
name for this money is Pei. 

Mr. Howland Wood in The Numismatist 
(1906) described the curious stone money 
of Yap, one of the Caroline Islands. In 
the same periodical (1911) he adds that 
stone used as currency is not confined, 
however, to this group of islands, as upon 
the testimony of the missionary Spiess, it 
was used formerly also on the Gold Coast 
and in the vicinity of Togoland on the west 
coast of Africa. On his return to Europe 
Spiess brought with him four specimens 
of these stones, of which three were of 
crystalline quartz and the fourth of a 
softer component material. The quartz 
specimens were polished, of a diameter of 
forty to fifty millimetres, and of a thick- 
ness of fifteen to twenty millimetres. The 
holes in the centre of the stones were fun- 
nel shaped from both sides, evidently indi- 
cating that the coins were intended for 
suspension. "This stone money,'' says 
Spiess, "is obtainable in only one district 
of the Gold Coast and is now no longer in 
use." 



[229] 



Stootor 



SCyca 



Some years ago some laborers on the 
road •between Lome and Palime in Togo- 
land discovered a quantity of these stones, 
and they were sent to Europe by one of 
the officials. The specimens confirm the 
earlier observations of Spiess. They are 
of a white and yellowish crystalline quartz, 
and appear to have received a polish from 
the action of water. Their diameter varies 
from thirty-two to sixty millimetres, and 
their thickness from fifteen to twenty milli- 
metres. With this lot was found a single 
stone, cylindrical in shape and of a mate- 
rial resembling jasper; the height of the 
same was eighteen millimetres, and the 
diameter twenty-six millimetres. 

It is supposed that this specimen repre- 
sents some higher unit of value than the 
remainder. 

Stooter, or Stoter. A base silver coin 
of Gueldres, Overysel, Campen, Zeeland, 
etc., struck in the latter part of the six- 
teenth century. It bore the head of the 
Earl of Leicester and was valued at the 
twentieth part of the silver Daalder. 

The name is still retained in Holland to 
designate the current copper coin of two 
and one half Cents. 

Stoter. See Stooter. 

Stotinka. A copper coin of Bulgaria, 
adopted in 1867 when this country based 
its monetary system on that of the Latin 
Union. One hundred Stotinki are equal to 
one Lev. It is also referred to as the Kan- 
tem or Canteim, i,e., Centime. Bronze 
pattern pieces of ten Kantems were struck 
in 1880 and 1887. 

Straw Money. See Lebongo. 

Streitpfennige. The popular name for 
a copper coinage of Erfurt, the principal 
city of Thuringia. The name means dis- 
sention or quarrel. 

At the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury the local mintmaster did not always 
comply with the ordinances governing the 
weight and purity of the coinage, which 
led to frequent complaints from neighbor- 
ing principalities where these pieces were 
circulated. 

Strohthaler. A nickname given to the 
Silesian twenty-four Kreuzer pieces, which 
were very common at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. They were of very 
base composition, poor fabric, and the 



Thaler at that period was divided into 
twenty-four parts, i,e., Oroschen. 

Stober. A German billon and copper 
coin corresponding to the Dutch Stuiver 
(q.v.). It is of frequent occurrence in 
Juliers and Berg, East Friesland, and Ol- 
denburg, and appears to have been intro- 
duced in the latter part of the fifteenth 
century, continuing in use until the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth. 

StoiTer, also variously written S^jayver^ 
Stiver, and Stiiber, was originally a bil- 
lon, and later a copper coin of the Low 
Countries and various Oerman States, 
dating from the middle of the sixteenth 
century. The Munten Ordonnantie of 1576 
gives forty Stuivers as the equivalent of 
the silver Rijder of Friesland and Guel- 
dres. A later Ordonnantie of 1652 men- 
tions thirty Stuivers as being equal to one 
Ducatone, fifteen Stuivers as equal to a 
quarter Crown of Burgundy, one quarter 
Stuiver as equal to one silver Oord, and 
five Stuivers as equal to a Spanish Real. 

There is an extensive series of Stuivers 
issued by the Dutch for their possessions 
in the East, struck in copper, lead and 
silver. For details conf. the works of 
Moquette and Millies {passim). See also 
Stiver. 

The word is still retained in Holland to 
designate the current copper coin of five 
cents. 

Stuk ▼an Achten. The Dutch equiva- 
lent for ** Piece of Eight. *' It is applied 
to such coins as were struck for Java, etc., 
and which corresponded to the Piastre or 
eight Reaals. Conf, Netscher and v.d. 
Chijs (i. 1), Verkade (199, 1), and see 
Peso. 

Stuyver. A more archaic form of 
writing Stuiver {q.v.). 

Styca. This coin occurs only in the is- 
sues for Northumberland, and it appears 
to begin with the reign of Ecgfrith (670- 
685), and concludes with the year 875, 
when the Danish King Half den conquered 
the territory. 

The name is supposed to be derived from 
the Saxon word sticce, a minute part, two 
Stycas being equal to one Farthing. The 
composition of the coins was of a mixed 
metal; in one hundred parts there were 
sixty to seventy of copper, twenty to twen- 



[230] 



Styfer 



Sun Dollar 



ty-five of zinc, six to eleven of silver, and 
traces of gold, lead, and tin. 

The Stycas usually have crosses with 
pellets in the angles on both obverse and 
reverse; the name of the ruler and mon- 
eyer is generally added. 

Styfer. Pronounced as if written Sty- 
ver, is applied to both small copper and 
small base silver coins of Sweden. It is 
the Scandinavian equivalent for Stuiver. 

Stsrkke. A small silver coin of Denmark, 
equal to one fifth of the Species Daler, or 
one fourth of the Rigsdaler Courant. 

SubaeratL See Plated Coins. 

SudcaulioGk. See Wampum. 

Sucre. A silver coin of Ecuador of the 
value of one hundred Centavos. It re- 
ceives its name from Antonio Jose de 
Sucre, a South American patriot who 
fought under Simon Bolivar. He was born 
at Cumana in 1793, and in 1819 had so 
distinguished himself that he was made a 
brigadier general of the insurgent forces. 
In 1822 he defeated the Spaniards at Chi- 
chincha, and, having become commander- 
in-chief when Bolivar was made dictator, 
he routed the troops of the viceroy in the 
battle of Ayachuco, Peru, December 9, 
1824, which established the independence 
of the country. For this signal victory 
Bolivar made him grand marshal, and in 
1825 he was elected President of Bolivia. 
He was assassinated soon after his election 
to the Constituent Congress in 1830, due, 
it was said, to the jealousy or instigation 
of Gen. Ovando. His portrait appears on 
most of the coins of the Republic. 

Sueldo. A silver coin of the Republic 
of Bolivia, of the same value as the Real, 
i.e., one eighth of the Peso. See Ponrobert 
(9475, 9481, 9524, etc.). 

At Perpignan, in the Pyrenees, a billon 
Sueldo was issued during the French occu- 
pation from 1642 to 1655. 

The Sueldo of Ferdinand VII (1808- 
1833) was the Spanish equivalent of the 
Soldo, and was equal to six Doblers. It 
was a copper coin and appears to have been 
issued chiefly for Majorca. 

Suitemneclaillen. A term used by Ger- 
man numismatists to indicate medals that 
have a regular sequence on account of a 
series of portraits, recording successive 
events, etc. 



Suit Sflver. According to Wharton, 
Law Lexicon, 1864, this was ''a small rent 
or sum of money paid in some manors to 
excuse the freeholders' appearance at the 
courts of their lord." 

Suka, Suki, or SikL The basis of the 
silver monetary system of Nepal intro- 
duced by the Gorkhas, who used two varie- 
ties of currency as under : 

Pacis Ganda System 

1 Mohar = 2 Suka. 

1 Suka = 2 Do-ani or 25 Dbebuns of copper. 
Fonrobert (2325 et aeq.) states tbat tbe Suka Is equal 
to tbe quarter Mobur, and tbe Adba (2324) is tbe 
balf. 

1 Do-ani = 6 Dyaks, or double Pice. 

1 Dyak = 2 Dbebuas, or 2 Paisa. 

1 Dbebua = 4 Dams (copper). 

1 Dam = 2 Pboka Dams, or Cbun Dams. 

SoHRA Ganda System. 

1 Mobur = 2 Suka. 
1 Suka = 2 Do-ani. 
1 Do-ani = 2 Ek-ani = (% Mobur). 
1 Bk-ani = 2 Adba-ani. 

1 Adba-ani = 1 silver Pice, or Paisa Mobur. 
1 Paisa Mobur, i.e., Va Mobur = 2 Do-Dam, also 
called Adba-paisa. 

The Suka is based on the weight of the 
Tola (g.v.), and the Nepalese gold coins 
follow the same standard, i.e. — 

Duitole Asarfl = 4 Moburs = 2 Tolas = 360 
troy grains. 

Bakla Asarfl = 2 Moburs = 1 Tola = 180 troy 
grains. 

Patla or Majbawala = 1 Mobur = ^ Tola = 
90 troy grains. 

Suka Asarfl = ^ Mobur = % Tola = 45 troy 
grains. 

Sukl = % Mobur = ^/u Tola = 22.5 troy grains. 

Anl = Vm Mobur = V« Tola = 11.75 troy grains. 

Adba-ani = V«t Mobur =r Ve* Tola = 5.87 troy 
grains. 

Pai = V«4 Mobur = Vi« Tola = 2.93 troy grains. 

Dam = Vw Mobur = V»ii Tola = 0.71 troy 
grains. 

SukL A silver coin of India, and equal 
to the twentieth part of a Rupee. See 
Sihansah. 

SukiL The Dutch equivalent of the 
Suka iq.v.). The Dutch counterstamped 
these pieces in 1787 with the v.o.c. mark 
for their possessions in Ceylon. 

In the Malay Peninsula the Suku is one 
fourth of the Real or Spanish Dollar. The 
word means a quarter. See Sookoo and 
Pitje. 

Sultanine. Tavernier calls this the same 
as the Sequin {q.v. supra). 

Sultany Alton. See Altun. 

Sun Dollar. A name given to the Peso 
of Costa Rica on account of the design 
which represents the sun rising behind 
mountains. 



[231] 



Suflkm 



Synbol 



Suskm. The English diminutive of the 
French Sou. This debased coin was cur- 
rent in England for a long period. The 
parliament in 1424 decreed that it should 
no longer be used, but this ordinance was 
but little regarded, as it was found neces- 
sary to put a stop to the entire circulation 
of these pieces in 1519. 

Suden' Checks. The tokens issued by 
the sutlers, i,e,, the military victualers 
corresponding to the canteen-keepers of 
the present time, attached to the various 
regiments and posts of the Northern Army 
during the Civil War in the United States. 
At first, for a short time, these checks 
were of cardboard or paper, but these soon 
disintegrated through wear and were re- 
placed by metallic issues. This currency 
had free circulation in the regiment or 
brigade for which it was issued, and formed 
the greater part of the small change. The 
denominations ranged from five to one hun- 
dred Cents. The issue is without artistic 
merit, being of interest from the historic 
point of view only. See Wood in Am. 
Journal of Numismatics (xxxvii. 23, and 
xlvii. 163). 

Suvarna* An early Indian gold coin, 
of the value of twenty-five Karshapanas, 
and weighing one hundred and forty to 
one hundred and forty-four grains. Cun- 
ningham (pp. 7, 22). states that it ''also 
was a simple bag of gold dust, such as is 
still current in Kumaon, of the value of 
eight Rupees. Each of these gold dust 
bags is now called Phetang. ' ' See Pana. 

The name Suvarna means ''beautiful 
color." 



The Italian name for the 
Austrian Zwanziger {q.v.) introduced by 
Francis I (1815-1835) into the currency 
of Milan. It is also known as the Lira 
Austriaca. 

Swami Pagoda. A name given to one 
of the Madras Pagodas, which has a male 
and two female figures on the obverse. 
One of the titles of Krishna was Chenna 
Keswam Swami, and from this the name 
is probably derived, the females being 
Lakshmi and Rukmini. The weight of 
this Pagoda is somewhat more than two 
pennyweights. The reverse has a granu- 
lated surface. See Pagoda. 



Swarf M<Hiey, or Warth Money. Ac- 
cording to Wharton, Law Lexicon, 1864, 
this was a sum of money "paid in lieu of 
the service of castle-ward." 

Swrarte Penimige, i,e., Black Pennies. 
See Korten, Black Money, and Zwarte. 

Sufine Pennies. A local English term for 
money rooted up by swine. Defoe, in his 
Tour through Or eat Britain (iii. 9), states 
that in Littleborough, Liancashire, "great 
numbers of coins have been taken up in 
ploughing and digging, which they call 
Swine-penies, because those creatures some- 
times rout them up." 

Sword and Sceptre Piece. A name 
given to a Scottish gold coin of James YI, 
issued in 1601 and later. It was of the 
value of six Pounds and derives its name 
from the sword and sceptre in saltire on 
the obverse. There is a half of the same 
type of the value of three Pounds. 

Swoid Dollar. A silver coin issued by 
James YI of Scotland, of the value of 
thirty Shillings, which receives its name 
from the upright sword on the reverse. 

It is also known as the Byal {q.v.), and 
except for differences in the figures of 
value the one third Byal and the two 
thirds are of the same type. 

Sword Money. See Knife Money. 

Sycee Sflver. The name Sycee, from 
the Cantonese Hsi Ssu, means "fine floss 
silk," and it is given to these ingots in 
allusion to the purity of the metal, which 
is apparently a native silver. It is run 
into circular or shoe-shaped ingots, called, 
in the Dutch East Indies, Schuyt or 
"boats," and bears an inscription or stamp 
on its upper surface. The standard ingot 
weighs about fifty Taels, though smaller 
ones are made. AH ingots or shoes, how- 
ever, are not of such pure silver or 
"touch." See Ting and Yuan Pao for 
'^the various Chinese names for these silver 
ingots. 

These "shoes," as they are sometimes 
called, are used for the purpose of paying 
customs duties, salt duties, and land taxes. 
See Prinsep (p. 33). 

SjrmboL A device found on coins and 
medals which bears no relation to the in- 
scriptions. Thus the owl is a symbol of 
wisdom, the anchor of hope, the lamb of 
purity, etc. 



[232] 



Synage Szostak 



See Senage. mond I (1506-1548), but later in copper. 

SysseL See Sizel. Its original value was twelve Denarii, or 

Swiag. The Polish equivalent for the ^^^ ^"^^ "^^ *^^ multiples were : 

Schilling or Shilling. The word is pro- ^^ = H Sf**:,"- 

nounced ''Schellong." Csvorak = 48 Denani. 

Saelong. The Polish equivalent of the ^*^»**»' = ^^ ^'»*''"- 

Solidus, first issued in silver under Sigi»- Szottak. See Szelong. 



[233] 



Tabo 



Talari 



T 



Tabo. An African money of account. 
See Boss. 

Tacolin. An Armenian coin, of which 
no specimen is known, but which is re- 
ferred to in a grant made in 1333 by Leon 
V to the Venetians. Langlois (p. 15) 
quotes a passage showing that one hundred 
Tacolini were equal to seventy-seven Dir- 
hems. It may have been a money of ac- 
count. 

TaeL The Chinese Liang or ounce, and 
equal to about one and one third ounces 
avoirdupois. The word is derived from 
the Hindu Tola through the Mayalan word 
Tahil. It is the nominal unit of China; 
its value, however, is fluctuating and it is 
subdivided into ten Mace (Chien or 
Tsien), one hundred Candareens (Pun), 
and one thousand Cash (Li). The Tael is 
a weight and there are varieties for each 
province. The Hai-Kwan, or custoins 
Tael, has the highest valuation. It is 
equal to five hundred and ninety and thir- 
ty-five one hundredths grains of pure sil- 
ver. See Liang. 

The actual trade unit is the Dollar or 
Yuan {q.v.)y and to harmonize this with 
the weight, the value of the Dollar is seven 
Mace and two Candareens, i.e., a trifle 
less than three fourths of the Tael weight. 
Certain provincial coins have been struck, 
however, bearing the value of one Tael, 
one half Tael, etc. See Ch 'ien. 

In China silver is frequently cast in a 
mold in the form of a truncated cone or 
bowl, and counterstamped with Chinese 
characters, indicating the weight in taels. 
See Sycee Silver. 

Tahegan. The name given to both a 
gold and a silver coin of Armenia. The 
former appears to have been of lesser value 
than the Tenar (g.v.), the two coins prob- 
ably having the same ratio as the Solidus 
and the later gold Florin. Its value 
varied; Langlois (pp. 10-11) cites several 
authorities to show that it was the equiva- 
lent of thirty Drachmas of silver, or forty 
Poghs of copper. See Drakani. 

The silver Tahegan was introduced in 
the reign of Leon II (1185-1218), with a 
corresponding half, called a Tram. 



TahiL See Tail. 

Tafl, also written Tahil and TayeiL A 

former money of account at Atjeh. See 
Mas. 

Ponrobert (No. 838) describes a piece of 
copper ring money, current at Korindschi, 
of which fifteen thousand three hundred 
and sixty were equal to the gold Tail. 

Taka. The Paisa or piece of ten Dinar 
in the Afghan coinage. See Sanar. 

Takka. Another name for the double 
Mohur struck by Prithvi Vira Vikrama, 
King of Nepal, after 1881. Specimens 
were issued about 1911 in both gold and 
silver. 

Takoe. An English colonial silver coin 
issued by the African .Company on the 
Gold Coast in 1796. This piece has on 
the obverse g. r. in script, crowned, and 
on the reverse the armorial shield of the 
company, with the crest of an elephant 
above. Its value was one eighth of the 
Ackey (^.t;.). 

Talar. The Thaler of Frederick August, 
King of Saxony and Duke of Warsaw, 
from 1807 to 1815, is so inscribed. 

Talari. The monetary silver unit of 
Abyssinia. It is of Dollar or Crown size, 
contains three hundred sixty and sev- 
enty-six one hundredths grains of pure 
silver, and is divided into halves, quarters, 
tenths, and twentieths. The latter, the 
smallest silver coin of this country, is 
known as the Guerche, Gersh, or Piastre. 

The Talari issued under King Menelik 
was sometimes referred to as a Menelik, 
and, by an arbitrary decree, he attempted 
to introduce divisions of quarters, eighths, 
and sixteenths, instead of the prevailing 
decimal system. 

The half Talari of Menelik 's series is 
called the Agod, the one quarter the Yaber 
Rub, and the one eighth received the name 
of Tenan. The Ttdari obtains its name 
from the Thaler of Maria Theresa, and 
in the Amharic language it is known as 
Ber {q,v.). It is also referred to as the 
Argenteus. 



[234] 



Talbot 



Tampang 



Talbot A gold coin of the Anglo-Gal- 
lic series, of the value of twenty-^ne Sols 
and eight Deni^rs. An ordinance of Sep- 
tember 10, 1453, provided for this coin 
which was to be struck at Boi'deaux in 
the name of Henry VI, and also in Eng- 
land **by command of the Captain Talbot 
[afterwards Earl of Shrewsbury], then 
Lieutenant-General of Henry in Quienne." 

Talent, from the Greek xaXavcov, a pair 
of scales, was later applied to a definite 
weight and belongs to the subject of met- 
rology rather than numismatics. 

In Greece there were several standards, 
but the one most common made the Talent 
equal to sixty Minae ; the Mina equal to 
one hundred Drachmai; and the Drachma 
equal to six Oboli ; so that a Talent con- 
tained six thousand Drachmai, and when 
a Talent of gold is mentioned, the term 
refers to the weight and not the value. 

In the Babylonian system the Talent 
was also equal to sixty Minae or Manas, 
and the latter was again equal to sixty 
Shekels. The Semetic name was Kikkar. 

The Roman Talent was a money of ac- 
count and corresponded to one hundred 
Libral Asses. It was generally called Cen- 
tupondium. 

For a full account of these early stand- 
ards conf. Hill (pp. 28-32), and Cunning- 
ham (pp. 26-31). 

TalL A Javanese money of account, of 
the value of one eighth of a Real. See 
Pitje and Tra. 

Talisman Thaler. The name given to a 
variety of Thaler struck by David, Count 
of Mansfeld, in 1610. It has a figure of 
St. George on horseback, and the motto 

BEI GOT 1ST RATH VND THAT. ScC Madai 

(No. 1797). 

Tallard. A name given to the silver 
Ecu issued by Charles III, Duke of Lor- 
raine and Bar, in 1557. 

Tallero. The Italian equivalent of the 
Thaler {q.v.). The name is, however, gen- 
erally applied to coins of the eighteenth 
century and later, to distinguish them 
from the Scudo. Exceptions to this rule 
are the Talleri of Francesco Perrero of 
Messerano (1588-1624), and those of Man- 
tua, Florence, etc., as well as the Tallero 
of the Italian colony of Eritrea. 



The Doges of Venice, from the middle 
of the eighteenth century to the end of 
the Republic, issued a series of Talleri for 
the Levant. 

Talkvo dd Levante* See Levant Dol- 
lar. 

Tallero di ConTenaione. See Conven- 
tion Money. 

Tallero di San Biagio. See Vislino. 

Tallero Rettoralo. See Vislino. 

Tallies. See Wooden Money. 

Tamaiio. A term used by Spanish nu- 
mismatists, meaning a small portion, and 
corresponding to the Bit {q.v,). The Suel- 
dos, Beales, etc., were formerly frequently 
cut into eighths or segments, and the name 
Tamano was applied to these pieces. 

Tambac-tron. A base silver coiji of 
Annam, having on one side inscriptions 
surrounding a sun, and on the reverse the 
figure of a dragon. It was introduced 
during the reign of the Emperor Minh 
Mang (1820-1842), and was current for a 
Piastre, or double the value of the Quan 
(g.v.). See Ponrobert (2109-11, 2115-17). 
There are both dated and undated varie- 
ties. The word Tambac-tron means 
** round silver." 

Tambioy or Trambiyo. A copper coin 
of Cutch and Kathiawar, and equal to the 
one forty-eighth of the Kori (g.v.). 

The name is derived from the Sanscrit 
Tamrika, though its root meaning is ''of 
copper. ' ' Codrington states that * * in prac- 
tice it used to mean a half -pice ; originally, 
I believe, it meant a pice." 

Ta-nug-ma, meaning a '* horse's hoof," 
is the name given to one variety of the 
Chinese silver ingots used as currency in 
Tibet. Its value varies from sixty to 
seventy Rupees, according to its weight. 

Tamlungy or Si BaL A Siamese gold 
or silver coin, of the value of four Ticals 
and equivalent to the Tael {q.v,). There 
is a half, known as a Kroung Tamlung. 

The name is also given to a crude lump 
of silver which is used as money in the 
Lao States in the northern part of Siam. 
These coins weigh from sixty to sixty-two 
grammes. 

Tampang, or Dampang. A tin coin 
struck for Pahang in the Malay Peninsula 
from about A.H. 1261-1295. There are 
corresponding halves and quarters. Prom 



[236] 



Tampi 



Tankah 



its shape, resembling a truncated obelisk, 
it is commonly known as '*hat money." 

Tampe, also called Etampe. A billon 
coin issued by France for colonial use 
from about 1750 to 1828, in which year 
they were demonetized. The usual type 
presents the original obverse effaced and 
counterstamped C. Their value varied, 
being three Sous and nine Deniers in the 
AntUles; two Sous in Cayenne, etc. See 
Marqu6 and Sol, and conf. Zay (pp. 65- 
70), and Wood, American Jmirnal of Nu- 
mismatics (xlviii. 129-136). 

Tamunah. See Arruzeh. 

Tane. The Japanese name for the coin 
or pattern supplied to the mint workmen 
to impress in the sand or clay moulds in 
making the regular coins for circulation. 
These Tanes or '*Seed" Sen are carefully 
made of superior metal and are much 
sought after by Japanese collectors, and 
correspond in a way to a proof coin. See 
Yeda, Haha Sen, and Yang Ch*ien, the 
Chinese equivalent. 

Tang. A rectangular copper bar coin 
in the style of the Bonk (g.v.), issued by 
the Dutch East India Company for Cey- 
lon. There appear to be two varieties of 
four and three quarters, and six Stuivers, 
respectively. 

Tang. An Armenian copper coin. Lang- 
lois (p. 14) states that it corresponds to 
the Denga. 

Tanga. Originally a silver coin of Por- 
tuguese India, struck principally at Qoa, 
with a value of sixty Reis, and in some 
localities of fifteen Bazaruccos. 

It appears to have been issued early in 
the seventeenth century, and specimens 
occur dated as early as 1642 and counter- 
stamped v.o.c. by the Dutch, for use in 
Ceylon. The Tanga Cruzada has the value 
on one side, and a cross with the four fig- 
ures of the date in the angles on the re- 
verse. 

In 1787 the Tanga was made a copper 
coin. The original divisions were halves 
and quarters, and to these were added 
later pieces of one sixth, oAe eighth, one 
twelfth, one eighteenth, and one twentieth. 

The name is probably derived from Tan- 
kah, a coinage introduced by the Patau 
Sultans of Dehli during the fourteenth 
century. See Thomas (pp. 116-117), and 
the Indian Antiquary (xxvi. 235-245). 



Tang-au-chon. See Ohon. 
Tang-bak-choD. See Chon. 

Tang-Ka, or Padika. A silver coin of 
ancient India, the one fourth of the Kar- 
sha. See Pana. 

Tang-Ka* The basis of the coinage of 
Tibet. It is a silver piece containing a 
considerable amount of alloy, the value of 
which is nominally six Annas, though, as 
a rule, three of them are exchanged for 
an Indian Rupee, i,e., sixteen Annas. 

The subdivisions of the Tang-Ka are 
made by cutting up the coin itself. These 
divisions are: 



Sho-Kang, 


Vs of a Tang-Ka equal to 4 Annas. 


Chhi-Ke, 


IZ «« <• «« 9 •» 


Kar-ma-ngap 


t/ l( «( «« O •* 


Kha-Kang, 


V« " ** " A Anna. 


Khap-chhe, 


V« " " " % " 



The principal varieties of the Tang-Ea 
are the following: 

Ga-den Pho-dang Tang-Ka, which was 
struck at the Ga-den palace at Lhasa, 
about 1750. 

Kong-par Tang-Ka, minted at Giamda 
on the borders of the Province of Kong- 
bo, and dated in Tibetan figures. 

Pa-nying Tang-Ka, meaning **old Ne- 
palese" coinage, commonly called Ang-tuk 
{qjo.)^ and termed Mohar by the people 
of Nepal. 

Nag-tang, or black Tang-Ka, a name 
given to the Nepalese coinage of Ranjit 
Malla Deva, bearing the Newar date 842, 
or 1722. 

Cho-tang, or '* cutting Tang-Ka." A 
Nepalese coin since the Gorkha conquest, 
not struck for currency in Tibet, but gen- 
erally current. Conf. Walsh, Coinage of 
Tibet, in Memoirs Asiatic Society of Ben- 
gal, 1907 (ii.), and Wood, in American 
Journal of Numismatics, 1912. For ex- 
tensive historical references concerning the 
name, see B. C. Temple in The Indian 
Antiquary (xxvi. 235-244). 

Tankah. A standard in both gold and 
silver, of about one hundred and seventy- 
four grains in each metal, introduced by 
the kings of Dehli. The Tankah was di- 
vided into sixty-four parts, each called a 
Kani, and equal to four Falus. 

On the copper coins of Jahangir, the 
son of Akbar, are to be found the words 
RAWANi and RAiJ, both meaning '' current 
coin,'' and corresponding in weight with 
the Tankah. Valentine (p. 162) de- 



[23G] 



Tanner 



Temple Money 



scribes a piece of four Tankahs struck by 
Akbar for Kabul A.H. 996. The piece of 
fifty Kani (Fonrobert, No. 2917) was 
known as Adli. 

Tanner. A slang name for an English 
Sixpence. The word may be a corruption 
of Danaro, or from the Gypsy tano, mean- 
ing little, the coin being a small one when 
compared with the Shilling. Dickens uses 
the term in Martin Chuzzlewit (xxxvii.). 

Tanuma Go Monune Gin. A Japan- 
ese silver coin, valued at five Momme, is- 
sued in 1765, of rectangular shape. It is 
said that the metal used was from con- 
fiscated silver ornaments of the Japanese 
ladies. 

Tao, Tao Ch'ien, Tao PL ^ See Knife 
Money. 

Tare. A small silver coin of northern 
Malabar, and probably struck at Calicut. 
It was equal to half of the Paisa. See 
Elliot (pp. 57-58). 

In some districts it is known as the Vis 
or Viz, and, while the value varied slight- 
ly, it was computed at one sixteenth of 
the Panam, wherever the latter coin was 
current. 

Tarelares. Du Cange cites an ordinance 
of 1442 in which this denomination occurs 
as a money of Brabant. 

Targa. An early billon or base silver 
coin of the Duchy of Bretagne, of the 
value of two Deniers. It is mentioned in 
an ordinance of 1459, issued by Count 
Francis II. 

Tarin, or Taro (plural Tari). In Malta 
this appears as a silver coin early in the 
sixteenth century, with the value of a 
fifth of a Ducato (q.v.), A copper issue 
occurs under Giovanni de la Vallette 
(1557-1568). Both series had various mul- 
tiples, some of them as high as thirty. 

In Naples and Sicily the same values 
were retained up to 1818, when the Sici- 
lian Taro was equivalent to half of the 
Neapolitan one. 

Tarja. An early Castilian copper coin, 
of about the value of one fourth of a Real. 
The name means a variety of shield, and 
this figure occurs on the coins. 

Tartaron, from the Greek TeTaptY]p6v 
(q.v.)y is a term applied in late Roman 
times to a bronze piece. See Du Cange, 
Dissert, de infer, aevi numism. 



Tartemoriony or Tetartemorion. The 

one fourth of the Obol and the one twenty- 
fourth of the Drachm. Aristotle mentions 
this as the smallest silver coin. It is 
known to have been struck at Athens, Colo- 
phon, Aegina, Elis, Tegea, Argos, and 
Sicyon. 

Tasdan. See Teastun. 

Tassuj. A Khwarizm coin, the one 
jiuarter of a Danik, and one twenty-fourth 
of a Dinar, or of a Dirhem. It was equal 
to two Habbehs in relation to the Dirhem ; 
or three Habbehs in relation to the Dinar. 
It varies with the Danik. See Danik. 

Tauf Thaler. An expression frequently 
found in German catalogues, and applied 
to coins having a representation of the 
baptism in the river Jordan, as referred 
to in St. Matthew (iii.)> St. Mark (i.), etc. 

TawiL See Toweelah. 

Tayell. A former money of account at 
Atjeh. See Mas. 

Tchen. See Chien. 

Tchu. See Chu. 

Tea as currency. See Brick Tea. 

Teastim. Dinneen, Irish-English Dic- 
tionary, 1904, has : * * Teastun, Teastuin. A 
fourpenny piece, fourpence. Ital. Tes- 
tone. English, Tester. Scotch Oaelic, Tas- 
dan, a Shilling." 

Teding Penny, or Tething Penny. An 

obsolete form of Tithing Penny (g.v.). 

Temin Budschu. See Budschu. 

Tenunm. See Timmin. 

Temple Coins. The Drachms or Hemi- 
Drachms issued from the temple at Didy- 
ma are so called. They were of the same 
types as those of the coins of Miletus, and 
appear to be a special Milesian issue meant 
for religious purposes. See Hill (pp. SC- 
SI). 

Tenlple Money. A name given to a 
series of Chinese medals, dating from the 
time of the Sung dynasty (A.D. 960- 
1127), and specially of the period of Tsing^- 
Kang, A.D. 1126. 

These medals were employed at cere- 
monies in honor of the god Kuei-Sing, 
who forms a part of the constellation of 
Ursus Major. Conf. Kainz, Die sogefiann- 
ten Chinesischen TempelmUmen, 1895, and 
see also Eangtang. 



[237] 



Tempo 



Testone 



Tempo. An oblong bronze coin of 
Japan, first made in 1835, and of the value 
of one hundred Mon or Sen. Its price at 
first was thirty to a Ryo of former coin, 
this probably representing one thousand 
Mon, so that its actual value on this com- 
putation would be one to thirty-three and 
one third. Prom 1854 to 1859 this coin 
depreciated to sixty to the Ryo, and in 
the year 1860 to a hundred. It has now 
fallen to one hundred and twenty-five to 
the Yen, which is one to eight Mon. See 
Munro (pp. 148-151). 

Many Japanese coins and fanciful pieces 
of oval form are known as Tempo shaped. 

Tempo Koban. See Koban. 

Tenan, Temun, or Toumon* The name 
given to the one eighth Talari piece of 
Abyssinia. See Ber. 

Tenar. A gold coin of Armenia; corre- 
sponding to the Dinar (g.v.). The name 
appears to be applied to such pieces as 
have native inscriptions, the coins struck 
by the Georgians, Arabs, etc., receiving the 
name of Solidus or Byzant. See Lang- 
lois (passim). 

Tenga. The name of certain silver coins 
of the various Muhammadan States of Cen- 
tral Asia. The Tenga of Bokhara is worth 
about ten cents. See Denga. 

Temier. A popular name for the ten 
Pound note of the Bank of England. 
Thomas Hughes, in ^om Brown at Oxford, 
1861 (xix.), says, **No money T' '*Not 
much; perhaps a tenner.'* 

Tercia Apuliensis. The one third of 
the Apuliense {q.v.). It is also called the 
Tercia Ducalis, its value being one third 
of the Ducato d'Argento. 

Terlina. A billon coin struck by Louis 
XII of France for Asti, between 1498 and 
1513. See Hoffmann (64-75). 

Tern. A gold coin struck by the Counts 
of Barcelona during the eleventh eentury, 
and valued at one third of the Mancuso 
d'Oro, or one twelfth of the Quaterne 
(g.v.). The name is probably a corrup- 
tion of Dinar, which appears to be con- 
firmed by the fact that these coins have 
both Arabic and Latin inscriptions. 

Ternary or Temarius. The name usual- 
ly applied in the coinage of Poland to a 
piece representing a triple Denarius, or 
Pfennig. It was introduced by Sigismund 



III in the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and copied for Posen, Lobsenz, Dan- 
zig, etc. 

Temariae f ormae, or triple Aura. A 

gold coin, said by Lampridius, Sev. Alex, 
(39), to have been issued by Elagabalus. 

Temionet. The name for the triple Au- 
rei. Specimens are known of Commodus 
and Gallienus. 

Territorial Gold. The name given to 
certain gold coins issued by the Oregon 
Exchange Company in 1849; the Mormon 
coinage in Utah struck from 1849 to 1860 ; 
and the gold coins issued by three private 
firms in Colorado during the years 1860 
and 1861. See Private Gold Coins. 

Teruncia. A small Roman copper coin, 
or perhaps a money of account. See Li- 
bella. The same name is also given to the 
Quadranjs (g.v.). 

Terzarola. A gold coin of Genoa, is- 
sued under the first Doge, Simon Boccane- 
gra (1339-1344). It was equal to one 
third of the Genovino. 

The same name is given to a billon coin 
of Milan, introduced by the Visconti, in 
the fourteenth century, and equal to one 
third of the Danaro. 



A name given to certain 
pieces in the Roman series, the use of 
which has not been satisfactorily deter- 
mined. They exist in both bronze and 
lead, and usually have a figure or portrait 
on one side and a numeral of value on 
the reverse. It is generally supposed that 
they were employed as temporary substi- 
tutes for money, such as for admission to 
the ancient games, theatres, etc. 

Tester. See Testoon. 

Teston. From the Italian testa, a head, 
and therefore, strictly speaking, any coin 
with a head upon it; the name seems to 
have been first applied to certain silver 
pieces of Louis XII of France, because 
they bore the head of that ruler, and thus 
identified the coinage as a national one. 

Its value in France was later made at 
one quarter of the Ecu. See Tostao. 

Testone. The Italian form of the Tes- 
ton. There are remarkably fine specimens 
struck for Milan during the Sforza dyn- 
asty (1450-1500). The Emperor, Charles 
V, issued it for Naples and Sicily as equal 
to two Carlini ; and at Ferrara, under Al- 



[ 238 ] 



Testoon 



Thaler 



fonso II (1559-1597), it had a value of 
eighteen Paoli. It occurs for Mirandola, 
Savoy, Mantua, in the Papal series, and 
numerous other Italian states. 

Testoon, or Tester. The English equiv- 
alent of the Teston. It was introduced in 
1504, in the third coinage of Henry VII, 
and was valued at twelve Pence. The coin 
is noted as being the first English coin 
which has an actual portrait of the reign- 
ing sovereign. 

In 1543, under Henry VIII, Testoons 
were ordered to be struck, the silver in 
them being of a lower grade of fineness 
than had been previously employed. In 
1548 they were called in by proclamation, 
all persons being forbidden to utter or re- 
ceive them in payment, but the holders of 
any such coins could take them to the 
mints and receive other current coins in 
exchange, at the rate of twelve Pence for 
every piece. The term Shilling soon sup- 
planted the expression Testoon; Shakes- 
peare uses Tester in The Merry Wives of 
Windsor, 

The Testoon first appeared in the Scot- 
tish coinage in 1553, but these pieces were 
struck in Prance by the mill and screw 
process. Their value was five Shillings. 

Testndo. The name given to such coins 
of Aegina as bear the figure of a tortoise. 

Tetarte, TetapTY]. The one fourth of the 
gold Stater, a denomination which was 
seldom coined. 

Tetartemorion. A Greek silver coin of 
the value of one fourth of the Obol {q.v.). 
See Tartemorion. 

Tetarteron, teTapTV)p6v. The one fourth 
of the Solidus, first coined by Nicephorus 
I, Emperor of the East. 

Tetrachalk, TeTpax<xX)^ov. The quad- 
ruple Ghalcus {q.v.). Specimens struck at 
Chios and by several of the Syrian kings 
are known. 

Tetradrachm, or Tetradrachmon, repre- 
sented the multiple of four Drachms 
(g.v.), and became the most widely circu- 
lated coin of the Greeks. 

TetranQmmos, or piece of four Nommoi, 
is mentioned in a Delian inscription. 

Teti-as, itipaq. The Triens of the Ro- 
mans, equal to one third of the Litra, and 
composed of four ounces, or Unciae. 
Bronze specimens of this denomination are 



known to have been struck at Agrigentum, 
Menaenum, Segesta, Syracuse, and Rhe- 
gium. 

Tetrassariony TeTpaaaapcov. A piece of 
four Asses (in other words, the Sester- 
tius), by Greek writers often called Nomos. 
It was coined extensively under the Roman 
Empire in the Greek cities until the reign 
of Claudius. 

Tetrastater, or quadruple Stater. When 
this is coined in gold, it is called the Octo- 
drachm and the Mnaieion (q.v.). 

Tetrobolon* A piece of four Oboli, 
coined at Athens and a few other cities. 
See Obol. 

Tettigia. The TeTttYtoc xtoXeixalxd xpiiva 
of the Delphic inscriptions are erroneously 
supposed to designate certain gold coins, 
but in all probability they refer to some 
kind of gold ornament. See Babelon, 
Traits (i. 519-521). 

Thaler. The best known of all the coins 
of the European continent, and one which 
enjoyed an uninterrupted popularity for 
four centuries. The demand for a large 
silver coin was manifested in the latter 
part of the fifteenth century for trade and 
commercial purposes, due to the great 
quantity of silver which was being used in 
Europe. 

By an edict dated June 4, 1474, Duke 
Galeazzo Maria of Milan ordered the strik- 
ing of a silver coin of the value of one 
fourth of the Ducat. In 1477 Archduke 
Sigismund of Tyrol founded a mint at 
Hall (in the vicinity of the rich silver 
mines at Schwaz), from which mint were 
issued in 1484 the so-called Gulden- 
groschen (q.v.) of the value of one Gulden, 
and approximately of the size of the Tha- 
ler. These new, large, silver coins were 
rapidly copied, and a demand was created 
by the development of the silver mines in 
Tyrol and Bohemia. At the beginning of 
the sixteenth century the Emperor Maxi- 
milian issued Guldengroschen with a bust 
portrait and ^\e armorial shields on the 
reverse, which were copied after the me- 
dallic Thaler of 1479, struck to commem- 
orate his marriage with Maria of Bur- 
gundy. Brandenburg copied the Thaler 
in 1521, and in 1525 appeared those of 
Count Stephan von Schlick in Joachims- 
thal in Bohemia, called Joachimsthaler, or 
Schlickthaler. As this term was no doubt 



[239] 



Thakr 



Thirteen-peiice-half-penny 



found too lengthy, it was abbreviated into 
Th&ler, a designation thereafter generally 
adopted. These were approximately of the 
size of the Guldengroschen, but of some- 
what inferior fineness, thus yielding a 
larger percentage of profit to those issuing 
them. This fact led to their adoption 
sooner or later by almost every country 
in Europe, with variations of the name, 
e.g., Daler, Tallero, etc. 

By an ordinance of 1551 the value of 
the Thaler was made equal to seventy-two 
Kreuzer, and that of the Ouldenthaler, a 
smaller coin, sixty Kreuzer. In 1566 the 
Thaler was made the legal imperial silver 
coin and reduced to a value of sixty-six 
Kreuzer in Austria and southern Germany, 
but in north Germany it was divided into 
Groschen. The latter varied according to 
the weight and fineness of the Thaler, and 
consequently there exist Thaler of twenty, 
twenty-one, twenty-four, twenty-five, thir- 
ty, thirty-two, thirty-six, and even forty- 
eight Groschen. This led to the general 
practice of applying a certain number of 
Groschen to make up the equivalent of a 
Thaler, called a Zahlthaler, and this coin 
suflfered in proportion to the fineness or 
debasement of its component parts. 

Those Thaler, however, which adhered 
to the legal standard were distinguished 
from the Zahlthaler by the name of Spe- 
ciesthaler (g.t;;). These were accepted 
throughout Germany on a regular fixed 
basis, and in consequence they were valued 
at anywhere from two to ten times of the 
Zahlthaler. The Speciesthaler, by an or- 
dinance of 1623, received the name of 
Reichsthaler and was made equal to ninety 
Kreuzer, or one and one half Gulden in 
southern Germany, and twenty-four Gros- 
chen in the northern portions. The Vienna 
Monetary Conference of 1857 designated 
the Thaler to be equal to one and one half 
Austrian Gulden, or one and three quarter 
Gulden of the South German States. Af- 
ter the unification of the (Jerman States 
into an empire a gold standard was 
adopted in 1873 and the Thaler was given 
a legal tender value of three Marks. In 
1907 the Thaler was made subsidiary. 

There are large coins issued as multi- 
ples of the Thaler as high as sixteen Spe- 
ciesthaler (see Loserthaler), and divisions 
of two thirds, one third, one half, one 
sixth, one twelfth, one twenty-fourth, one 



eighty-fourth, the latter for the See of 
Wiirzburg, and one one hundred and 
ninety-second issued for Liibeck in 1706. 

Theler. See Judenpfennige. 

ThetrL In the Georgian coinage this 
word is the equivalent of Albus, or Weiss- 
pfennig. Two hundred